Presentation on theme: "Where Municipal Activities and Fair Housing Intersect Jerome Mapp Erik Kingston Jennifer Yost."— Presentation transcript:
Where Municipal Activities and Fair Housing Intersect Jerome Mapp Erik Kingston Jennifer Yost
Comprehensive Plan Local Land Use Planning Act of Idaho PURPOSE. The purpose of this act shall be to promote the health, safety and general welfare of the people of the state of Idaho as follows: There are 17 Elements: §
Comprehensive Plan (a) To protect property rights while making accommodations for other necessary types of development such as low-cost housing and mobile home parks. (b) To ensure that adequate public facilities and services are provided to the people at reasonable cost. (c) To ensure that the economy of the state and localities is protected. (d) To ensure that the important environmental features of the state and localities are protected.
Comprehensive Plan (e) To encourage the protection of prime agricultural, forestry and mining lands and land uses for production of food, fiber and minerals, as well as the economic benefits they provide to the community. (f) To encourage urban and urban-type development within incorporated cities. (g) To avoid undue concentration of population and overcrowding of land. (h) To ensure that the development on land is commensurate with the physical characteristics of the land.
Comprehensive Plan (i) To protect life and property in areas subject to natural hazards and disasters. (j) To protect fish, wildlife and recreation resources. (k) To avoid undue water and air pollution. (l) To allow local school districts to participate in the community planning and development process so as to address public school needs and impacts on an ongoing basis. (m) To protect public airports as essential community facilities that provide safe transportation alternatives and contribute to the economy of the state.
Comprehensive Plan Foundation for all the City Land Use Ordinances and Plan: Subdivision Ordinances Zoning Ordinances Design Review (Ordinance or Administrative Policy) Neighborhood Plans Downtown Revitalization Plans Parks & Recreation Plans Landscape Plans and others – Enforcement/Compliance
Comprehensive Plan Definitions: – Consistent throughout all plans & ordinances Common Concerns: –Definition of Family, Dwelling Unit, Single Family Dwelling (I.C ) and Group Homes Family is not just: One or more persons occupying a single dwelling unit, provided that all members are related by blood or marriage, no such family shall contain over five per persons.
Comprehensive Plan One option is to define Dwelling Unit: Dwelling Unit One or more rooms designed for or used as a residence for not more than one family, including all necessary household employees of such family, and constituting a separate and independent housekeeping unit, with a single kitchen permanently installed. A dwelling unit may be occupied by a family (related by blood or marriage), by up to five unrelated individuals, or by any number of physically or mentally handicapped or elderly persons as long as the residential character of the dwelling is preserved. The physically or mentally handicapped term includes reference to those currently undergoing rehabilitation for drug or alcohol addiction. The term does not imply or include types of occupancy such as lodging or boarding house, club, sorority, fraternity, or hotel.
Comprehensive Plan –Definition of Single Family Dwelling(I.C ). For the purpose of any zoning law, ordinance or code, the classification "single family dwelling" shall include any group residence in which, eight (8) or fewer unrelated persons with disabilities or elderly persons reside and who are supervised at the group residence in connection with their disability or age related infirmity. Resident staff, if employed, need not be related to each other or to any of the persons with disabilities or elderly persons residing in the group residence. No more than two (2) of such staff shall reside in the dwelling at any one time. –Seek legal advice
Comprehensive Plan Group Homes –Review Case law in reference to Group Homes –Seek legal advice
Comprehensive Plan – Definition of Variance (I.C ) Each governing board shall provide, as part of the zoning ordinance, for the processing of applications for variance permits. A variance is a modification of the bulk and placement requirements of the ordinance as to lot size, lot coverage, width, depth, front yard, side yard, rear yard, setbacks, parking space, height of buildings, or other ordinance provision affecting the size or shape of a structure or the placement of the structure upon lots, or the size of lots. A variance shall not be considered a right or special privilege, but may be granted to an applicant only upon a showing of undue hardship because of characteristics of the site and that the variance is not in conflict with the public interest.
