Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Instruction Goals Assessment For Each Student For All Students Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction in Core Reading Instruction (2-3) Institute on Beginning.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Instruction Goals Assessment For Each Student For All Students Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction in Core Reading Instruction (2-3) Institute on Beginning."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instruction Goals Assessment For Each Student For All Students Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction in Core Reading Instruction (2-3) Institute on Beginning Reading II

2 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard ©  Oregon Department of Education  Institute for the Development of Educational Achievement, College of Education, University of Oregon  U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education Programs Acknowledgments

3 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Content Development Content developed by: Edward J. Kame’enui, Ph. D.Deborah C. Simmons, Ph. D.Professor, College of EducationUniversity of Oregon Beth Harn, Ph.D.Michael D. Coyne, Ph. D. University of OregonUniversity of Connecticut David Chard, Ph. D. University of Oregon Additional support: Patrick Kennedy-Paine Katie TateNicole Sherman-Brewer University of OregonOregon Reading First

4 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard ©  All materials are copy written and should not be reproduced or used without expressed permission of Dr. Edward J. Kame’enui or Dr. Deborah C. Simmons. Selected slides were reproduced from other sources and original references cited. Copyright

5 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Schoolwide: Each & All Prevention Oriented Scientifically Based Results Focused IBR Foundational Features: Translating Research into Practice

6 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Today’s Focus 1.Goals: What outcomes do we want for our students in our state, district, and schools? 2.Knowledge: What do we know and what guidance can we gain from scientifically based reading research? 3.Progress Monitoring Assessment: How are we doing? What is our current level of performance as a school? As a grade? As a class? As an individual student? 4.Outcome Assessment: How far do we need to go to reach our goals and outcomes? 5.Core Instruction: What are the critical components that need to be in place to reach our goals? 6.Differentiated Instruction: What more do we need to do and what instructional adjustments need to be made? IBR Guiding Questions

7 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © The objectives of today’s session are to: 1.Understand the importance of vocabulary in core reading instruction. 2.Identify methods to enhance core reading instruction. Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do

8 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Learning, as a language based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. Learners must have access to the meanings of words that teachers, or their surrogates (e.g., other adults, books, films, etc.), use to guide them into contemplating known concepts in novel ways (i.e., to learn something new). (Baker, Simmons, & Kame'enui, 1998) Beginning readers should develop a rich and functional vocabulary. The Importance of Vocabulary

9 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © The Importance of Vocabulary  Importance of vocabulary knowledge to school success, in general, and reading comprehension, in particular, is widely documented. (e.g., Becker, 1977; Anderson & Nagy, 1991)  The National Research Council (1998) and National Reading Panel (2000) recently concluded that vocabulary development is a fundamental goal for students in the early grades.  However, very little instructional time is devoted to vocabulary development in the primary grades. (Biemiller, 2001; Foorman & Schatschneider, in press)

10 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © What the Research Says About Vocabulary What we know from research:  Children enter school with meaningful differences in vocabulary knowledge as a result of differences in experiences and exposure to literacy and language activities. (Hart & Risley, 1995)  The vocabulary gap grows larger in the early grades. Children who enter with limited vocabulary knowledge become more discrepant over time from their peers who have rich vocabulary knowledge. (Biemiller & Slonim, 2001)

11 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Differences in Vocabulary Growth: Student A Student B 2 words per day 8 words per day 750 words per year 3,000 words per year What the Research Says About Vocabulary

12 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © (Bauman, Kame’enui, & Ash, 2003) What the Research Says About Vocabulary Effective vocabulary instruction: 1.Teaches students the meanings of unfamiliar words and concepts that are essential to understanding text. 2.Provides students opportunities to learn vocabulary through wide independent reading. 3.Nurtures an appreciation and consciousness of words and their use.

