4Physical Geography Two great rivers - the Ganges and Indus – rise in the mountains and drain Indo-Gangetic Plain
5Northern or Indo-Gangetic Plain Sedimentary covers: The riverine plains of the Indus, the Ganges (known as Ganga to Indians), and the Brahmaputra and the coastal plains of the Indian Peninsula form this region.The North Indian Plain forms a belt of alluvial lowlands stretching from Pakistan’s Indus River on the west to the Brahmaputra on the east.The Ganges River with its various tributaries is the major river of northern India.This region of plains is from 320 to 500 km (200 to 300 mi) wide and it extends through Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh.The climate varies from arid in Punjab to tropical around the Bay of Bengal.Soils (inceptisols) are derived from alluvium and they are relatively fertile and generally level.In the arid areas, irrigation has created environmental problems through accumulation of salts (salinization).
6Northern PlainFertile region due to Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra RiversCarry melting snow from mountains to the plains making agriculture possibleRivers are sacred to Indian people
7The Northern or Ganges Plain One of the most productive regions in AsiaDeep, rich soilsMain Crops: Grains, sugarcane, cotton and oilseedsRiver provides irrigation water during dry seasonOne of the world’s most densely populated regionsMain cities of India are located on or near Ganges
9Coastal PlainsSmall rivers and seasonal rains provide area with water for farmingEastern and Western Ghats
10Narrow coastal plains lie along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal Physical GeographyNarrow coastal plains lie along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal
11The peoples of these coastal plains became sea traders Physical GeographyThe peoples of these coastal plains became sea traders
12Indo- Gangetic plainArea that surrounds the Ganges and Brahmaputra riversBest farmland in IndiaNo coincidence that this is one of the two most densely populated areas in IndiaThey farm rice, wheat, cotton, sugarcane, and tea
13Indo-Gangetic PlainMade up a large fertile flood plain the Northern India and present day PakistanSeasonal monsoon rains brought predictable floods to the river systemsAnnual floods brought richdeposits of soil over a widearea
14Indo-Gangetic PlainIndo-Gangetic Plain stretches from Indus valley of Pakistan to lower Gangetic delta of BangladeshTwo regions within the plainWest- Indus Valley- Punjab and HariyanaEast beyond the Delhi Ridge stretching up to BangladeshThis alluvial plain constitutes the heartland of the Indian civilizationProf. Subho BasuHstory of South Asia
15Indo-Gangetic Plain Densely populated region Centers of Maurya(300BC), Gupta (4 th Century Ad) Mughal ( ) and the British Empire ( )Major Urban Centers in South AsiaLahore, Delhi, Banaras, Calcutta and DaccaAgricultural Heartland of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh.
16Farming Begins Along These Rivers Early cultures used the water resources of the two rivers to irrigate their fields and produce crop surpluses2500 BC first cities emerge in this region
21High mountain ranges cut India off from immigrants and invaders Physical GeographyHigh mountain ranges cut India off from immigrants and invaders
22Mountains of India Mountainous Rim Hems in the country Has not prevented invasions howeverHimalayasWestern GhatsEastern GhatsRainforests in the shadow of the Ghats
23INDIA: MountainsAlpine system: The Himalayas form a major barrier to the movements of air masses north and south and exceed 6,096 m (20,000 ft) in several locations.Mount Everest (Nepal: Sagarmatha; Tibetan: Chomolungma) is the world’s highest mountain at 8,848 m (29,035 ft).The climate ranges from tropical lowlands to Arctic conditions in the high altitudes of Mount Everest and other peaks.The Karakoram Pass provides access from north-central India through the Himalayan and Hindu Kush mountains.The Khyber Pass in the west was used by invading groups.Population in the Himalayas is limited except in the Vale of Kashmir and in Nepal (25,200,000 people).Bhutan has 900,000 and Sikkim less than one million. Sikkim has been incorporated into India and is one of its provinces.Rice and wheat are the dominant grain crops.
