Presentation on theme: "AP World History Review Chapters 11-13 Part I. Dear students… Note to students: Although I wasn’t able to finish this for you, that doesn’t mean you can’t."— Presentation transcript:
Dear students… Note to students: Although I wasn’t able to finish this for you, that doesn’t mean you can’t finish it! Save this Power Point to your computer Add in the missing information, some of which you heard in class today, and then save this for review for the Final Exam as well as to review for the AP exam in May.
What advantages were realized by the wide extent of the Mongol empire? The Pax Mongolica allowed for exchange of ideas through cultural diffusion including ideas of technology. Trade was enhanced by connecting Europe, Middle East, Russia and East Asia together through their connection of the Mongol empire Threat of Mongol invasion spurred the neighboring countries to vigorously develop their own defenses, technology and political structure p.291-293
How was iron smelting an important skill of the Central Asian nomadic tribes? Since they lived a nomadic life that depended heavily on the use of horses, iron became necessary for bridles, stirrups, cart fittings and weapons. Central Asians improved iron smelting techniques. Note: Temujin (Genghis Khan) means “blacksmith” p.296
What were characteristics of the Mongol conquest strategies? Psychological warfare-a reputation for brutality would precede them and persuade people to surrender peacefully Extraordinary horsemen, ability to use deadly accuracy with a bow and arrow while riding at a full gallop (A skill still used today for competition in Mongolia). They used a thumb lock mechanism to facilitate the smooth release of the arrow. The bow, made of layered lacquered wood, bone and leather could shoot farther than the bows of their enemies First, they used arrows to kill the opponent’s marksmen Continued next slide
Mongol war strategies continued… 2 nd - used sword, lance and javelin etc to do hand to hand fighting. Used flaming arrows and catapults Used siege to force capitulation Pg. 300-301
What were the technological advancements of the Mongols? Improved iron smelting techniques Funded advancements in medicine and astronomy-built several observatories Devised a more accurate calendar Extended Grand Canal towards Beijing (Daidu) Built network of roads Developed a new “square script” language but it never caught on http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/china/china3_e.htm
List the Mongol Khanates Kipchak (Golden Horde) Great Khan (Yuan under Kubilai Khan) Jagadai IL-Khans Pg. 301
Il-Khan ruler Ghazan Muslim Supported the arts, especially literature Economic problems-promised reduced taxes but need for revenue forced him to renege on that The high taxes caused resentment, fighting and de-stabilized the government Separated from the other Mongol Khans P. 303
How did the Mongols treat the conquered people in their empire? Resistance meant mass slaughter and starvation; surrender meant food, shelter and protection Allowed religious expression As long as the taxes were paid to the Mongol Khan, the villagers were left in peace. Conquered people had to provide military recruits
How did Buddhism and Islam impact the Mongols? Buddhism Khubilai Khan had his son tutored by a Confucian and he used Confucian ideas Buddhist “lamas” became popular teachers. The idea of a “universal ruler” bringing the whole world to Buddhism was appealing Islam Repulsed by Mongol worship of idols Animal sacrifice beliefs were completely opposite Caused tension between Khanates of Muslim and non-Muslims Islamic value of culture, science and learning influenced Mongols in this area
What was the role of women in Mongol society? Marriages were arranged to combine resources and make important alliances Women had some power in negotiation and management but took the risks as well Women responsible for the livestock Mothers of rulers often managed the empire between the death of one ruler and ascension of another
What is the Yuan dynasty? The dynasty to rule over China created by Kubilai Khan Beijing, the capital, became the center of culture and economy Kubilai Khan re-united China and restored much of the Chinese culture Persian, Arab and Uighur tax administrators were hired to take census and collect taxes Muslims hired to create calendars and continue astronomy
Yuan dynasty continued… Government was organized and systematic with local governors, tax collectors and garrison commanders Merchants became the new elite, corporations grew Mongolian-influenced Chinese language (Mandarin) Cities began to cater to the tastes of the new merchant class with restaurants, shops and entertainment Cottage industries provided goods to the cities
What were the negative factors about the Yuan dynasty? Mongol princes evicted many farmers Imposed brutal taxation that left many homeless Neglected dams and dikes so flooding caused much damage Warfare, low food and bubonic plague took a toll on population.
