Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE. Culture  The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE. Culture  The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct."— Presentation transcript:

1 FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE

2 Culture  The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct tratitions  Material and Nonmaterial culture

3 Why is folk culture clustered?  Folk culture diffuses slowly to other locations through the process of migration  Physical environment can influence folk culture  Food preferences  Food Taboos

4 Hog Production and Food Cultures Fig. 4-6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.

5 Distinctive Building Materials  The two most common building materials in the world are wood and brick.  The choice of building materials is influenced both by social factors and by what is available from the environment.

6 Home Locations in Southeast Asia Fig. 4-7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).

7 U.S. Folk House Forms  Older houses in the United States display local folk-culture traditions.  The style of pioneer homes reflected whatever upscale style was prevailing at the place on the East Coast from which they migrated.

8 Diffusion of House Types in U.S. Fig. 4-9: Distinct house types originated in three main source areas in the U.S. and then diffused into the interior as migrants moved west.

9 Diffusion of New England House Types Fig. 4-10: Four main New England house types of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries diffused westward as settlers migrated.

10 U.S. House Types, 1945–1990 Fig. 4-11: Several variations of the “modern style” were dominant from the 1940s into the 1970s. Since then, “neo-eclectic” styles have become the dominant type of house construction in the U.S.

11 Diffusion of Popular Housing, Clothing, and Food  Popular Housing Styles  Rapid diffusion of clothing styles  Jeans  Popular food customs  Alcohol and fresh produce  Wine production

12 Alcohol Preferences in the U.S. Fig. 4-12: Per capita consumption of rum (top) and Canadian whiskey (bottom) show different distributions and histories of diffusion.

13 Wine Production per Year Fig. 4-13: The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs.

14 Role of television in diffusing popular culture  Diffusion of Television  Diffusion of the internet  Government control of television

15 Diffusion of TV, 1954–1999 Fig. 4-14: Television has diffused widely since the 1950s, but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per population.

16 Distribution of Internet Hosts Fig. 4-15: The U.S. had two-thirds of the world’s internet hosts in Diffusion of internet service is likely to follow the pattern of TV diffusion, but the rate of this diffusion may differ.

17 Threat to Folk Culture  The diffusion of popular culture may threaten the survival of traditional folk culture in many countries  When people turn from folk to popular culture, they may also turn away from the society’s traditional values  May also may lead to the dominance of Western perspectives

18 Loss of Traditional Values  One example of the symbolic importance of folk culture is clothing.  Africa  Middle East

19 Change in Traditional Role of Women  The global diffusion of popular culture threatens the subservience of women to men that is embedded in many folk customs.  Taliban  International prostitution

20 Quebec Cottage 7-26 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Quebec Cottage The Quebec cottage—like the Norman cottage—is an imported French vernacular house type widely encountered in the St. Lawrence Valley. Undergoing continual design evolution, its persistent features include gable end walls, a steeply pitched roof, pronounced bell-cast eaves, and a more compact ground plan than the Norman cottage. A porch or galerie (gallery)—perhaps a French West Indies import—completes its exterior design. The floor plan usually showed two rooms of unequal size. The larger often contained two small unheated bedrooms along its outside wall. The smaller room, displaying an immense fireplace, served as kitchen and held both the outside house doors and a narrow staircase to the loft above. Early versions had but a single chimney serving a fire-chamber with one or two hearths. Later, two chimneys located inside but near the gable walls became usual. Exteriors of this still-common house type may be of whitewashed stone rubble, of sawn lumber over a timber frame, or of logs.

21 Threat of Foreign Media Imperialism  Leaders of some LDCs consider the dominance of popular customs by MDCs as a threat to their independence.  Leaders of many LDCs view the spread of television as a new method of economic and cultural imperialism on the part of the more developed countries, especially the United States.

