Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution in World History. Key Questions What factors prompted the rise of industrialization in Europe? What were the impacts of these."— Presentation transcript:
The Industrial Revolution in World History
Key Questions What factors prompted the rise of industrialization in Europe? What were the impacts of these innovations upon the workers who toiled in factories? Why do we seldom spend time on non- European industrialization?
Industrial Origins We can’t possibly mention Newton and the Enlightenment again? We just did... Population boom a turning point, populations rose by 50% across the continent, except in Britain and Prussia (the two early leaders) where it grew by 100%!
What spurred such growth?
Population growth=more jobs and more goods being produced initially the need for goods and services was met by Europeans working in their homes in “cottage industries”.
The Essence of Industrialization Domestic industry only takes us so far... Demand increased, particularly in the most common cottage industry-textiles.
Power changes everything More productive capacity=more profit! What if we could use machines to do the work of man? The engines of industrialization would replace the skilled workers of the cottage industry period and render workers “unskilled”
Let’s go back for a second...why England? England was the leader in Industrialization. Favorable natural resources Stable government Successful market economy Agricultural Revolution
English Agriculture Revolution Enabled more people to enter work force Enclosure movement Scientific farming--the turnip
Key Inventions The Watt Steam Engine changes history! Built on earlier models of steam fired compression to propel pistons. This innovation was efficient and stunningly powerful.
Innovations Spinning Jenny Power Loom
They did more than make clothes... Watt’s principles of steam were soon applied to other type of machines--such as railroad engines.
“Catch me if you can”
The Factory System Power changed the workplace forever. Machines were placed in large structures to increase the efficiency of power distribution...the factory.
Negative Impacts of Industrialization Production soared, treatment of workers plummeted. Cities grew in size, living conditions deteriorated. Families grew with population surge, children were chained to machines to support the family.
Imitation...the sincerest form of flattery Britain was surging. The possibilities for their future seemed endless. They had a 60 year head start! Belgium and France by 1820 USA and Germany by 1830 Requirements for Industrialization re- examined Colonies?
Industrialization Outside Europe Candidates? Why not China? Russia and Japan the first to realize the potential of European style- industrialization. In many cases Europeans spread Industrialization outside Europe.
New Machines Cotton Gin-Eli Whitney (1793)
Spread of Industrialization China: departs from Industrialization after the 1100’s? Islamic world-Ottoman industrialization thwarted by Europe and the capitulations Indian industrialization thwarted by European imperialism. African industrialization-non existent. Latin American industrialization-minimal
Only part of the picture… While India was not on the verge of an industrial revolution when the British arrived. Their contributions were great. Indian contributions to English industry: Shipbuilding “Forty years ago they had the largest ships in the World” British captain. Textiles/patterns “We have destroyed the manufactures of India” British textile merchant
Indian contributions British rockets were derived from Indian examples. Indian rockets could fire from 1 KM away. Metallurgy (Brass) “They produced the finest brass I have ever seen” Englishman John Wellesley
Curious Case of China During the Song, they met all the criteria to industrialize… Agricultural revolution Rich money supply Bulging markets Growing technology (next) Urban societies
What happened to China? Jurchen invasions…then Mongols Little Ice Age and agricultural breakdown Ming abandoned the progress of the Song
Status of Global Industrialization Prior to 1890 no industrial revolution occurred outside European society. Insular societies such as the Ottoman state resisted Industry— importing their first printing press in the late 19 th century.
Late Ottoman reforms Inspired by Muhammed Ali, later Sultans of the Ottoman state began the process of westernization. Established a postal system in 1834, a telegraph system in 1855, and steamships and rail in Result? Made it easier for Europe to place Ottomans under “capitulations”.
To conclude “By the 1850’s a number of governments were clearly beginning to realize that some policy response to the industrial revolution was absolutely essential, lest Western influence become still more overwhelming. On balance, however, the principal results of very limited imitation tended to heighten the economic imbalance with Western Europe, a disparity that made it easier to focus on non- industrial exports.” Peter S. Stearns. Historian
Japanese industrialization Part of the Meiji Restoration and reforms Realized necessity of program Used China as an example of what “may” happen. State run factories with large scale production (Zaibatsu) Intensive government regulation Government supported innovation and hired foreign experts when needed. High tariffs and tight restrictions of products entering Japan.
Russian Industrialization Witte System: Railway construction to stimulate other industries Remodel the state financial system, use tariffs and secure foreign loans and technology Heavy industry grew dramatically Trans-Siberian Railroad.
The Impacts of Global Industrialization The use of mechanized equipment to increase output and decrease labor costs of production The creation of the factory systemMass production and standardizationA workplace that emphasized production with assembly lines Financing that often included shareholders and stock companies. An expanded labor force that included, women, immigrants, and children. A growing gap in economic prosperity between Europe and the rest of the world.