Agrarian Based Economy 80% of the population worked in fields Very inefficient system Crops ruined easily = high prices
Famine Foods Bad harvest meant living off of whatever…. –Dandelions –Grass –Bark –Cannibalism
Open Field System Large fields worked by the community –Always worked the same way –Led to soil exhaustion (bad harvests) Common Land – grazed on by livestock of all families Taxes – constant battle with the landlords –Only 1 in 10 peasant farmers didn’t constantly battle famine and massive debt
Agricultural Revolution 3 Field System –Rotate land usage to limit exhaustion Crop Rotation –Use nitrogen rich crops to replenish More food to eat for people and animals More animals means more meat and fertilizer More Meat means healthier people More fertilizer means better crops “It’s the circle of food”
Enclosure Movement Allowed for more specialization and experimentation –Didn’t need everyone to agree –But how to divide the land? Started by the Dutch –Needed to expand serviceable land
Advances during the Enclosure Movement Jethro Tull (also a 70’s rock band) –Seed drill Proper depth and amount, less waste –Horses to plow Faster, more agile Selective Breeding –Create bigger animals for more food better plowing
Farmer Class Large Landowner –Rich, loaned land or had large farming operation Tenant Farmer –Rented land, hired workers, made a profit (entrepreneur) –Peasant Farmer Peasant Farmer –Owned a little land –Couldn’t afford taxes / costs sold out to large or tenant farmer Cottager –Didn’t own land but used common land –No more common land Become the wage workers
Population 1500’s – not enough food for large population growth 1600’s population grows slow with crises –Famine, disease, war –No steady pattern until 1700 1750 population takes off –Less Deaths!!!! Brown rat ends Plague Smaller wars, famine, etc.
The Cottage Industry Putting Out System –Merchants send out raw materials to rural worker homes (cottage) –Paid by the piece –New wage workers came from peasant and cottage farmers England the first use the system –France later Had to loosen control by guilds
Textile Industry Largest industry after farming Family worked together –Encouraged people have large families –Every family member did a part of the process Weavers always needed thread –Hired “spinsters” Work 3 to 4 days, rest or party the other 2 –Not very efficient
Mercantilism Build a stronger state Create a positive imbalance of trade England tries to use for state and private industry –Argue that mercantilism that helps everyone helps the state as well –Try to create laws to protect private English business
Navigation Acts English law to limit outside trade Only British ships w/ British crews could dock and sell Creates British monopolies in their colonies around the world By-product is plentiful jobs at sea –Ready to be used navy when needed
British Domination Goal is to control the Atlantic trade and more Navigation Acts severely hurt Dutch shipping and trade –Dutch will never again be a world power Wars with France increase British holdings abroad –War of Spanish Succession Gain French land in North America –7 Years War (Treaty of Paris 1763) Gain French lands in America’s
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