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PRS Slides for PowerPoint Chap 6 Memory Copyright © Pearson Education, 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "PRS Slides for PowerPoint Chap 6 Memory Copyright © Pearson Education, 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 PRS Slides for PowerPoint Chap 6 Memory Copyright © Pearson Education, 2009

2 Definitional and Application Slides 2 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

3 3 Which of the following is true about the process of encoding? 1.It holds information in memory for some time. 2.It involves accessing information in memory for use. 3.It involves transforming information from one form to another in order for it to get into a particular part of memory. 4.It is limited to only converting sensory information into signals for the brain to use. 5.The length of time that is involved in this process may vary greatly, anywhere from a couple of seconds to permanently. LO 6.1 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

4 4 Which of the following is true about the process of encoding? 1.It holds information in memory for some time. 2.It involves accessing information in memory for use. 3.It involves transforming information from one form to another in order for it to get into a particular part of memory. (p. 222) 4.It is limited to only converting sensory information into signals for the brain to use. 5.The length of time that is involved in this process may vary greatly, anywhere from a couple of seconds to permanently. LO 6.1 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

5 5 Using the partial report technique, Sperling discovered that this part of memory has a duration of only half a second. 1.Echoic memory 2.Iconic memory 3.Short term memory 4.Working memory 5.Semantic memory LO 6.2 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

6 6 Using the partial report technique, Sperling discovered that this part of memory has a duration of only half a second. 1.Echoic memory 2.Iconic memory (p. 227) 3.Short term memory 4.Working memory 5.Semantic memory LO 6.2 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

7 7 The part of memory that has a capacity of about 7 items and whose duration can be increased through techniques such as maintenance rehearsal and chunking is called: 1.long term memory. 2.sensory memory. 3.iconic memory. 4.echoic memory. 5.working memory. LO 6.3 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

8 8 The part of memory that has a capacity of about 7 items and whose duration can be increased through techniques such as maintenance rehearsal and chunking is called: 1.long term memory. 2.sensory memory. 3.iconic memory. 4.echoic memory. 5.working memory. (p ) LO 6.3 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

9 9 Knowledge of who the first person to walk on the moon was is probably stored in: 1.episodic memory. 2.semantic memory. 3.implicit memory. 4.procedural memory. 5.short term memory. LO 6.5 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

10 10 Knowledge of who the first person to walk on the moon was is probably stored in: 1.episodic memory. 2.semantic memory. (p. 234) 3.implicit memory. 4.procedural memory. 5.short term memory. LO 6.5 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

11 11 Verification of the statement “a beagle is a dog” is much faster than verification of the statement “a beagle is an animal” according to what model? 1.Semantic network 2.Parallel distributed processing 3.Levels of processing 4.Elaborative rehearsal 5.Cocktail party effect LO 6.5 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

12 12 Verification of the statement “a beagle is a dog” is much faster than verification of the statement “a beagle is an animal” according to what model? 1.Semantic network (p ) 2.Parallel distributed processing 3.Levels of processing 4.Elaborative rehearsal 5.Cocktail party effect LO 6.5 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

13 13 According to __________________, a student will do better on a psychology test if he or she takes the test in the same room as they learned material. 1.serial position effect 2.primacy effect 3.encoding specificity effect 4.state dependent learning 5.recency effect LO 6.6 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

14 14 According to __________________, a student will do better on a psychology test if he or she takes the test in the same room as they learned material. 1.serial position effect 2.primacy effect 3.encoding specificity effect (p ) 4.state dependent learning 5.recency effect LO 6.6 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

15 15 Which of the following is NOT an example of recall? 1.Answering an essay question on an English test 2.Remembering a friend’s name when asked by another person 3.Answering a question on a multiple choice test correctly 4.Remembering where you placed your car keys 5.Filling in the blanks of information on a college application. LO 6.7 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

16 16 Which of the following is NOT an example of recall? 1.Answering an essay question on an English test 2.Remembering a friend’s name when asked by another person 3.Answering a question on a multiple choice test correctly (p. 239) 4.Remembering where you placed your car keys 5.Filling in the blanks of information on a college application. LO 6.7 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

17 17 When a student is read a list of digits and asked to recall them, she remembers the first items on the list much better than the items in the middle of the list due to: 1.Recency effect 2.Automatic encoding 3.Flashbulb memories 4.Primacy effect 5.Encoding specificity LO 6.7 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

18 18 When a student is read a list of digits and asked to recall them, she remembers the first items on the list much better than the items in the middle of the list due to: 1.Recency effect 2.Automatic encoding 3.Flashbulb memories 4.Primacy effect (p. 239) 5.Encoding specificity LO 6.7 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

19 19 Which of the following is NOT true of flashbulb memories? 1.They occur when an unexpected event occurs in a person’s life. 2.The usually have strong emotional associations. 3.They are usually very accurate. 4.They appear to be very vivid to the person. 5.They usually occur due to automatic encoding. LO 6.7 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

20 20 Which of the following is NOT true of flashbulb memories? 1.They occur when an unexpected event occurs in a person’s life. 2.The usually have strong emotional associations. 3.They are usually very accurate. (p ) 4.They appear to be very vivid to the person. 5.They usually occur due to automatic encoding. LO 6.7 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

21 21 One problem with courtroom testimony is that lawyers might phrase a question as to influence a person’s recall of a crime scene. This may be referred to as the: 1.Hindsight bias 2.Misinformation effect 3.Forgetting curve 4.Encoding failure 5.False feedback LO 6.8 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

