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Three Views of the Industrial Revolution Technological Change Social Change Prime Actors/Industrialists Industrial Revolution.

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Presentation on theme: "Three Views of the Industrial Revolution Technological Change Social Change Prime Actors/Industrialists Industrial Revolution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Three Views of the Industrial Revolution Technological Change Social Change Prime Actors/Industrialists Industrial Revolution

2 The Industrial Age Cometh!!! Industrial Revolution2

3 Industrial Revolution -- Definition Prime foci were: – technology and organization transforming the way in which goods production was accomplished and organized --Unprecedented expansion of output and productivity Resulted in and from new organizational, social, economic, and political inventions and developments – not just industrial ones Industrial Revolution3

4 Impacts of Industrial Revolution  QOL -- Substantial increase in Quality of Life including standard of living  Demographic Transition (especially in the Western World)  GLOBALIZATION -- Set the stage for modern phase of Globalization and all of its impacts Industrial Revolution4

5 5 Three Approaches Technological (Machines) Approach emphasizes the mechanics of the production Social (Organizational) Approach emphasized changing societal structures, institutions, and relationships Inventor/Entrepreneur/Industrialist (Great Man) Approach emphasizes the Great Individual

6 Industrial Revolution6 Current Distribution of Major Industrial Regions Worldwide Note how few and concentrated these are and no major concentration in Africa as yet

7 Industrial Revolution7 Estimated PM10 Concentrations in World Cities Having More than 100,000 People Consequences in Pollution

8 Industrial Revolution8 Part 1: The Technical (Machine) Hypothesis Source: Dr Raymond L Sanders Jr Geography University of Texas at Austin Web source

9 Industrial Revolution9 Sander’s Learning Objective 1.Tracing the development of the Industrial Revolution to Technological Innovations 2. Discussing its spread across the landscape

10 Industrial Revolution10 Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development Agricultural Revolution -- Domestication of plants and animals occurred in our dim prehistory (8,000bc approx.) –Ultimately resulted in a huge increase in human population –Greatly accelerated modification of the physical environment –Resulted in major cultural readjustments

11 Industrial Revolution11 Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today –Involves a series of inventions leading to the use of machines and inanimate power in the manufacturing process –Suddenly whole societies could engage in seemingly limitless multiplication of goods and services –Rapid bursts of human inventiveness followed –Gigantic population increases

12 Industrial Revolution12 Two great economic “revolutions” occurred in human development The Industrial Revolution, started in the eighteenth century, is still taking place today –Massive, often unsettling, remodeling of the environment (human and physical) –Today, few lands remain largely untouched by its machines, factories, transportation devices, and communication techniques –On an individual level, no facet of North American life remains unaffected –Just about every object and every event in your life is affected, if not actually created, by the Industrial Revolution What’s this???

13 Industrial Revolution13 Introduction Life before the Industrial Revolution –People were concerned with the most basic of primary economic activities –Acquired the necessities of survival from the land –Society and culture was overwhelmingly rural and agricultural –Before 1700 virtually all manufacturing was carried on in two systems, cottage and guild industries, both depended on hand labor and human power

14 Industrial Revolution14 Introduction Cottage industry –Most common, was practiced in farm homes and rural villages –Usually a sideline to agriculture –Objects for family use were made in each household –Most villages had a cobbler, miller, weaver, and smith who worked part-time at home –Skills passed from parents to children with little formality

15 Industrial Revolution15 Introduction Guild industry –Consisted of professional organizations of highly skilled, specialized artisans engaged full time in their trades and based in towns and cities –Membership came after a long apprenticeship –Was a fraternal organization of artisans skilled in a particular craft

16 Industrial Revolution16 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Arose among back-country English cottage craftspeople in the early 1700s First: human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products –Rendered old manufacturing definition (“made by hand”) obsolete – new definition emerges –Manufacturing transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale, or intermediate processes involving the production or finishing of

