Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Industrial Revolution

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrial Revolution
Three Views of the Industrial Revolution Technological Change Social Change Prime Actors/Industrialists

2 The Industrial Age Cometh!!!
Industrial Revolution

3 Industrial Revolution -- Definition
Prime foci were: technology and organization transforming the way in which goods production was accomplished and organized --Unprecedented expansion of output and productivity Resulted in and from new organizational, social, economic, and political inventions and developments – not just industrial ones Industrial Revolution

4 Impacts of Industrial Revolution
QOL -- Substantial increase in Quality of Life including standard of living Demographic Transition (especially in the Western World) GLOBALIZATION -- Set the stage for modern phase of Globalization and all of its impacts Industrial Revolution

5 Industrial Revolution
Three Approaches Technological (Machines) Approach emphasizes the mechanics of the production Social (Organizational) Approach emphasized changing societal structures, institutions, and relationships Inventor/Entrepreneur/Industrialist (Great Man) Approach emphasizes the Great Individual Industrial Revolution

6 Industrial Revolution
Current Distribution of Major Industrial Regions Worldwide Note how few and concentrated these are and no major concentration in Africa as yet Industrial Revolution

7 Industrial Revolution
Consequences in Pollution Estimated PM10 Concentrations in World Cities Having More than 100,000 People Industrial Revolution

8 Part 1: The Technical (Machine) Hypothesis
Source: Dr Raymond L Sanders Jr Geography University of Texas at Austin Web source Industrial Revolution

9 Sander’s Learning Objective
Tracing the development of the Industrial Revolution to Technological Innovations 2. Discussing its spread across the landscape Industrial Revolution

10 Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development
Agricultural Revolution -- Domestication of plants and animals occurred in our dim prehistory (8,000bc approx.) Ultimately resulted in a huge increase in human population Greatly accelerated modification of the physical environment Resulted in major cultural readjustments Industrial Revolution

11 Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development
The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today Involves a series of inventions leading to the use of machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing process Suddenly whole societies could engage in seemingly limitless multiplication of goods and services Rapid bursts of human inventiveness followed Gigantic population increases Industrial Revolution

12 Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development
The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today Massive, often unsettling, remodeling of the environment (human and physical) Today, few lands remain largely untouched by its machines, factories, transportation devices, and communication techniques On an individual level, no facet of North American life remains unaffected Just about every object and every event in your life is affected, if not actually created, by the Industrial Revolution What’s this??? Industrial Revolution

13 Industrial Revolution
Introduction Life before the Industrial Revolution People were concerned with the most basic of primary economic activities Acquired the necessities of survival from the land Society and culture was overwhelmingly rural and agricultural Before 1700 virtually all manufacturing was carried on in two systems, cottage and guild industries, both depended on hand labor and human power Industrial Revolution

14 Industrial Revolution
Introduction Cottage industry Most common, was practiced in farm homes and rural villages Usually a sideline to agriculture Objects for family use were made in each household Most villages had a cobbler, miller, weaver, and smith who worked part-time at home Skills passed from parents to children with little formality Industrial Revolution

15 Industrial Revolution
Introduction Guild industry Consisted of professional organizations of highly skilled, specialized artisans engaged full time in their trades and based in towns and cities Membership came after a long apprenticeship Was a fraternal organization of artisans skilled in a particular craft Industrial Revolution

16 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Arose among back-country English cottage craftspeople in the early 1700s First: human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products Rendered old manufacturing definition (“made by hand”) obsolete – new definition emerges Manufacturing transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of semi-manufactures. Industrial Revolution

17 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
First: human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products Weavers no longer sat at a hand loom, instead large mechanical looms were invented to do the job faster and more economically Industrial Revolution

18 The Water Frame (Richard Arckwright)
Second: Human power gave way to various forms of inanimate power Industrial Revolution

19 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Second: Human power gave way … Machines were driven by water power, burning of fossil fuels, and later hydroelectricity and the energy of the atom Men and women became tenders of machines instead of producers of fine hand made goods Industrial Revolution

20 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Within 150 years, the Industrial Revolution greatly altered the first three sectors of industrial activity Textiles Metallurgy Mining Industrial Revolution

21 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Textiles Initial breakthrough occurred in the British cotton textile cottage industry, centered in the Lancashire district of western England First changes were modest and on a small scale Mechanical looms, powered by flowing water were invented Industries remained largely rural Diffused hierarchically to sites of rushing streams Industrial Revolution

22 Industrial Revolution
Water Power to Finished Cloth and engineering/looms.htm Industrial Revolution

23 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Textiles Later in the eighteenth century invention of the steam engine provided a better source of power In the United states, textile plants were also the first factories Industrial Revolution

24 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Metallurgy Traditionally, metal industries had been small-scale, rural enterprises Industrial Revolution

25 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Metallurgy Situated near ore sources Forests provided charcoal for smelting process Chemical changes that occurred in steel making remained mysterious even to craftspeople who used them Techniques had changed little since the beginning of the Iron Age, 2500 years before Industrial Revolution

