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1 A Description Logic with Concrete Domains CS848 presentation Presenter: Yongjuan Zou

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2 Reference “A scheme for integrating concrete domains into concept languages” by Franz Baader and Philipp Hanschke “A description logic with concrete domains and a role-forming predicate operator” by Volker Haarslev “Visual spatial query languages: a semantics using description logic” by Volker Haarslev, Ralf MÖller and Michael Wessel

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3 Outline Description logic ALC(D) Extended language ALCRP(D) Combination of formal conceptual and spatial reasoning (Semantics of spatial queries) Discussions

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4 pure KL-ONE language? abstract logical level ALC ? not allow for built-in predicates Concrete domain R : set of all real numbers S 2 : set of all two-dimensional polygons T IA : set of all time intervals The Description Logic ALC(D) Motivation

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5 Abstract objects can be related to concrete objects via features (functional roles) Relationships between concrete objects are described with a set of domain-specific predicates Concrete domain provides access to domain- specific reasoning algorithms Main idea: properties of abstract objects can be expressed using a concept-forming predicate operator.

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6 Concrete Domains A concrete domain: a pair of (∆ D, Ф D ) n-ary predicate P D ∆ D n Admissible iff Ф D is closed under negation, contains a name T D for ∆ D the satisfiability problem for finite conjunctions of predicates is decidable The Description Logic ALC(D) Terminologies

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7 Concept Terms C, R, and F : disjoint sets of concepts, role, and feature( i.e., function role) names Any element of C is an atomic concept term Let C and D be concept terms, let R be an arbitrary role term or a feature, P Ф D is a predicate name with arity n, and u 1,...,u n be feature chains (i.e., a composition of features), then the following expressions are also concept terms: C ⊔ D (disjunction), C ⊓ D (conjunction), ¬C (negation), ∃ R.C (concept exists restriction), ∀ R.C (concept value restriction), ∃ u 1,...,u n.P (predicate exists restriction)

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8 The Description Logic ALC(D) Terminologies Terminology A: a concept name D: a concept term terminological axioms: A ≐ D, A ⊑ D T is a terminology or TBox if no concept name in T appears more than once on the left-hand side of a definition and, furthermore, if no cyclic definitions are present.

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9 The Description Logic ALC(D) Terminologies Semantics

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10 The Description Logic ALC(D) The Assertional Language Syntax Let I A and I D be two disjoint sets of individual names for the abstract and concrete domain. If C is a concept term, R be a role name, f be a feature name, P be an n-ary predicate name of D, and a and b be elements of I A and x, x 1,...,x n be elements of I D, then the following are assertional axioms: a: C (concept membership), (a, b): R (role filler), (a, x): f (feature filler), (x 1,...,x n ) : P (predicate membership) Semantics An interpretation for the assertional language is an interpretation for the concept language which additionally maps every individual name from I A to a single element of ∆ I and every individual name from I D to a single element of ∆ D. Such an interpretation satisfies an assertional axiom

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11 The Description Logic ALC(D) Inference Theorem: Let D be an admissible concrete domain. Then there exists a sound and complete algorithm which is able to decide the consistency of an ABox for ALC(D). ( Franz Baader et. al.) Reasoning with ALC(D) is PSPACE-complete.

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12 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Motivation Inferences about qualitative relations should not be considered in isolation but should be integrated with formal inferences about structural descriptions of domain objects and inferences about quantitative data. (inferences about spatial relations in GIS) extends ALC(D) by introducing defined roles that are based on a role-forming predicate operator

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13 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Motivation

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14 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Terminologies... Role Terms

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15 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Terminologies Example Admissible concrete domain RS 2 : union of R : all real numbers with predicates built by first order means from (in)equalities between integer polynomials in several indeterminates S 2 : all two-dimensional polygons with topological relations as predicates

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16 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Terminologies Example description :“ a cottage that is enclosed by a forest” get the spatial area via the feature has_area topological predicate in S 2

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17 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Terminologies Terminology A: a concept name D: a concept term terminological axioms: A ≐ D, A ⊑ D T is a terminology or TBox if no concept or role name in T appears more than once on the left- hand side of a definition and, furthermore, if no cyclic definitions are present.

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18 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Terminologies Semantics... Example

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19 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) The Assertional Language Syntax and Semantics... R : an atomic or complex role term...

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20 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Inference Theorem: The problem whether an ALCRP(D) concept term C is satisfiable w.r.t. a TBox T is undecidable. ( Volker Haarslev, et,al.) Two options Restrict the structure of the concrete domain predicates Restrict the ability to combine some critical operators

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21 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Inference

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22 The Description Logic ALCRP(D) Inference C, D : concept names R a : an atomic role term R c : a complex role term f : a feature u : a feature chain with a length greater than 1 Theorem: The ABox consistency problem for restricted ALCRP(D) ABoxes, subsumption problem and satisfiability problem for ALCRP(D) concept terms are decidable w.r.t. terminologies for which the considered concept terms are restricted. ( Volker Haarslev)

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23 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Motivation The specification of queries in a GIS could be made easier by combining spatial and terminological reasoning with visual language theory.

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24 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Visual spatial query: user draw a constellation of spatial entities that resemble the intended constellation of interest, with annotations of concept names Parser : analyze the drawing and create a corresponding ABox as semantic representation A Completion facility : resolve semantic ambiguities or to complete underspecified information by using default rules for further specialization

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25 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Completion of queries Default knowledge, if applied in a consistent way, can make queries precise The process of formulating queries be facilitated by automatically completing queries in a meaningful way

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26 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Formal derivation processes computing plausible candidates different possible worlds Conceptual information Spatial relations between domain objects

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27 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Reasoning about Visual Spatial Queries Example A buyer want a cottage:

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28 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Abstraction process: reduce particular ABoxes to corresponding ABoxes consisting of a single concept assertion representing the original query --- semantics of this query, say, a query concept, used to retrieve all “matching” individuals and answer the query.

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29 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application cottage c1 is classified by the reasoner. The semantic validity of the query is automatically verified during classification. If the forest f were required to be ‘mosquito-free’, the ALCRP(D) reasoner would recognize the incoherence of cottage c1.and identify the source of contradiction.

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30 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Query optimization subsumption between query concepts Query optimizer: detect query subsumption and reduce the search space to the set of query matches already computed

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31 Semantics of Spatial Queries A VISCO application Contribution the first proposal utilizing an expressive and decidable spatial logic to specify the semantics of visual spatial queries specification of a semantics reasoning about query subsumption reasoning about applying default knowledge

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32 Discussions Representing Spatiotemporal Phenomena T IA : a concrete domain representing time intervals with two- place predicates representing Allen’s Interval Algebra Description logic ALCRP(S 2 ‘T IA )...any two disjoint admissible concrete domains can be combined to form a single admissible concrete domain.(Ref.[2]) example application: city construction planning...

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33 Discussions Formalism built on the clean integration of Description Logics and concrete domains. Open problem: if better results with respect to decidability can be obtained by designing a special- purpose (e.g. topological) description logic? The general question is under which conditions a special-purpose description logic can provide more expressive power than a generic one while still remaining decidable.

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