22 22 One problem with courtroom testimony is that lawyers might phrase a question as to influence a person’s recall of a crime scene. This may be referred to as the: 1.Hindsight bias 2.Misinformation effect (p. 245) 3.Forgetting curve 4.Encoding failure 5.False feedback LO 6.8 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

23 23 According to research on Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve: 1.Forgetting is slow at first, but then speeds up as time goes on. 2.The amount of forgetting that occurs is not influenced by the amount of time after a list of words is learned. 3.Forgetting is faster for meaningful words than nonsense syllables. 4.Forgetting is very rapid within the first few hours of learning, but then decreases gradually. 5.Forgetting is greatest when the environment in which a list of words was learned is different than the environment in which it is tested. LO 6.10 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

24 24 According to research on Ebbinghaus’ forgetting curve: 1.Forgetting is slow at first, but then speeds up as time goes on. 2.The amount of forgetting that occurs is not influenced by the amount of time after a list of words is learned. 3.Forgetting is faster for meaningful words than nonsense syllables. 4.Forgetting is very rapid within the first few hours of learning, but then decreases gradually. (p ) 5.Forgetting is greatest when the environment in which a list of words was learned is different than the environment in which it is tested. LO 6.10 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

25 25 Julie first learned French, then she learned Spanish. However, she finds that often times when she speaks French, Spanish words seem to creep in. This is an example of _______________. 1.retroactive interference 2.proactive interference 3.memory trace 4.constructive processing 5.levels of processing LO 6.10 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

26 26 Julie first learned French, then she learned Spanish. However, she finds that often times when she speaks French, Spanish words seem to creep in. This is an example of _______________. 1.retroactive interference (p. 251) 2.proactive interference 3.memory trace 4.constructive processing 5.levels of processing LO 6.10 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

27 27 The area of the brain that is responsible for the process of consolidation, which occurs after learning takes place, is called: 1.Amygdala 2.Hypothalamus 3.Hippocampus 4.Thalamus 5.Frontal lobe LO 6.11 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

28 28 The area of the brain that is responsible for the process of consolidation, which occurs after learning takes place, is called: 1.Amygdala 2.Hypothalamus 3.Hippocampus (p. 252) 4.Thalamus 5.Frontal lobe LO 6.11 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

29 29 The onset of this brain disease occurs when a person starts to show symptoms of memory loss that gradually increase in severity over time, and it is the third leading cause of death in late adulthood. 1.Anterograde amnesia 2.Retrograde amnesia 3.Infantile amnesia 4.Alzheimer’s disease 5.Parkinson’s disease LO 6.12 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

30 30 The onset of this brain disease occurs when a person starts to show symptoms of memory loss, that gradually increase in severity over time, and it is the third leading cause of death in late adulthood. 1.Anterograde amnesia 2.Retrograde amnesia 3.Infantile amnesia 4.Alzheimer’s disease (p. 255) 5.Parkinson’s disease LO 6.12 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

31 Critical Thinking & Student Opinion Slides 31 Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education

32 For this demonstration, half of the students should put their heads down for the first questions, and then students will switch. Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 32

33 First half ready… Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 33

34 You have 30 seconds to memorize the following BLUE words: Mammal Farm Zoo cow zebra horse giraffe pig baboon Bird Large Small emu finch eagle robin ostrich swallow Insect Winged Flightless locust tick butterfly spider mosquito ant Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 34

35 You have 60 seconds to write down as many of those words as you can remember (in any order). There are 18 words. Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 35

36 Second half ready… Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 36

37 You have 30 seconds to memorize the following words: Ant Baboon Butterfly Cow Eagle Emu Finch Giraffe Horse Locust Mosquito Ostrich Pig Robin Spider Swallow Tick Zebra Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 37

38 You have 60 seconds to write down as many of those words as you can remember (in any order). There are 18 words. Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 38

39 EVERYONE Now, check to see how many you got correct. Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 39 Ant Baboon Butterfly Cow Eagle Emu Finch Giraffe Horse Locust Mosquito Ostrich Pig Robin Spider Swallow Tick Zebra

40 For first group only I got ___ correct. A. 1-4 B. 5-8 C D E Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 40

41 For second group only I got ___ correct. A. 1-4 B. 5-8 C D E Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 41

42 Comparison Second group: I got ___ correct. A. lower E. higher First group: I got ___ correct. A. lower E. higher Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 42

43 Trapeze Popsicle Salmon Drumstick Tomato Gunfire Elephant Mother Cottage Grasp Station Telegraph Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 43

44 Write down as many words as you can remember in any order (there are 12 words). Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 44

45 Count how many you got correct: Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 45 Trapeze Popsicle Salmon Drumstick Tomato Gunfire Elephant Mother Cottage Grasp Station Telegraph

46 I remembered A.less than 3 words total B.4-5 words total C.6-8 words total D.9-10 words total E words total Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 46

47 Of the words “elephant, mother, and cottage”, I remembered A.None B.One C.Two D.Three Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 47

48 Of the words “grasp, station, and telegraph”, I remembered A.None B.One C.Two D.Three Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 48

49 Of the words “trapeze, popsicle, salmon”, I remembered A.None B.One C.Two D.Three Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 49

50 Of the words “drumstick, tomato, gunfire”, I remembered A.None B.One C.Two D.Three Copyright © 2009, Pearson Education 50


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