24Coastal IndiaThe Western and Eastern Ghats: These Ghats (hills) rise abruptly on either side of the Deccan Peninsular.The Ghats are a barrier to transportation and rainfall.The narrow coastal plains bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal lie beyond the Ghats.The Western Coastal Plain is much narrower than the Eastern Coastal plain and much wetter.Part of ancient maritime empires and well connected with the rest of Asia through trade and commerce.Thickly populated with flourishing agriculture
29The Indian Subcontinent India is apart of a larger piece of land called the Indian “Subcontinent”A landmass that is part of a continent but is geographically an independent entityIndia is separated from Asia by the Himalaya and Hindu Kush MountainsThe Indian subcontinent is divided into three major physical regionsThe Northern MountainsThe Indo- Gangetic PlainThe Deccan Plateau
30The Northern Mountains Himalayan MountainsTallest mountain range in the world20 mountains that are over 24,000 ft. highMount EverestTallest peak at 29,035 ftFirst climbed by Edmond Hilary & Tenzing Norgay in 1953Many have tried to climb it since and hundreds have diedCreates the majority of the northern border of IndiaSource of important rivers to IndiaGanges, Feni, Indus, and Brahmaputra rivers
31The HimalayasThe colossal Himalayan Mountains form a border between the Indian subcontinent and the rest of Asia.The Himalayas are the world's tallest mountains, towering more than five miles above sea level.Himalaya means "home of snow" because the tallest peaks of the Himalayas are always covered with snow.
32Himalaya Himalaya means abode of snow The largest and highest mountain system in Asia, forming a broad continuous arc for nearly 2600 km (1600 mi) along the northern fringes of the Indian subcontinent,The Himalayas range, averaging 320 to 400 km (200 to 250 mi) in width, rises sharply from the Gangetic Plain.North of this mountain belt lies the Tibetan Plateau (Qing Zang Gaoyuan).Origins of snow fed river systems and movements of monsoonDividing line between India and the rest of north Asia
33The HimalayasThe Himalayas include Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world.Everest rises 29,028 feet above sea level on the border between Nepal and China.No plant life grows near the mountain's peak due to powerful winds, extremely cold temperatures, and a lack of oxygen.
34The HimalayasMany adventurous people attempt to climb Everest every yearOften their venture ends in sickness or death. Most people are unable to breathe 20,000 feet above sea level because there is not enough oxygen in the atmosphere.A person will suffer brain damage when they are unable to breathe .Strong winds and frigid temperatures make the climate even more rigorous.Clearly the peak of Mount Everest is a place for only the heartiest of people.
35The Himalayas “him” [snow] “aalaya” [home] Mt. Everest is 29,035 feet. It is the highest mt. peak in the world.
36Himalaya as Civilization Himalaya in Hindu legendAbode of Shiva and DurgaThe Great Himalayas, (the highest zone, consists of a huge line of snowy peaks with an average height exceeding 6100 m (20,000 ft). The width of this zone is about 24 km .The Middle Himalayas (also known as the Inner or Lesser Himalayas), (average height between 6000 and 10,000 ft, width of about 80 km ).the Sub-Himalayas, which includes the Siwalik Range and foothills and the Tarai and Duars piedmont (an area of land formed or lying at the foot of a mountain or mountain range) (width of 48 km).Residence of 40 million peopleDensely populated valleysEnglish hill stationsSparsely populated forests and natural resourcesDiversity of population Muslim, Hindus, Buddhists, Christians
45Deccan PlateauGondwana Shield: This landform region extends southward from the southern borders of the Ganges drainage area and includes the lava covered Deccan Plateau.This plateau is framed on the north by the Vindhyas and the Tapti and Godavari Rivers; on the west, the Western Ghats (Hills) lining the Malabar Coast; on the east, the Eastern Ghats paralleling the Coromandel Coast; at the southern margin are the Blue Mountains which exceed 2,600 m (8,800 ft).The central portion of the Deccan Plateau has fertile soils (vertisols), derived from volcanic materials, primarily cultivated with cotton.Elevations of the Deccan Plateau are approximately 305 to 450 m (1,000 to 1,500 ft).The coastal areas have a humid tropical climate with abundant rain from the orographic effect of the Ghats.
46Deccan Plateau The Deccan lies south of these two river valleys. It is a hilly and dry plateau extending from the southern Ganges valley to the southern end of India
47Deccan Triangular plateau- raised level of land Most of area is arid, unproductive, and sparsely populated
48Peninsular India Deccan Plateau This plateau occupies the greatest part of India - a tilted tableland of low rolling hills, great river valleys and uplands.In the central area, the rich black soil retains water but in the regions where this soil does not occur water is a constant problem.Much of India's mineral wealth is found on the plateau.The southern part of the plateau is called the Deccan Peninsular.The Dec ' can tilts to the east, declining in elevation and containing river systems which form fertile deltas when they reach the Bay of Bengal.
49The Deccan Plateau 31,800 square miles in size. Elevation range: 2,000 – 8,000 feet high.From the Sanskrit word, “dakshina” [“the south”].