17 Industrial Revolution17 Origins of the Industrial Revolution First: human hands were replaced by machines in fashioning finished products –Weavers no longer sat at a hand loom, instead large mechanical looms were invented to do the job faster and more economically

18 Industrial Revolution18 The Water Frame (Richard Arckwright) Second: Human power gave way to various forms of inanimate power

19 Industrial Revolution19 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Second: Human power gave way … Machines were driven by water power, burning of fossil fuels, and later hydroelectricity and the energy of the atom Men and women became tenders of machines instead of producers of fine hand made goods

20 Industrial Revolution20 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Within 150 years, the Industrial Revolution greatly altered the first three sectors of industrial activity Textiles Metallurgy Mining

21 Industrial Revolution21 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Textiles –Initial breakthrough occurred in the British cotton textile cottage industry, centered in the Lancashire district of western England –First changes were modest and on a small scale Mechanical looms, powered by flowing water were invented Industries remained largely rural Diffused hierarchically to sites of rushing streams

22 Industrial Revolution22 Water Power to Finished Cloth and engineering/looms.htm

23 Industrial Revolution23 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Textiles –Later in the eighteenth century invention of the steam engine provided a better source of power –In the United states, textile plants were also the first factories

24 Industrial Revolution24 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Metallurgy –Traditionally, metal industries had been small-scale, rural enterprises

25 Industrial Revolution25 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Metallurgy –Situated near ore sources –Forests provided charcoal for smelting process –Chemical changes that occurred in steel making remained mysterious even to craftspeople who used them –Techniques had changed little since the beginning of the Iron Age, 2500 years before

26 Industrial Revolution26 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Metallurgy –In the 1700s, inventions by iron makers in the Coalbrookdale of English Midlands, created a new scientific, large-scale industry Coke, nearly pure carbon, which is derived from nearly pure coal, replaced charcoal in the smelting process Large blast furnaces replaced the forge Efficient rolling mills took the place of hammer and anvil Mass production of steel resulted

27 Industrial Revolution27 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Mining –First to feel effects of new technology was coal mining Adoption of steam engine necessitated huge amounts of coal to fire boilers Conversion to coke further increased demand for coal Fortunately, Britain had large coal deposits New mining techniques and tools were invented Coal mining became a large-scale mechanized industry

28 Industrial Revolution28 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Mining –Because coal is heavy and bulky, manufacturing industries began flocking to the coal fields, to be near supplies –Similar modernization occurred in mining of iron ore, copper, and other metals needed by growing industries

29 Industrial Revolution29 Coalfields in UK Became centers for 19 th Century Industrialization Consider the relationship of coalfields in the US and our Industrial Belt (now the Rust Belt)

30 Industrial Revolution30 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Railroads –Wooden sailing ships gave way to steel vessels driven by steam engines –Canals were built –British-invented railroad came on the scene –Need to move raw materials and finished products from place to place, cheaply and quickly, was main stimulus leading to transportation breakthroughs

31 Industrial Revolution31 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Railroads –Impact of the Industrial Revolution would have been minimized if distribution of goods and services had not been improved –British revolutionized shipbuilding industry and dominated it from their Scottish shipyards even into the twentieth century –New modes of transport fostered additional cultural diffusion –New industrial-age popular culture could easily penetrate previously untouched areas

32 Industrial Revolution32 Diffusion from Britain For a century, Britain held a virtual monopoly on its industrial innovations –Government actively tried to prevent diffusion –Gave Britain enormous economic advantage –Contributed greatly to growth and strength of British Empire

33 Industrial Revolution33 Diffusion from Britain The technology finally diffused beyond the British Isles –Continental Europe first received its impact in last half of the nineteenth century Took firm root hierarchically in coal fields of Germany, Belgium, and other nations of northwestern and Central Europe Diffusion of railroads provides a good index