22 Environmental Impact of Popular Culture  Modifying Nature  Diffusion of Golf Courses  Uniform Landscapes  Fast-food restaurants  Global diffusion of uniform landscapes  Negative Environmental Impact  Increased demand for natural resources  Pollution

23 Golf Courses in Metropolitan Areas Fig. 4-16: The 50 best-served and worst-served metropolitan areas in terms of golf holes per capita, and areas that are above and below average.

24 7-8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Quebec Cottage Figure 7.9b Source: Courtesy of John A. Jakle

25 Montreal House 7-27 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Montreal House This third early French Canadian house type is found primarily in the Upper St. Lawrence Valley and is associated more with the crowded city where it developed than with the open rural sites to which it later spread. The Montreal house is relatively deep, giving a more massive appearance than the Norman or Quebec cottages. It is distinguished particularly by its large, heavy stone gables that typically contain double-flued chimneys carried well above the roofline as a precaution against the spread of roof fires. Typically built of stone, the Montreal house usually contained two rows of rooms in front and rear with no recurring pattern of room arrangement or interior door placement.

26 The Montreal House Figure 7.9c 7-9 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Courtesy of John A. Jakle

27 Saltbox House 7-29 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Saltbox House A New England creation, the saltbox house provided a way to expand a small dwelling to accommodate growing family and workplace needs. A rear addition to the one- and-a-half story Cape Cod raised its height slightly, and created the asymmetrical gable roof that identifies the saltbox design. In ground plan it also followed the Cape Cod, adding two rooms to the rear—one a kitchen pantry or storage area, the other a bedroom. The low- ceilinged upper floor held two unheated rooms lighted by usually small-sized windows.

28 The Saltbox House Figure 7.10b 7-10 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Courtesy of John A. Jakle

29 Upright-and Wing (or Lazy T) House 7-37 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Upright-and-Wing (or Lazy T) House Originating in Upstate New York and spread westward across the Upper Middle West, the upright-and-wing derived from a combination of the one-and- a-half- or two-story gable-front house and a traditional New England Classic cottage (itself a derivative in floor plan of the hall-and-parlor layout). Called by some a vernacular simplification of the formal Greek Revival house, it put the main part of the structure gable end to the road and the appended wing at right angles. Interior floor plans differed, but each section was usually self- contained with no rooms spanning the division line between them. In older models, the roofs were totally separate. Front doors were usually in the “wing,” the part often built first, with the grander upright following as family fortunes improved.

30 An Upright-and-Wing House Figure 7.10d 7-12 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Courtesy of John A. Jakle

31 Four-Over-Four House 7-31 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Four–Over–Four House A product of Delaware Valley vernacular house evolution, the two- or two-and-a-half-story four-over-four house is named after its basic room arrangement. Most 18th- and 19th-century versions showed paired rooms on either side of a central hallway on both floors. Although chimney placement varies, paired gable-end chimneys are most typical. The house is nearly square, and its height from ground to eaves is equal to the depth of the structure. Embodying Georgian-style influences, the four-over-four house underwent various external design modifications to enhance the regularity and balance of the façade.

32 Four-Over-Four House Figure 7.11a 7-13 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Courtesy of John A. Jakle

33 Four Over Four Four Over Four houses are simple two story structures with two rooms on the first floor and two rooms on the top floor. This one is in Dellslow, West Virginia.

34 I House 7-33 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. I House The I house is essentially a hall-and-parlor house with an added central hallway serving a centrally located front door. That central hall, in turn, permitted the balancing of the exterior façade openings. In floor plan, the I house is two full stories high and one room deep, with single rooms on each side of the central hall. In its earlier versions, its gable roof held end chimneys. Carried into the Lower Midwest by settlers from Kentucky and Tennessee, the I house spread as an expression of both folk and popular culture throughout the eastern United States, frequently receiving locally popular ornamentation of Federal, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, or Italianate design. No external embellishments altered the fundamental identity of the I house, however: side-facing gables, one-room depth, at least two-room width, and two full stories in height.