13 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © What the Research Says About Vocabulary Effective vocabulary instruction: Teaches the meanings of unfamiliar words The Role of Direct Vocabulary Instruction new word meanings can be taught a year through direct instruction. This is a significant proportion of the words that many students will learn. (Stahl & Shiel, 1999)

14 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Effective vocabulary instruction: Promotes wide independent reading “Research has shown that children who read even ten minutes a day outside of school experience substantially higher rates of vocabulary growth between second and fifth grade than children who do little or no reading.” (Anderson & Nagy, 1992, p. 46) The best way to foster vocabulary growth is to promote wide reading What the Research Says About Vocabulary

15 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard ©  A student in the 20th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day.  This adds up to _________words read per year.  A student in the 80th percentile reads books ______ minutes a day.  This adds up to __________ words read per year..7 21,000 1,146, What the Research Says About Vocabulary

16 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Effective vocabulary instruction: Nurtures an appreciation of words and their use word consciousness – An understanding of and interest in words, how they are used, and their importance in learning and communicating Good vocabulary teaching makes students excited about words and leads them to attend more closely to them. (Stahl & Shiel, 1999) What the Research Says About Vocabulary

17 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Ms. K: Good afternoon. Darleen: Salutations, Ms. K.! Melissa: Greetings! Daniel: Hello! Ms. K.: So, how was recess? Beth: Invigorating. Thomas: Exhausting. We played football! Laura: Delightful. There was a lovely breeze. Jorge: Abbreviated. It was too short for me! (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002, p. 116) What the Research Says About Vocabulary

18 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Vocabulary development is difficult to assess. Vocabulary Assessment However, children who are experiencing reading difficulties are also at risk for falling behind their peers in vocabulary development.  Children who learn to read easily, enjoy reading, read more, are exposed to more complex and varied vocabulary, learn the meanings of more new words, and exhibit greater comprehension. All of which results in even better reading skills.  Children who struggle with reading, become frustrated with reading, read less, encounter fewer new words, learn less vocabulary, and understand less of what they read. All of which results in increased risk of reading difficulties. (National Research Council, 1998; Stanovich, 2000)

19 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © The objectives of today’s session are to: 1.Understand the importance of vocabulary in core reading instruction. 2.Identify methods to enhance core reading instruction Objectives: What You Will Learn and Do

20 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © What we teach: Design a)Curriculum maps b)Selecting words to teach 2.How we teach: Delivery a)Demonstrate explicit steps and strategies b)Model multiple examples c)Provide multiple opportunities to practice d)Structure ample review opportunities Two Ways to Enhance Core Instruction

21 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Using the curriculum maps, read through the instructional priorities for vocabulary. Write down the high priority skills that should be the instructional focus for this year. _______________________ Design: Curriculum Maps

22 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Using the curriculum maps, read through the instructional priorities for vocabulary. Write down the high priority skills that should be the instructional focus for this year. _______________________ Design: Curriculum Maps

23 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Selecting words to teach Select 3-5 vocabulary words to teach from books you are reading aloud, from text that students are reading independently, or that are related to the content of instruction (e.g., science, social studies). Target vocabulary should include:  Words that are important for understanding the text or content (and that are not explained within the text).  Words that students will encounter often, functionally important words. (Stahl, 1986) Design: Selecting Words

24 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3 DescriptionBasic words that most children know before entering school Words that appear frequently in texts and for which students already have conceptual understanding Uncommon words that are typically associated with a specific domain Examplesclock, baby, happy sinister, fortunate, adapt isotope, peninsula, bucolic (Beck, McKeown, Kucan, 2002) Design: Selecting Words

25 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Modifications to Enhance Core Vocabulary Instruction Reviews of reading curricula indicate that core programs vary widely in the quality of vocabulary instruction. However, enhancements can make instruction more effective for more learners. Teachers can strengthen core programs by including the following instructional enhancements: 1.Demonstrate explicit steps and strategies 2.Model multiple examples 3.Provide extensive opportunities to practice 4.Structure ample review opportunities Delivery: How We Teach