34 Industrial Revolution34 Introduction of Railroads in Europe Over the 19 th Century

35 Industrial Revolution35 Diffusion from Britain The technology finally diffused beyond the British Isles –United States began rapid adoption of new technology about 1850 –About 1900, Japan was the first major non- Western country to undergo full industrialization –In the first third of the 1900s, diffusion spilled into Russia and Ukraine –Recently, countries such as Taiwan, South Korea, China, India, and Singapore joined the manufacturing age

36 Industrial Revolution36 Diffusion of Industrial Revolution in 19 th and 20 th Centuries

37 Industrial Revolution37 End of technological diffusion hypothesis

38 Industrial Revolution38 Part 2: The Social Organizational Hypothesis Source: Mike Reibel - Associate Professor Department of Geography and Anthropology California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA Web Source

39 Industrial Revolution39

40 Industrial Revolution40 Reibel’s Learning Objectives 1.Understand how changing social organization lead to the Industrial Revolution 2.Outline several stages of development in the Industrial Revolution based on Kondratiev’s Cycles

41 Industrial Revolution41 Industrial Revolution First and foremost, a revolution in the organization and control of labor Capitalist entrepreneurs and managers break down production into bite-sized tasks, hire less skilled workers Only possible at larger scales due to need to break down tasks, efficiency gains

42 Industrial Revolution42 Remember! Industrial division of labor, NOT technical innovation, defines industrialization Strategic investment, not machines, makes industrial production possible All productivity gains in early industrial age were from labor re-organization

43 Ford Assembly Line: Grinding Monotony Industrial Revolution43 Henry had to pay well or no one would stay

44 Industrial Revolution44 Capitalist Competition and Technical Innovation Capitalist industry and faster technical innovation happened separately in 1700s Slowly, technical innovation became a strategy for industrial competition Material progress from this combination - “spirit of innovation”, confidence in humans’ ability to control nature

45 Industrial Revolution45 Product Innovation vs. Process Innovation Product Innovation: Development of new products or new capabilities and features for existing products Process Innovation: New production processes that reduce unit cost: –new machines or equipment –innovations in operations management (organization of labor & production tasks)

46 Industrial Revolution46 Evolution of Industrial Regions Continual expansion of long-distance trade due to transport cost declines, leads to: Greater specialization of production for export from region, less local self- sufficiency 5. Opium and the expansion of trade By 1690, the Company had trading centres (known as 'factories') all along the West and East coasts of India. The main centres were at Madras, Calcutta and Bombay. The Company started to protect its trade with its own armies and navies - very different from most companies today

47 Industrial Revolution47 Evolution of Industrial Regions Expansion of specialized business services to match local production specialties: transport, wholesale, finance, legal, advertising, etc. The Managing Committee House of the Insurance Company "Russia" in St.Petersburg

48 Industrial Revolution48 Technology and Corporate Strategy Product chains grow longer, leads to: –Competitive advantage thru vertical integration Horizontal integration also a growth strategy –Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of firms consolidates market share,

49 Industrial Revolution49 Technology and Corporate Strategy Expanding markets and successful growth strategies of firms consolidates market share, Eventually leads to monopolies

50 Monopoly Defined Industrial Revolution50 videos/60116/march /the-word---monopoly

51 Industrial Revolution51 Fordist Industrial Age Includes most of Kondratiev’s Third and Fourth Wave 1910s to mid 1970s Assembly line mass production, scientific mgmt. Internal combustion replaces steam -> change in transport & econ. geography New technologies - electronics, petrochemicals, and pharmaceuticals Rise of corporate R&D capabilities Close, two-way relationship between industrial corporations and the state

52 Industrial Revolution52 The Great Depression: First Crisis of Fordism The great depression: a downward spiraling feedback loop as follows: Overproduction -> failure of demand -> collapse of prices ->falling profits -> layoffs -> further collapse of demand, etc. Federal Reserve made things worse, cut back money supply because shrinking economy "didn't need more money in circulation”