35 The Classic I House Figure 7.11b 7-14 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Copyright Susan Reisenweaver

36 Charleston Single House 7-34 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Charleston Single House This dwelling design derives from a French-inspired plantation house, with central block structure and attached lean–tos and porches. In the city environment, it was placed end side to the street, its entry usually reached by a graceful flight of iron-railed stairs. Its colonnaded “piazza”—holding the main entry of the house—overlooked a side garden and carried shade and breezes the length of the house. The usual design is three or four aligned rooms—including parlor, hall, and dining room—on each of its two or three stories. The design assures cross- ventilation in every room, an advantage in the hot, humid climate of its southeast coastal location. With galleries or piazzas repeated on the upper floors, the same light, airy attributes were carried throughout the structure.

37 The Charleston Single House Figure Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Copyright Sharon Wildman

38 Norman Cottage 7-25 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Norman Cottage Identical in form to houses still found in northwestern France, the Norman cottage was imported to the New World by French settlers of the Lower St. Lawrence Valley. Markedly oblong in shape, much wider than they are deep front to back, Norman cottages were built with thick fieldstone walls, mortared with lime, and whitewashed or frequently faced with boards for winter protection. The distinguishing characteristic of the Norman cottage is the immense, steeply-pitched hip roof with “bell-cast” eaves to deflect water from the walls and foundation. In Quebec, the steep pitch of the wooden roof reflected the thatched original of the French homeland and served to shed the snow load received in the New World rather than the rainfall more common in the homeland.

39 Hall-and-Parlor House 7-32 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Hall–and–Parlor House The hall-and-parlor house is a product of the Chesapeake Bay hearth region that had its roots in the one-room, thatched-roof cottages or huts built by the first colonists. That simple dwelling design was elaborated into a one-floor hall-and-parlor cottage and, later, into the two-floor version. Both featured two rooms per floor. The smaller room was called the parlor and used as family or guest bedroom or formal reception room; the larger was the hall (reminiscent of the “Great Hall” of English manor house tradition) which combined kitchen, dining area, work room and family living space. It also usually held the outside house door and a corner stairway to the loft or second-floor sleeping quarters. Since each gable of the hall-and-parlor house contained a chimney, each room had a source of heat.

40 Cape Cod Cottage 7-28 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Cape Cod Cottage A version of a common medieval English rural house, the Cape Cod cottage was among the earliest small home designs erected in the New England colonies. Originally with but a single downstairs room, the floor plan later was expanded to three rooms served by a massive central chimney with three hearths—two for heating only and the rear- facing hearth serving as a cooking area for the elongated rear kitchen. Sitting low to the ground, the nearly square Cape Cod features a steeply pitched shingled roof with gable ends, eaves only 5 to 7 feet above the ground, a weathered-shingle exterior, and casement windows.

41 New England Large House 7-30 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. New England Large House Also called the central-chimney colonial house, this dwelling features a saltbox house floor plan—with the lobby entrance facing a central chimney and with smaller rooms in back. Called a New England response to Classical Revivalism, the New England large house presents a balance of all external elements. Its gable roof is symmetrical in side profile, its chimney exactly centered, its main door in the precise middle of the façade, and the windows all of equal size and evenly placed. The upper story floor plan of this squarish house is a rough duplicate of the first-floor layout.

42 Grenier House 7-35 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Grenier House Takings its name from the French word for its oversized loft, the grenier house and its local variants have also been called the Cajun cottage. In minimum form, the frame- constructed, cypress-sided, always galleried or porched grenier house had only one room and the loft, which served as sleeping quarters, usually for household males. Although never more than one room wide, in expanded form the grenier house might extend two, three, or even four rooms deep. Room doors were lined-up front to back to catch and carry breezes. The grenier house became the standard dwelling in rural French Louisiana, unmistakable in appearance since the porch was always integral to the house and roof line, never an added afterthought, and the grenier itself was projected over the porch or galerie. Floor plan variants included a commonly encountered two front room version, each room with an exterior door opening onto the galerie.