Comprehensive Plan Population School Facilities & Transportation* Economic Development Land Use Property Rights* Natural Resources Hazardous Areas Public Services, Facilities & Utilities Transportation Recreation Special Areas or Sites Housing Community Design Agriculture* Implementation National Interest Electric Transmission Corridors* Public Airport Facilities* * New elements
Comprehensive Plan Schools Facilities & Transportation* – To promote collaboration with local school districts in the development of school facilities – Location Proximity to housing Walkability
Comprehensive Plan Economic Development – To promote economic development Historical placement of housing Proximity to services (grocery stores, healthcare, gov’t services, schools, etc.) Proximity to employment centers
Comprehensive Plan Land Use – To provide land use choices Location Disperse of types Group Homes (§ ) – Less than 8 residents – More than 8 residents – Training Elected Official & Staff re: Fair Housing
Comprehensive Plan Property Rights* – to ensure that land use policies, restrictions, conditions and fees do not violate private property rights Allowance by right vs CUP Define Variance
Comprehensive Plan Public Services, Facilities & Utilities – plans for sewage, drainage, utility transmission corridors, water supply, public safety services and facilities, social service facilities, public service facilities, schools, and related services. The plan may also show locations of civic centers and public buildings. Fees Location of public facilities
Comprehensive Plan Transportation – Promote coordination and collaboration of transportation services between transportation jurisdictions Availability of service Walkability Transportation Options
Comprehensive Plan Parks & Recreation – Promote indoor and outdoor recreational opportunities and provide the facilities for community participation. Location Accessibility to Parks & Trails Proximity to Affordable housing (multi-family housing) Variety of park types (sports complex, tot lots, neighborhood vs regional parks, etc.) Inclusive Design of Parks – all ability types can play together
Comprehensive Plan Housing – Promote an adequate supply of safe, sanitary housing that meets the needs and provides diversity in type, density and location with emphasis on maintaining neighborhood stability Identify as many housing types as possible Disperse housing for protected classes There should be policies in your Comprehensive Plan that further Fair Housing, such as,
Comprehensive Plan Prohibiting discrimination in the sale or rental of housing on the basis of age, race, color, religion, sex, familiar status, national origin or handicap. Informing the general public of their rights and obligations under fair-housing laws and the grievance procedures available in case of violation. Promoting increased fair housing awareness among Realtors, rental property owners developers, builders and property managers.
Housing Choice Informed by needs and interests of residents Housing types/costs should reflect demographics Housing types/costs should be distributed throughout community Individuals should be able to live where they choose and can afford Expanding housing choice is everyone’s job
Housing Terms and Types Determined by age/ability/policy independent—assisted—institutional Determined by income (% of AMI) shelter affordable workforce market-rate 0–30% 30–80% 80–140% >140%
Housing Types Housing Types: – Multifamily / duplex / tri-plex – Single family detached / attached – Condos / townhouses /patio homes – Second story housing in commercial development – Tiny / Cottage / Manufactured homes PUD Large/small lots – Congregate living – Shelters / Transitional housing – Accessory Dwelling Units (In-law flats)
Housing market dynamic Subprime meltdown/recession cost homeowners and working families homes and jobs; stressed communities Distressed assets acquired/held by absentee investors Increased demand for rentals drives up rents Credit/convictions follow tenants, limit rental options Section 8/subsidy impediments and waiting lists grow Young people, retirees seek small-footprint homes
Vacancy Rates Normal/healthy rate is between 5% and 7% Treasure Valley rate was around 15% in mid 2000s Current Treasure Valley rate between 1.9% and 3.3% Housing shortage drives up rents
Housing Affordability Housing Affordability is: – Relative – No more than 30% of gross family income used for housing & utilities – No more than 45% of gross family income used for housing, utilities & transportation* – Represents a perpetual wage subsidy for local employers *www.htaindex.org
Housing Barriers Low Rental Vacancy Rate – drives up rents – lack of affordable housing in the market & household income insufficient to afford market-rate housing prices – Insufficient availability of housing – lack of stock – Discrimination may occur when demand is higher Restriction/Lack of funding for housing development – Section 8 Vouchers – No state funds – Housing trust fund – Not all federal funds can be used directly for housing Costs (Location, Transportation, Utilities) Cultural and language barriers (refugees)
Factors Influencing Cost: – Smaller lot size / square footage – Density – Design (factory vs. site-built homes) – Allowing variety of types by right rather than CUP – Accessory Dwelling Units – In-fill development – Fees – waivers or pool of funds – Greenlighting – expedite for affordable developments
Do Current Codes Serve Needs? Review building codes and zoning laws that restrict housing use and types – Defensible – Necessary – Net gain for community
Reasonable Accommodation What is an Accommodation? Good Customer Service Meeting the needs of the community Waiving an established process/procedure What is not an Accommodation? Abolishment of Land Use and Zoning Codes Taking on extra work Government Expansion
Reasonable Accommodation Risk Management Case Law Staff: Roles & Responsibility Process/Procedures – Required, regardless of established ordinance – CUP/Variance vs Administrative Permit – Appeals – Tracking/Reporting Confidentiality – Privacy vs Public Information
Reasonable Accommodation 3 Elements to a RA Request – Necessary – Provides equal opportunity – Reasonable
Reasonable Accommodation Requests can be: – Specific or vague – Written or verbal – Formal or informal Listen for key phrases: – I need this or I will die – I’m on disability – I will have to move if this is not allowed
Reasonable Accommodation Verification of Need (necessary): – Is the disability obvious or not? – Verifiable third party Does not need to be from a medical provider Do not contact the third party
Reasonable Accommodation Document Need (equal opportunity) – Existence of Disability Document obvious disability or from third party – Nexus between disability & RA request Obvious relationship or from third party
Reasonable Accommodation Is it reasonable? Does it: – undermine the Land Use and Zoning Code? – alter the nature of the Community or neighborhood? – create an undue financial or administrative burden? Does it cost a substantial amount of funds? Does it create an ongoing need for oversight? Could it create an administrative burden in the future?
Reasonable Accommodation Notice of Determination – Written letter Facts of the case Verification of need Reasonableness Identify what will trigger a revocation – Notify appropriate staff – Tracking & File Retention