Presentation on theme: "So Far This Year 14 th century Plague Earliest Sparks of the Renaissance Split between Eastern and Western Europe w 1 st Hundred Years War Italy is Solidifying."— Presentation transcript:
So Far This Year 14 th century Plague Earliest Sparks of the Renaissance Split between Eastern and Western Europe w 1 st Hundred Years War Italy is Solidifying its role as trading middle man Mongols rule in Russia 15 th Century Renaissance Begins in Earnest Northern Renaissance Henry the Navigator is Exploring the coast of Africa Constantinople Falls to the Ottoman Turks Increased interest in Afrian Slaves Habsburg-Valois Wars Rise of Renaissance Princes/New Monarchs Consolidation of Habsburg Empire Mongols kicked out of Russia 16 th Century Age of Exploration Spanish Golden Century Transition from Mediterranean to Atlantic Power centers Reformation/English Reformation Council of Trent 1 st half of the Wars of Religion Ottoman Empire reaches its peak… threatens Eastern Europe Start of the Scientific Revolution 17 th Century 2 nd Half of the Wars of Religion (30 Years War) Witch hunts Rise of Absolutism in France, Prussia, Russia, Austria Constitutionalism in England and the Netherlands (English Civil War, Glorious Revolution) France becomes culturally dominant Spain falls Netherlands has a Golden Age Continuation of the Scientific Revolution Early Enlightenment 18 th Century Heart of the Enlightenment 2 nd Hundred Years War Enlightened Absolutism (2 nd )Agricultural Revolution Population Explosion Early Industrial Revolution (ignited by Cottage Industry) Explosion of the Atlantic Economy and Associated Trade Wars Capitalism Unseats Mercantilism
2 nd Agricultural Revolution 1 st Agricultural Revolution –D–Development of farming replaced hunting and gathering 10,000 BC –A–Animal power –L–Land can only produce so much (nitrogen exhaustion) Slash and burn agricultural or limited population size Medieval Improvements –O–Open Field system Strips of farmland –N–Not easy to turn an ox –C–Communal »I»Insurance against poor yield in one part of the field –‘–‘The Commons’ –F–Fallow Field rotation Medieval Limitations –F–Fallow is Inefficient 1/3 of fields aren’t used –F–Famine cycle –1–1 bushel of seed yields 5-6 bushels of crop Modern farmers are closer to 40 bushels of crop
The Open Field System
2 nd Agricultural Revolution (cont.) 2 nd Agricultural Revolution Innovations End of the fallow –F–Field rotation v crop rotation Nitrogen replacing crops –C–Crops up, manure, up, crops up cycle Enclosure –L–Land taken up by the wealthy and enclosed Land is more productive, but… End of the common- no more safety net Dutch –S–Scientific because of dykes –G–Golden Age Wealth and stable population support experimentation with crops English –C–Copy the Dutch –T–Turnip Townsend Agricultural boom population boom –A–As a result, standard of living does not rise in general
18 th Century Poem The law locks up the man or woman Who steals the goose from off the common But leaves the greater villain loose Who steals the common from off the goose. The law demands that we atone When we take things we do not own But leaves the lords and ladies fine Who take things that are yours and mine.