53 Industrial Revolution53 End of social organizational hypothesis

54 Industrial Revolution54 Reibel’s Summary 1.Social organization lead to the Industrial Revolution 1.Greater and greater subdivision of labor 2.More and more low skilled (payed) workers 2.Industrial Revolution progressed through a series of stages similar to Kondratiev’s technological cycles 1.Booms and Busts part of the story 2.Geography expands with each boom

55 Industrial Revolution55 Part 3: Some Examples of American Innovation Source Obe Hostetter, Rockingham School District, Mountain View Elementary School Harrisonburg, VA Web Source

56 Industrial Revolution56 Hostetter’s Learning Objective 1.Provide Familiarity with major figures in America’s technological advances during the early 19 th century

57 Industrial Revolution ( ) - This part of history got its name because Great Britain began inventing new machines and technology. -Great Britain developed new machines for spinning cotton into yarn. As a result, Great Britain sold the cheapest cloth. -It was illegal for cotton spinning machines to leave the country or even skilled machine technicians.

58 Industrial Revolution58 Modern Day Industrial Espionage

59 Industrial Revolution59 Samuel Slater Industrial Pirate In 1789, Samuel Slater memorized the British spinning machinesSamuel Slater He came to the USA and began building cotton spinning machines to sell to Americans.

60 Industrial Revolution60 Eli Whitney Inventor In 1793, He invented the cotton gin. This machine removed the seeds from the cotton. Cotton was then sold more cheaply The USA did better in selling cloth to other countries.

61 Industrial Revolution61 Eli Whitney Born on December 8, 1765 in Westborough, Massachusettes.

62 Industrial Revolution62 How it all started... Upon graduating from college in 1792, Whitney traveled south, ending up at Greene Plantation near Savannah, Georgia. During his stay on Greene Plantation, Whitney heard of a need for a machine that would separate cotton from its seed.

63 Industrial Revolution63 Whitney quickly sketched out a model to explain his idea and within ten days he completed a functioning cotton gin. Although he applied for a patent on June 20, 1793, he did not receive one until March 14, 1794.

64 Industrial Revolution64 The Cotton Gin Eli Whitney’s cotton gin allowed cotton to be easily separated from its seed in a short amount of time.

65 Industrial Revolution65 The Importance of the Cotton Gin Because cotton could be cleaned in a shorter period of time, the South prospered in this industry. By using the cotton gin, one man could clean ten times as much cotton as he could have on his own.

66 Industrial Revolution66 Francis Cabot Lowell Industrial Pirate He built the USA’s first power loom in Waltham, Massachusetts. Girls worked in the power loom factory. They would work 12 to 14 hours a day 6 days a week. They had to go to bed by 10 and wake up at 5:00 to work. They got $3 a week for working 70 hours.

67 Industrial Revolution67 Cyrus McCormick Inventor He improved the reaper. By hand, farmers only did 2 or 3 acres. However, with the reaper, farmers did 12 acres a day. He also used interchangeable parts so the reapers could be fixed easily.

68 Industrial Revolution68 Other Great Innovators

69 Industrial Revolution69 Thomas Alva Edison He loved inventing new machines. When he was 11, he built his own telegraph set. His dad wanted Edison to read books and stop doing science experiments so Edison’s dad gave Edison a penny every time he read. Edison used the pennies to buy chemicals.

70 Industrial Revolution70 Alexander Graham Bell He asked Boston University for a sabbatical to invent the telephone. He offered to share the profits BU absolutely refused, so he quit By 1900, 1.5 million telephones were being used. He started the Telephone Bell Company.

71 Industrial Revolution71 John D. Rockefeller Entrepreneurs He came from a poor family. However, he started an oil-refinery business

72 Industrial Revolution72 John D. Rockefeller Through buying other companies and labeling them different names, he got a monopoly.

73 Industrial Revolution73 Bill Gates Entrepreneurs Bill being pied. Where’s Bill???

74 Industrial Revolution74 Conclusions

75 Industrial Revolution75 Conclusions The Industrial Revolution is an ongoing process of innovation and change It incorporates both technological and social parts to these processes It is led by visionary individuals

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