50The tibetan Plateau The “Roof of the World.” average elevation is 16,400 feet.
51The Thar Desert The Great Indian Desert 200 - 1500 feet in elevation. up to 127ºF in July.
55MONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA Drass -450C in December nightTawang 190C in June550C temperature in JuneThar desert Diurnal range of temperature 300CJaisalmer receives 9cm rainfallCherrapunji & Mawsynram have 1080cm rainTiruvanantapuram & Chennai 200C in December nightKerala Diurnal range of temperature 80CMONSOON REGIME IS THE UNITY OF INDIA
56The Indian Subcontinent has a great variety of climate regions and resources. The Indian Subcontinent has four climate regions: the highland climate, the subtropical climate, the tropical climate, and the desert or steppe climate.Monsoons have a huge influence on the weather and climates in the subcontinent.Agricultural and mineral resources are plentiful.
57Climate Regions Highland climate Himalayas Brings cool temperatures to much of Nepal and BhutanHumid subtropical climatePlains south of the HimalayasHot, humid summers with plenty of rainfallTropical climateCovers much of the subcontinentTropical savanna in central India and Sri LankaHumid tropical climate in southwest India, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and BangladeshDesert and steppe climateThroughout southern and western India and most of PakistanDry
58India’s ClimateIndia's climate is dominated by monsoons. Monsoons are strong, often violent winds that change direction with the season.Monsoon winds blow from cold to warm regions because cold air takes up more space than warm air.Monsoons blow from the land toward the sea in winter, and from the sea toward land in the summer.
59India’s Climate India's winters are hot and dry The monsoon winds blow from the northeast and carry little moisture.The temperature is high because the Himalayas form a barrier that prevents cold air from passing onto the subcontinent.Additionally, most of India lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the equator, so the suns rays shine directly on the land.The temperature can reach as high as 110 degrees Fahrenheit during the Indian winter.
63ClimateMonsoons - seasonal winds that blow from the NE Nov. to Mar. and from the SW June to Oct.
64Seasonal winds known as monsoons bring rain every summer Seasonal winds known as monsoons bring rain every summer. India is dependent upon monsoons to grow their crops. Not enough rain brings drought. When there is too much rain, rivers rise and cause deadly floods and destruction of crops.
65What is a Monsoon?A season of high temperatures, high winds, and high moisture, resulting in potentially deadly weather.Winds that change direction with the change of season.Winds blow in response to differences in temperature between air over the land and air over the sea.Widespread torrential rains, and even severe thunderstorms, often accompany the onset of a monsoon.“monsoon” means “season”
71Water Critical Factor Monsoon Rains Devastating Effects The people of India’s first civilizations depended upon the monsoons to bring the water that their crops needed.Monsoon rains flooded rivers; rivers deposited fertile silt in which farmers could grow cropsWith abundance of rainfall came threat of devastationMonsoon RainsMonsoon rains too heavy— crops, homes, lives could be lostMonsoon rains too late, did not last long enough—people could not grow crops; famine became dangerDevastating Effects
72Why are monsoon rainfalls important? water management, disaster mitigation, agricultural efficiencye.g.) Asian monsoonsAbout 60% of the world’s population depends on monsoone.g.) Asian monsoons (India)8.2 % economic growth in the year ending 2004 March with the help of the good monsoon% in this year’s growth because of the late onset of monsoon last summer. (Asian Development Bank)Onset, extent and overall amount of monsoon rainfall play a key role
73How Do Monsoons Affect Us? Brings heavy rain in summerRain can last for daysVery few breaks may produce floodsHomes, crops, and businesses may be ruined due to floodThe summer monsoon in Southern Asia brings huge amounts of moisture from the Indian Ocean causing massive flooding in many areas. This flooding can destroy the infrastructure of the region if people are not properly prepared.
74How Do Monsoons Affect Us? If the monsoon season is late it may bring about drought.Drought effects agricultural output.A decrease in agriculture is likely to lead to an increase in prices and higher inflation.Inflation effects our ability to purchase things.The monsoons in Southern Asia are known to bring about long drought periods from September to March. It is hard to grow crops during this period due to the lack of water.
