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Revolutions. Protestant Reformation began as an effort to reform Catholic Church Martin Luther spoke out against Church practices –sale of indulgences.

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Presentation on theme: "Revolutions. Protestant Reformation began as an effort to reform Catholic Church Martin Luther spoke out against Church practices –sale of indulgences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Revolutions

2 Protestant Reformation began as an effort to reform Catholic Church Martin Luther spoke out against Church practices –sale of indulgences – pardons that freed their owners from time in purgatory Church view –payments were a sign of repentance Luther view –salivation/forgiveness only through faith alone –posted 95 Theses on the door of Wittenberg castle Started the Protestant Reformation

3 Results –Church makes reforms –other churches started –Europe is divided

4 Scientific Revolution new methods of research Renaissance scholars develop Scientific Method –step by step approach that emphasized experimentation and observation relied on math

5 Great people Galileo Galilei –used telescope to look at the sky Nicolaus Copernicus –used math to prove Earth revolved around the sun Isaac Newton invented calculus to prove gravity keeps plants within orbits

6 The Enlightenment also called Age of Reason natural laws govern human behavior an “enlightened” person could prefect themselves and society ideas become the basis for democratic nations today

7 What was advocated Reason –truth could be discovered through reason and logical thinking –was the absent intolerance, bigotry or prejudice Nature –what was natural was good –natural laws of economics and polities Happiness –live by natural laws one could be happy –wanted happiness on earth and thought it was possible Progress –society and humankind could be perfected Liberty –a free society –speech, religion, trade, personal travel

8 People of the Enlightenment John Locke –people had three natural rights life, liberty, and property point of gov is to protect these rights Francois Marie Arouet (Voltaire) –freedoms (speech and religion) Baron de Montesquieu –separation of powers –his ideas lead to the idea of checks and balances as well

9 French Revolution unhappy with Absolute Monarchy –divine right of kings grew out of the Renaissance Enlightenment thinkers supported the idea of popular sovereignty John Lock –people had natural rights

10 France serious economic trouble –gov. bankrupt King Louis XVI wanted to raise taxes called into session Estates- General voting was not equal in the Estates-General first estate nobles didn’t pay taxes had one vote second estate clergy didn’t pay taxes had one vote third estate everyone else paid all the taxes had one vote

11 people dissolved it and created the National Assembly –wrote a constitution –wrote the Declaration of the Rights of Man France was a limited monarchy Revolution turns ugly –did not make changes fast enough –did not go far enough for some

12 The French Republic was at war with other nations Louis XVI was executed Committee of Public Safety was set up –headed by Maximilien Robespierre –Reign of Terror French people turn to one strong leaders Napoleon Bonaparte –absolute power –but did continue the revolution ideas –wanted to create an empire throughout all of Europe and spread revolution ideas

13 Results Ideas of liberty and quality spread throughout Europe constitution were written up that protected the people nationalism grew

14 Industrial Revolution Change from how goods were made –From cottages to factories The Factory System is introduced –Workers and machines are together under one roof producing a product

15 Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism Cottage Industry –Merchants acted as coordinators Would buy cotton/wool Take it to a rural carders who combined the fibers so that it could be spun Collect it and take it to a rural worker who wove the thread into cloth Collect it and pass it on to be dyed Collect it and sold it to the customer

16 Problems with Cottage Industry PositiveNegative Work out of home Time/pace was theirs Able to avoid starvation Merchants did not need to buy equipment Merchants benefited the most

17 New Inventions Spinning Jenny – –Spin 16 threads at one time Water frame –Yard produced by this was stronger –Too large to be used in a home –Thus began the factory system Power loom –Used steam power at all stages of the weaving process Cotton gin Spinning Jenny

18 Rise of the Factory New machines were located in factories Which were located near power sources –Coal and water Workers were forced to leave their homes to go to work

19 Effects of Textile Factories Output increased / prices decreased Majority of villagers forced to leave home to find work No need for craftsmen

20 More improvement are made to help growth Steam is used as a power source Coal and iron industries develop Improvement in transportation –Roads, bridges and canals Improvement in communication –Telegraphy Bessemer steel

21 Britain takes the lead Natural resources –Coal and iron entrepreneurs Labor force Government support Improved transportation Markets

22 Results Social changes –New class structure Urban poor Middle class –Women worked outside the home Urbanization New jobs were available Wide variety of good at a cheaper price Child labor New views of government –socialism

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