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AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION -ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT -Property in proportion to land owned in open field system -Large fields that could be cultivated easier.

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Presentation on theme: "AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION -ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT -Property in proportion to land owned in open field system -Large fields that could be cultivated easier."— Presentation transcript:




4 AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION -ENCLOSURE MOVEMENT -Property in proportion to land owned in open field system -Large fields that could be cultivated easier with fewer people SEED DRILL- JETHRO TULL TURNIPS- CHARLES TOWNSEND BREEDING- ROBERT BAKEWELL

5 Cooperative plowing Conserved the quality of land Balanced distribution of good land Farmers were part of a “team” Gleaning

6  AFTER  Each landowner received a single piece of property  No common lands  Before

7 “Enclosed” Fields

8 “Enclosed” Lands Today

9 Large Land Owners (Benefited)  Had the political strength to pass the enclosure law  Owned large unified farms under this system  Farming was more efficient  Didn’t need consent of the village to experiment with new crop methods

10 Small Farmers Forced off Their Land  Had to pay for :  Required fencing  A team of oxen  Could no longer glean or gather wood  Often had to sell plots to large landowners:  Forced to Rent or  Work for someone else  Increasing the # of men looking for work

11  Planted seed in neat rows  Improved germination by making furrow, dropping seed into them, and covering them  Reduced amount of seed used in planting

12 Additional Machines  Horse-drawn cultivator – Jethro Tull  Cast-iron plow (1797) – American Charles Newbold  Reaper – Englishman Joseph Boyce (1799) and American Cyrus McCormic (1834)  Self-cleaning steel plow – John Deere(1837)  Thresher – separated grain from stalk  Harvester – cut and bind grain  Combine - cut, thresh, and sack grain  Tractor – pulled equipment through the field  Corn planter  Potato digger  Electric milker  Cotton picker

13 Crop Rotation  English gentleman farmer Viscount Charles “Turnip” Townsend  Alternating grain crops: wheat and barley, with soil enriching crops: turnips and clovers.  No longer had to leave land fallow Scientific Breeding  1725-1795  Selective breeding of animals  Produced more and better animals  Produced more milk and meat

14 1.Agricultural production increased 2.Cost of foodstuffs dropped 3.Increased production of food resulted in part, in a rapid growth of population 4.Large farms, using machines and scientific methods, began to dominate agriculture 5.Number of small farms began to decline 6.The number of farmers, in proportion to total population, decreased sharply 7.Many farmers moved to the cities 8.The population of cities increased rapidly 9.Farmers found their work less difficult because machines performed the back breaking labor 10. Farming changed from a self-sufficient way of life to big business

15 THE POPULATION EXPLODES *Agricultural revolution increases population *Went from 5 million 1700 to 9 million in 1800 *Due to declining death rates caused by reduced risk of famine SEED DRILL


17  AKA Domestic Industry or Putting-Out System  Rural household industry  Main Participants: entrepreneur and rural worker

18  Peasant Farmers  Supplemented their incomes  A family would do the work  Process the raw material and sell to the entrepreneur

19  Entrepreneur hires willing rural workers  Entrepreneur provides:  Spinning wheel  Loom  Raw material


21  Hardworking  Clever Businessman  Capital  Raw materials  Workers  Market

22 Entrepreneurs Benefited most from Industrial Revolution Came from several groups Merchants, inventors, artisans Ticket to a better life, rags to riches Middle class families lived good lives, dressed well, ate well Valued hard work, to get ahead Little sympathy for poor, thought of as lazy or Poor suffered hardships Workers fought for unions and better conditions

23  Cottage workers were paid by piece  Entrepreneur was the one who prospered  Increased supply of cloth  Demand increased more rapidly  Giving way to the factory system

24 1.The invention of machines to do the work of hand tools 2.The use of steam, and later other kinds of power 3.The adoption of the factory system and mass production

25 1733 – John Kay (British) invented the flying shuttle Doubled the output of hand weavers



28 A REVOLUTION OF ENERGY Third factor that triggers Industrial Revolution Energy usually provided by humans of animals First use of water wheels in factories (1700) Also used coal for steam engines 1712 inventor Newcomen develops coal powered steam engine James watt improves it in1769._

29 Britain leads the revolutionary field? §Large supplies of coal and Iron §Lots of workers from the farms of the agricultural revolution also the population boom §Technology as a part of the I.R.(not cause) §Economic conditions increased capital and demand §Stable government that supported economic growth §Population explosion boosts demand for goods. EARLY FACTORY

30 AGE OF IRON AND COAL Iron technology key to Industrial revolution Needed for machines and steam engines Needed coal for fuel Abraham Darby began to use coal instead of wood top smelt the iron (remove ore from Iron- helped developed better quality cheaper iron

31 Changes in the Textile Industry Britain largest industry Early systems were slow (putting out system) Major invention john Kay (Flying Shuttle) First factories use streams and water to power machines Workers and machines produce a lot of goods Flying shuttle

32 1769, Richard Arkwright, Great Britain

33 1774 – James Hargreaves, Great Britain

34 1779, Samuel Crompton, Great Britain

35 1785, Edmund Cartwright, Great Britain

36 1793, Eli Whitney, United States of America


38 STEAM CHANGES TRANSPORTATION PEOPLE NEEDED FASTER WAYS TO MOVE GOODS Improved local transport systems Invented steam locomotive, helped to grow railroads By 1870, railroads crisscross Europe Fulton uses Watt’s steam engine to create steamboat Used to carry cargo and passengers

39 1717, Thomas Newcomen, Great Britain

40 1769, James Watt, Scotland

41 1807, American


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