75ClimateThe NE (dry) monsoon drops moisture on the Himalayas before reaching India
76ClimateThe SW (wet) monsoon carries warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean and brings heavy rains
77ClimateThe wet monsoon brings most of the year’s rainfall and is important for agriculture20cm = 7.9in100cm = 39.4in400cm = 13.2ft800cm = 26.3ft1000cm = 32.8ft
78ClimateIf the wet monsoon arrives late or brings little rain, crops fail; too much rain, flooding destroys the countryside
79Temperatures can reach 120ºF in the Indo-Gangetic Plain ClimateTemperatures can reach 120ºF in the Indo-Gangetic PlainAurangabad, India15 C = 59 F30 C = 86 F45 C = 113 F
80ClimateDecember to March ~~~~ ColdApril to May ~~~~ Very hot (Often over 100 degrees)June to September ~~~~ Monsoon seasonOctober to November ~~~ less rainMONSOONSMonsoons are huge rain storms that come in from the Indian Ocean. They bring enough rain to supply water for the whole year. These storms have strong winds. They can flood and destroy farms and houses. Some have even killed people.Are there storms like these in the United States?
88Agriculture Primary Sector: Indian agriculture is inefficient and labor intensive.Animals are frequently used for power.The village is the focus of life for 74 percent of the Indian population with an estimated 580,000 villages.Approximately 2/3 of India's huge working population (63 percent) depends directly on the land for its livelihood.Substantial progress toward modernization has been made in the Punjab's wheat zone.In the early 1980s more than 1/4 of India's cultivated area was still owned by only 4 percent of the country's farming families.Half of all rural families either owned as little as a half hectare (1.25 acres) or less, or no land at all.Land consolidation efforts have had only limited success, except in the states of Punjab, Haryana, and Uttar Pradesh.
89Agriculture Major crop zones: Wheat. Dry northwest notably in the Punjab and neighboring areas of the Upper Ganges. Many gains from the Green Revolution through the introduction of high-yielding varieties developed in Mexico.Rice. Moist east and a summer monsoon drenched south. More than 1/4 of all of India's farmland lies under rice cultivation, most of it in the states of Assam, West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and eastern Uttar Pradesh. This area has more than 100 cm (40 inches) of rainfall. India has the largest acreage of rice among the world's countries. Yields per hectare are still low at below 1,000 kg (900 lbs./acre), however.Coconut. Malabar Coast. (Kerala)Millet. Southwestern India. A cereal grass, Setaria italica, extensively cultivated in the East and in southern Europe for its small seed or grain, used as food for man and fowls, but in the U.S. grown chiefly for fodder.Groundnut. Kathiawar Peninsula.Cotton. West-Central India (Deccan Plateau).Chick Peas. Northwest.Plantation. Northeast.
90Agriculture Livestock: India has more livestock than any other country in the world.Cows - 200,000,000water buffalo - 60,000,000Goats and sheep - 60,000,000Horses, donkeys, and elephants - 5,000,000Sheep are of major importance in the drier west where the Islamic population is clustered.Water buffalo is dominant in the Ganges Delta and coastal regions.Cattle (particularly the Brahman or Zebu breeds) are found throughout India.
91AgricultureCattle are an integral element of the Indian agricultural economy.They are the primary source of draft power (plowing, pulling carts, grinding grain, and a host of other tasks).Cattle graze on forage which would otherwise be wasted during a dry season.Cattle consume secondary agriculture byproducts (straw, rice husks, and corn stalks).Cattle produce an estimated 771,000,000 metric tons (850,000,000 tons) of cow dung, the principle source of domestic fuel a year.Dung is also mixed with mud and used for plaster; also a major source of fertilizer.Cattle also produce most of India's milk (the bulk of which comes from the water buffalo).When a cow dies, it is consumed by the untouchables (who have no prohibitions about consuming beef when it is available) of the large Hindu population.Cow hides are a major source of leather.The maintenance of the large numbers of cows and buffalo is a completely rational activity in the Indian agricultural economy.
92Green Revolution and Impact on Agriculture in India
93The Green Revolution Agriculture Increased yields of food production India is able to feed itselfAdvanced agricultural technologyApplies to DEVELOPING countriesAgriculture
94AgricultureGreen Revolution describes the development of extremely high-yielding grain crops that allow major increases in food production, particularly in subtropical areas.In 1953, scientists developed rust-resistant dwarf wheats which doubled Mexico's per acre production in the next decade.After a major drought in India in 1965, Mexican dwarf wheat was widely planted in the Punjab region, producing dramatic increases in wheat yields.The improved rice (IR)- IR-8 was spotted in 1965 at the Los BaZos research institute in the Philippines, which was set up using aid from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations.Its first harvest, from 60 trial tons of seeds, produced a six-fold increase of rice under field conditions.About 10% of India's paddy land is now planted with IR-8 varieties.