17c European Agrarianism
Leaders: The Dutch
The Cost of Enclosure: Fair? English FarmerContinental Farmer
The Cost of Enclosure: Unfair? Heh, heh, heh…
Cost of Enclosure: Author’s Assessment VS
Population Growth Factors that limit it are slowly removed –B–Black death dies out mysteriously –B–Better ability to spread food about because of improved infrastructure New world crops –S–Slight improvements in health from better sanitation Standards of living did NOT increase
18c Population Growth Rate
Putting Out System Ironically, the increase in Agricultural Production actually increased the numbers of poor peasants. Why? –G–Growing population but stable amount of land –P–Profits to be made in farming encouraged the wealthy to buy up farmland –T–Thus Underemployed peasants (Proletariat- landless farmers) Enterprising merchants in the cities devised the Putting Out System –T–Take product to the countryside where landless farmers are desperate for work –P–Production in the homes –C–Come back and pick up the product and sell it –C–Capitalism before that word even existed –C–Challenge to guild system –W–Weakens the grip of governments’ mercantilist control over the economy, which the governments don’t like, but feel they have no choice. Why? –W–What else do you do with mobs of hungry peasants? First spark of the Industrial Revolution
Cottage System 2 nd Cottage Merchant Drops Off Wool 3 rd Cottage Merchant Picks Up Textiles 4 th Town Merchant Sells Textiles Makes Profit Start Sheep Farm Merchant Buys Wool
2 nd Hundred Years War English, Dutch, French, Spanish, and Portuguese fight over the wealth of the New World and Atlantic Trade Mercantilism puts them at odds with each other –G–Goods from the English colonies can only be traded to England on English ships so that all of the profit stays with England, etc. –T–This pisses off other countries and the colonists themselves. Why? Perhaps the first world wars –f–fighting in Europe and the New World –F–Fighting in Europe is part of general balance of power struggles By the 18 th century, Portugal, Spanish, and Dutch were fading powers –D–Dutch had burned themselves out fighting Louis XIV, Spanish in Wars of Religion, Portuguese had fought Spain and the Netherlands –T–Two dominant powers were France and Britain
British Dominance of Atlantic Economy Britain, especially held that mercantilism should help the people as well as the monarchy Roots in the Navigation Acts (interregnum) –Aimed at Dutch (Manhattan) and then French England could get involved in wars in the New World but avoid continental part of wars –Gave them an advantage over the French English seamen could quickly become navy in times of crisis Side Issue: –England England and Scotland England, Scotland, and Ireland
Battles in Europe and New World War of the Spanish Succession –England felt hemmed in by French and Spanish in the New Word (see map) –Ended by Peace of Utrecht –British win asiento and some French land in New World War of the Austrian Succession Seven Years War Queen Anne’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Name in EuropeName in Colonies
Battles in Europe and New World War of the Spanish Succession War of the Austrian Succession –Sparked by Frederick the Great’s seizure of Silesia –Fighting in India and North America between British and French –Inconclusive Between British and French Seven Years War Queen Anne’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Name in EuropeName in Colonies
Battles in Europe and New World War of the Spanish Succession War of the Austrian Succession Seven Years War –Frederick the Great spared by Peter III –Key battle between French and British –(1 st ) Treaty of Paris –France loses new world possessions –Spain and Britain get them –India goes to Britain for good Queen Anne’s War King George’s War French and Indian War Name in EuropeName in Colonies
2 nd HYW Isn’t Over Yet French and Indian War will help spark American Revolution, which in turn helps spark the French Revolution Both of these are, to a large degree, continuations of a fight between England and France over supremacy and control of the Atlantic Economy
Capitalism Part of the Enlightenment –N–Natural law of economics A rejection of mercantilism –A–Argues that the government moves too slowly to regulate the economy efficiently
Basic Ideas of Capitalism –Choices can be made more efficiently by actors in the economy (rather than gov.) Entrepreneurs and citizens make choices –These choices will be made correctly due to the natural law of the invisible hand of the market supply and demand Enlightened self-interest –Free trade brings greater wealth to everyone Not a zero-sum game –There are occasional times when the government should interfere with the economy Maintain internal and external order Provide a small number of goods that the market won’t provide naturally –Example: freeways –All merchants gain from a freeway, but who will invest the capital to pay for them??? –Example: Fire stations –If you don’t pay for them, won’t society have to work to put out a fire in your house anyway?
There, there it is again—the invisible hand of the marketplace giving us the finger.
Animation of Smith’s Invisible Hand I will start a business making hamburgers. $10,000 YUCK! YUM! $10,000 Why me lord?! Ha, ha, ha. Skinny Where was the invisible hand?