43 Gable-Front House 7-36 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Gable–Front House The two- or two-and-a-half-story gable-front house and its smaller one- or one-and-a-half-floor cottage variant became a standard Eastern U.S. house style of popular culture, rooted in both the New England folk cottage and the Southern bungalow. To those basic influences it added Greek Revival embellishments and a lot placement presenting the narrow, gable end of the structure to the street. An efficient use of expensive urban land, that turning of the house frontage required moving the main entrance to the narrow gable end and placing a hallway to one side. Floor plans were not standardized but usually featured two rooms in width and two or more rooms in depth. Greek Revival ornamentation, so common in 19th–century gable–fronts, included a low–pitched, front-gable roof, small-paned windows, a front-door surround containing narrow side lights, and a portico or recessed porch supported by Greek columns.

44 Saddlebag House 7-38 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Saddlebag House When expansion of the square, one-room (single-pen) log cabin was needed, common practice was to build a second pen set with its gable attached to the chimney end of the original structure. Such a “saddlebag cottage” produced a central-chimney dwelling, two rooms wide, one room deep, usually with two separate front doors often opening onto an attached porch. Widely duplicated in balloon frame construction in the 19th century, it was dispersed as a farm residence in both the Upper and Lower South. In its less common house version, with the addition of a second floor and an alteration in the interior design, it became part of the urban scene, but again only in the Southeast.

45 Dogtrot House 7-39 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Dogtrot House Another form of cabin expansion or new dwelling construction was to separate two single pens—each, perhaps, 16 feet (4.9 meters) square—by an open central hall, usually about one-half pen (8 feet; 2.4 meters) in width. The whole—two rooms and a central, open passage or “dog–trot”—was covered by a common gable roof. Chimneys are centered on the outside gables, and the roof was sometimes extended to enclose them as well as to cover a porch running the length of the front side of the house. Like the saddlebag cottage, the dogtrot dwelling was originally a variant of the log cabin and a part of the southeastern U.S. vernacular housing tradition.

46 Spanish Adobe House 7-40 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Spanish Adobe House From the middle of the 16th century through the early part of the 19th century, Spanish-Mexican dominance of the southwestern United States was complete. During that period, a unique regional architecture developed. It combined Spanish and Amerindian traditions and featured a flat-roofed, thick-walled, frequently courtyard-centered structure of adobe brick. The form was particularly well developed in New Mexico, where trees are scarce and the building material of Indian pueblos had long been mud. In their structures, Native Americans shaped walls in place, built up of layers of moistened clay, each sun dried before the next layer was added. The Spanish contributed adobe bricks, a mixture of clay, sand, and straw shaped in a wooden form, sun dried, and stacked. The entire structure was plastered with mud inside and out. Room width was determined by the length of the beams that could be cut— usually 12 to 15 feet (3.5 to 4.5 meters). The house could easily be expanded by adding beams and rooms in an elongation of the original structure.

47 Dutch Colonial Popular in the Middle Atlantic states, but may be found across the US. (South Park neighborhood, Morgantown, WV)

48 Pennsylvania Farmhouse Popular style of barns used by German immigrants in Pennsylvania. This is a duplex apartment in the South Park neighborhood in Morgantown, WV.

49 6-8 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Pennsylvania Dutch Barn Figure 6.24 Source: Copyright Susan Reisenweaver

50 Icelandic Sod Farm House Figure 7.7b 7-5 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Courtesy, Colin E. Thorn.

51 Shotgun Cottages in Mississippi Figure 7.13a 7-16 Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Source: Courtesy of John A. Jakle


Download ppt "FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE. Culture  The body of customary beliefs, social forms and material traits that together constitute a group of people’s distinct."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google