95Agriculture Green Revolution benefits: Two to four times the yield of indigenous grains.A shortened growing season allows two crops per year.“Miracle grains" have a wider tolerance for climatic variations.Green Revolution problemsNeed for high application of fertilizer and insecticide, and in the case of rice, there is a need for copious irrigation."Miracle grains" have been adopted in the most prosperous areas and among the most prosperous farmers. As a result, interregional and social gaps have widened.Traditional marketing patterns have been upset. Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) have found their traditional markets disappearing, and Japan now looks for exports.
99Industries Secondary sector: At the time of independence (1947), Indian industries emphasized textiles and food processing.Gandhi championed development of the cottage industries that existed prior to the intervention of Britain.A cottage industry involves small scale production using high labor inputs.Cottage industries are very important because they are labor intensive.They employ 40 individuals for every one employed in a large automated factory producing the same products.A total of 750 products is produced by small industries which use <=$100,000 in capital. (Receivers, tools, plumbing fittings, etc.).Manufacturing employs only 13% of the labor force.
100Industries Manufacturing Regions: Kolkata (Calcutta) and Jamshedpur form an emerging industrial region in northeastern India.Calcutta forms the center of the Bihar-Bengal area where jute manufacturing dominates, but engineering, chemical and cotton industries also exist. Jute: a strong, coarse fiber used for making burlap, gunny, and cordage; it is obtained from two East Indian plants-Corchorus capsularis and Corchorus olitorius of the linden family.The Jamshedpur region 240 km (150 mi) west of Calcutta has the Tata Steel Works, India’s single largest steel making complex (Indian Ruhr).In the nearby Chota-Nagpur district, coal mining and iron and steel manufactures have developed, and Bhilai is a growing nucleus of heavy industry.
101Industries Manufacturing Regions: 2. Western Zone-Mumbai (Bombay)-Ahmadabad: This Maharashtra, Gujarat area specializes in cotton and chemicals with some engineering and food processing, automobiles, and petrochemicals.3. Southeastern Zone- Chennai (Madras): specializing in textiles.4. Bangalore supports diversified electrical manufacturing, machine tools, the construction industry, and food processing.
103Natural Resources Agricultural Resources Fertile soil Timber Livestock Mineral ResourcesIron ore – IndiaCoal – IndiaNatural gas reserves – PakistanGemstones – Sri Lanka
104INDIA: Natural Resources India has a rather poor resource base.The country does not lead the world in any of the important minerals or other sources of energy useful for industrialization and development.India is the second largest producer of grains.The possibility for expanding production of grains remains very low, despite gains.Low productivity per person in the agricultural sector accentuate the problems of population, making it difficult to increase production.India has the largest deposit of high-grade iron ore in the world. In Bihar state alone, a single range is estimated to hold nearly three billion tons of iron ore.Iron ore deposits are also important in the state of Karnataka.India produces 5.6 percent of the world's iron ore and has 6.6 percent of the world's reserves in iron ore.
105Natural Resources India produces 3.8 percent of the world's coal. Coal and steel are produced in the Damodar Valley fields of northeastern India which account for more than 50 percent of coal production.Limited coking-coal deposits are found in Chota Nagpur.India has discovered oil deposits in the Bay of Bengal which hold promise for further expansion.India has a great hydroelectric potential, provided dams are constructed to exploit the rivers of the country.India has important deposits of uranium; phosphates in the Thar Desert, and manganese (5.2 percent) in the central Deccan plateau and eastern Coromandel Coast.India produces 2.5 percent of the world's bauxite, and it produces 5.2 percent of the world's chromite.
107INDIA: CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY In 1947, the Indian subcontinent had 550 princely states, 900 separate dialects and 15 major languages.The two major linguistic families are the Indo-European and the Dravidian.Languages that are members of the Indo-European family are spoken in the central and northern parts of the country, and languages that belong to the Dravidian family are spoken in southern India.Dravidian languages are spoken by about 25 percent of the Indian population. They include Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, and Malayalam.Today India has fourteen official languages including Hindi and English (associate official). Hindi is the official and predominant language of India.Hindi was one of the 14 languages given national status by the Indian constitution, 10 in the north and 4 in the Dravidian south.Before World War II, the British recognized 179 official languages and 544 dialects (total=723).English would remain a lingua franca when Hindi could not serve as a medium of communication at government and administrative levels.