What were the lasting impacts of the Mongols on China? Brought unity to lands between Europe and China Trade was stimulated through protection of trade routes & encouraging industrial production Cultural diversity in government operations Astronomy and math inventions
The political structure of the Mongols in the 13 th century was… Mongols were warriors and leaders Central Asians and Middle Easterners were census takers and tax collectors Provincial governors appointed by the central authority
What are the characteristics of Islamic art? Beautiful calligraphy of verses of the Quran in Arabic Nature subjects such as flowers, trees, animals Intricate geometric designs
What were the major trade routes of the 13 th to 15 th centuries? Silk Road Trans-Sahara Black Sea-Baltics Indian Ocean Mediterranean
How does the Mayan civilization compare to the early West Asian civilizations? Civilization that was never unified into a single empire Major contributions in astronomy, math and calendar Civilization that was divided into several “khanates”, never unified into one large empire under one ruler Supported research in astronomy, math and new, more accurate calendars
What areas were conquered by Genghis Khan? Northern China Central Asia Iran
Where did Marco Polo and Ibn Battuta travel? Marco Polo-born in Venice, Italy. Travelled through Iran, Central Asia, China to Beijing. He also travelled to Viet Nam, Sumatra, and India Ibn Battuta-born in Morocco, travelled throughout the Islamic world through the Middle East, Central Asia, India, China, Southeast Asia, Muslim Spain and sub-Saharan West Africa
What issues were between the various khanates? Division over Islamic beliefs. Some Khans were Muslims, others were not Incursions into each other’s regions
What problems were caused by the tax-farming methods of the Il- Khan? [In the Il-Khan khanate the Mongol government sold tax collecting contracts to small partnerships (usually merchants) who could use any method they wanted to collect the money and could keep any amount collected over the contracted amount.] The unregulated tax farmers/collectors charged exorbitant fees and forced many landowners into debt and eventually poverty Agricultural production went down The government couldn’t get enough food for the military so took over land to grow their own grain. The government land wasn’t taxed, of course so the tax-payers became smaller and the financial needs of the government grew larger Eventually, financial depression, unrest and resentment led to fighting between the Mongols and de-stabilized the government
What were some of the cultural and artistic exchanges between East Asia and the Middle East because of the connection of the Mongol Empire? Chinese silks, porcelains, and artistic methods to portray clouds, rocks and trees were prized in the Middle East. They also sent scholars and texts to share stabilized sighting tubes for astronomy, and armillary spheres to show celestial movements Middle Eastern engineering, astronomy, mathematics, as well as medical knowledge and weapons manufacture were sought after in China
What was the relationship between the Orthodox Church and the Mongols? The Mongols of the Golden Horde granted privileges to the Orthodox church to help facilitate control of their Russian lands The Mongols recruited Russian princes to act as their tax collectors and census takers.
What was the role of Moscow during the Mongols rule? With the urging of Prince of Novorod (Alexander Nevskii) several other Russian princes agreed to submit to the Mongols and in return Novgorod and the emerging town of Moscow began to gain economic, political and cultural ascendency over the previous capital of Kiev. Moscow slowly became the political center
How was Mongol rule in Russia ended? Ivan III ( Prince of Russia) took the title of “tsar” and as the Mongols control of their vast regions began to crumble the independence movements of many states such as Lithuania and Russia allowed them to break free of the Mongol control
What were the impacts on Europe of Ogodai’s death?
What were the technological advances of the Ming dynasty?
What was Annam’s role in 15 th century Vietnam?