26 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Metallurgy In the 1700s, inventions by iron makers in the Coalbrookdale of English Midlands, created a new scientific, large-scale industry Coke, nearly pure carbon, which is derived from nearly pure coal, replaced charcoal in the smelting process Large blast furnaces replaced the forge Efficient rolling mills took the place of hammer and anvil Mass production of steel resulted Industrial Revolution

27 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Mining First to feel effects of new technology was coal mining Adoption of steam engine necessitated huge amounts of coal to fire boilers Conversion to coke further increased demand for coal Fortunately, Britain had large coal deposits New mining techniques and tools were invented Coal mining became a large-scale mechanized industry Industrial Revolution

28 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Mining Because coal is heavy and bulky, manufacturing industries began flocking to the coal fields, to be near supplies Similar modernization occurred in mining of iron ore, copper, and other metals needed by growing industries Industrial Revolution

29 Industrial Revolution
Coalfields in UK Became centers for 19th Century Industrialization Consider the relationship of coalfields in the US and our Industrial Belt (now the Rust Belt) Industrial Revolution

30 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Railroads Wooden sailing ships gave way to steel vessels driven by steam engines Canals were built British-invented railroad came on the scene Need to move raw materials and finished products from place to place, cheaply and quickly, was main stimulus leading to transportation breakthroughs Industrial Revolution

31 Origins of the Industrial Revolution
Railroads Impact of the Industrial Revolution would have been minimized if distribution of goods and services had not been improved British revolutionized shipbuilding industry and dominated it from their Scottish shipyards even into the twentieth century New modes of transport fostered additional cultural diffusion New industrial-age popular culture could easily penetrate previously untouched areas Industrial Revolution

32 Diffusion from Britain
For a century, Britain held a virtual monopoly on its industrial innovations Government actively tried to prevent diffusion Gave Britain enormous economic advantage Contributed greatly to growth and strength of British Empire Industrial Revolution

33 Diffusion from Britain
The technology finally diffused beyond the British Isles Continental Europe first received its impact in last half of the nineteenth century Took firm root hierarchically in coal fields of Germany, Belgium, and other nations of northwestern and Central Europe Diffusion of railroads provides a good index Industrial Revolution

34 Industrial Revolution
Introduction of Railroads in Europe Over the 19th Century Industrial Revolution

35 Diffusion from Britain
The technology finally diffused beyond the British Isles United States began rapid adoption of new technology about 1850 About 1900, Japan was the first major non-Western country to undergo full industrialization In the first third of the 1900s, diffusion spilled into Russia and Ukraine Recently, countries such as Taiwan, South Korea, China, India, and Singapore joined the manufacturing age Industrial Revolution

36 Industrial Revolution
Diffusion of Industrial Revolution in 19th and 20th Centuries Industrial Revolution

37 Industrial Revolution
End of technological diffusion hypothesis Industrial Revolution

38 Part 2: The Social Organizational Hypothesis
Source: Mike Reibel - Associate Professor Department of Geography and Anthropology California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA 91768 Web Source Industrial Revolution

39 Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution

40 Reibel’s Learning Objectives
Understand how changing social organization lead to the Industrial Revolution Outline several stages of development in the Industrial Revolution based on Kondratiev’s Cycles Industrial Revolution

41 Industrial Revolution
First and foremost, a revolution in the organization and control of labor Capitalist entrepreneurs and managers break down production into bite-sized tasks, hire less skilled workers Only possible at larger scales due to need to break down tasks, efficiency gains Industrial Revolution

42 Industrial Revolution
Remember! Industrial division of labor, NOT technical innovation, defines industrialization Strategic investment, not machines, makes industrial production possible All productivity gains in early industrial age were from labor re-organization Industrial Revolution

43 Ford Assembly Line: Grinding Monotony
Henry had to pay well or no one would stay Industrial Revolution

44 Capitalist Competition and Technical Innovation
Capitalist industry and faster technical innovation happened separately in 1700s Slowly, technical innovation became a strategy for industrial competition Material progress from this combination - “spirit of innovation”, confidence in humans’ ability to control nature Industrial Revolution

45 Product Innovation vs. Process Innovation
Product Innovation: Development of new products or new capabilities and features for existing products Process Innovation: New production processes that reduce unit cost: new machines or equipment innovations in operations management (organization of labor & production tasks) Industrial Revolution

46 Evolution of Industrial Regions
Continual expansion of long-distance trade due to transport cost declines, leads to: Greater specialization of production for export from region, less local self- sufficiency 5. Opium and the expansion of trade By 1690, the Company had trading centres (known as 'factories') all along the West and East coasts of India. The main centres were at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay. The Company started to protect its trade with its own armies and navies - very different from most companies today Industrial Revolution

47 Evolution of Industrial Regions
Expansion of specialized business services to match local production specialties: transport, wholesale, finance, legal, advertising, etc. The Managing Committee House of the Insurance Company "Russia" in St.Petersburg Industrial Revolution

48 Technology and Corporate Strategy
Product chains grow longer, leads to: Competitive advantage thru vertical integration Horizontal integration also a growth strategy Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of firms consolidates market share, Industrial Revolution

49 Technology and Corporate Strategy
Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of firms consolidates market share, Eventually leads to monopolies Industrial Revolution

50 Industrial Revolution
Monopoly Defined Industrial Revolution

51 Industrial Revolution
Fordist Industrial Age Includes most of Kondratiev’s Third and Fourth Wave 1910s to mid 1970s Assembly line mass production, scientific mgmt. Internal combustion replaces steam -> change in transport & econ. geography New technologies - electronics, petrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals Rise of corporate R&D capabilities Close, two-way relationship between industrial corporations and the state Industrial Revolution

52 The Great Depression: First Crisis of Fordism
The great depression: a downward spiraling feedback loop as follows: Overproduction -> failure of demand -> collapse of prices ->falling profits -> layoffs -> further collapse of demand, etc. Federal Reserve made things worse, cut back money supply because shrinking economy "didn't need more money in circulation” Industrial Revolution

53 Industrial Revolution
End of social organizational hypothesis Industrial Revolution

54 Industrial Revolution
Reibel’s Summary Social organization lead to the Industrial Revolution Greater and greater subdivision of labor More and more low skilled (payed) workers Industrial Revolution progressed through a series of stages similar to Kondratiev’s technological cycles Booms and Busts part of the story Geography expands with each boom Industrial Revolution

55 Part 3: Some Examples of American Innovation
Source Obe Hostetter, Rockingham School District, Mountain View Elementary School Harrisonburg, VA 22801 Web Source Industrial Revolution

56 Hostetter’s Learning Objective
Provide Familiarity with major figures in America’s technological advances during the early 19th century Industrial Revolution

57 Industrial Revolution (1780-1850)
Industrial Revolution ( ) -This part of history got its name because Great Britain began inventing new machines and technology. -Great Britain developed new machines for spinning cotton into yarn. As a result, Great Britain sold the cheapest cloth. -It was illegal for cotton spinning machines to leave the country or even skilled machine technicians.

58 Industrial Revolution
Modern Day Industrial Espionage Industrial Revolution

59 Samuel Slater Industrial Pirate
In 1789, Samuel Slater memorized the British spinning machines He came to the USA and began building cotton spinning machines to sell to Americans. Industrial Revolution

60 Industrial Revolution
Eli Whitney Inventor In 1793, He invented the cotton gin. This machine removed the seeds from the cotton. Cotton was then sold more cheaply The USA did better in selling cloth to other countries. Industrial Revolution

61 Industrial Revolution
Eli Whitney Born on December 8, in Westborough, Massachusettes. Industrial Revolution

62 Industrial Revolution
How it all started... Upon graduating from college in 1792, Whitney traveled south, ending up at Greene Plantation near Savannah, Georgia. During his stay on Greene Plantation, Whitney heard of a need for a machine that would separate cotton from its seed. Industrial Revolution

63 Industrial Revolution
Whitney quickly sketched out a model to explain his idea and within ten days he completed a functioning cotton gin. Although he applied for a patent on June 20, 1793, he did not receive one until March 14, 1794. Industrial Revolution

64 Industrial Revolution
The Cotton Gin Eli Whitney’s cotton gin allowed cotton to be easily separated from its seed in a short amount of time. Industrial Revolution

65 The Importance of the Cotton Gin
Because cotton could be cleaned in a shorter period of time, the South prospered in this industry. By using the cotton gin, one man could clean ten times as much cotton as he could have on his own. Industrial Revolution

66 Francis Cabot Lowell Industrial Pirate
He built the USA’s first power loom in Waltham, Massachusetts. Girls worked in the power loom factory. They would work 12 to 14 hours a day 6 days a week. They had to go to bed by 10 and wake up at 5:00 to work. They got $3 a week for working 70 hours. Industrial Revolution

67 Cyrus McCormick Inventor
He improved the reaper. By hand, farmers only did 2 or 3 acres. However, with the reaper, farmers did 12 acres a day. He also used interchangeable parts so the reapers could be fixed easily. Industrial Revolution

68 Other Great Innovators
Industrial Revolution

69 Industrial Revolution
Thomas Alva Edison He loved inventing new machines. When he was 11, he built his own telegraph set. His dad wanted Edison to read books and stop doing science experiments so Edison’s dad gave Edison a penny every time he read. Edison used the pennies to buy chemicals. Industrial Revolution

70 Industrial Revolution
Alexander Graham Bell He asked Boston University for a sabbatical to invent the telephone. He offered to share the profits BU absolutely refused, so he quit By 1900, 1.5 million telephones were being used. He started the Telephone Bell Company. Industrial Revolution

71 John D. Rockefeller Entrepreneurs
He came from a poor family. However, he started an oil-refinery business Industrial Revolution

72 Industrial Revolution
John D. Rockefeller Through buying other companies and labeling them different names, he got a monopoly. Industrial Revolution

73 Bill Gates Entrepreneurs
Where’s Bill??? Bill being pied. Industrial Revolution

74 Industrial Revolution
Conclusions Industrial Revolution

75 Industrial Revolution
Conclusions The Industrial Revolution is an ongoing process of innovation and change It incorporates both technological and social parts to these processes It is led by visionary individuals Industrial Revolution

Download ppt "Industrial Revolution"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google