26 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Teachers demonstrate explicit steps and strategies to students by presenting the meanings of words using clear, consistent and understandable language. 2.Teachers model multiple examples of vocabulary words by modeling both a simple definition or synonym and then modeling the definition within the context of a sentence or story. 3.Teachers provide students with extensive opportunities to practice using vocabulary words that foster a deeper and more complex level of understanding. 4.Teachers structure ample review opportunities that allow students to discuss words multiple times both within and across lessons. Core vocabulary instruction is most effective when: Delivery: How We Teach

27 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Core vocabulary instruction is most effective when: 1.Teachers demonstrate explicit steps and strategies to students by presenting the meanings of words using clear, consistent and understandable language. 2.Teachers model multiple examples of vocabulary words by modeling both a simple definition or synonym and then modeling the definition within the context of a sentence or story. 3.Teachers provide students with extensive opportunities to practice using vocabulary words that foster a deeper and more complex level of understanding. 4.Teachers structure ample review opportunities that allow students to discuss words multiple times both within and across lessons. Delivery: How We Teach

28 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Teachers should present meanings of target words through instruction that is direct and unambiguous. Meanings should be presented using clear, consistent, and understandable wording. Examples: sturdy: soundly constructed or constituted cottage: smallish frame dwelling sturdy: strong cottage: a little house Demonstrate Explicit Steps & Strategies

29 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Core vocabulary instruction is most effective when: 1.Teachers demonstrate explicit steps and strategies to students by presenting the meanings of words using clear, consistent and understandable language. 2.Teachers model multiple examples of vocabulary words by modeling both a simple definition or synonym and then modeling the definition within the context of a sentence or story. 3.Teachers provide students with extensive opportunities to practice using vocabulary words that foster a deeper and more complex level of understanding. 4.Teachers structure ample review opportunities that allow students to discuss words multiple times both within and across lessons. Delivery: How We Teach

30 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © When introducing a new vocabulary word, teachers should model both a simple definition or synonym and then model the definition within the context of a sentence or story. Example: (From Where the Wild Things Are) Let the wild rumpus start! “Rumpus means ‘wild play’. Now I’ll say the sentence with the words that mean the same as rumpus. ‘Let the wild play start.’” Model Multiple Examples

31 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Core vocabulary instruction is most effective when: 1.Teachers demonstrate explicit steps and strategies to students by presenting the meanings of words using clear, consistent and understandable language. 2.Teachers model multiple examples of vocabulary words by modeling both a simple definition or synonym and then modeling the definition within the context of a sentence or story. 3.Teachers provide students with extensive opportunities to practice using vocabulary words that foster a deeper and more complex level of understanding. 4.Teachers structure ample review opportunities that allow students to discuss words multiple times both within and across lessons. Delivery: How We Teach

32 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Teachers should provide children with multiple opportunities to discuss target words in extended discourse before and after reading. Additionally, teachers should provide children with structured discrimination and generalization tasks that challenge them to process word meanings at a deeper and more complex level. Ways to provide varied and rich opportunities to practice  Finding a synonym or antonym  Making up a novel sentence with the word  Classifying the word with other words (e.g., concept maps, word maps, semantic maps)  Relating the definition to one’s own experience Opportunities to Practice

33 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Examples that Encourage Deep Processing: Which word goes with fabulous - o.k. or super? Why does super go with fabulous? Is it fabulous if you fall and scrape your knee? What would it be? Maria thought her car was fabulous because... The family had a fabulous time at the park. How could a family have a fabulous time? When have you had a fabulous time? Is a masterpiece fabulous? Why? The concert was the best he had ever heard. Every note seemed perfect. Am I talking about fabulous or discover? Opportunities to Practice

34 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Examples that Encourage Deep Processing: Opportunities to Practice

35 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Core vocabulary instruction is most effective when: 1.Teachers demonstrate explicit steps and strategies to students by presenting the meanings of words using clear, consistent and understandable language. 2.Teachers model multiple examples of vocabulary words by modeling both a simple definition or synonym and then modeling the definition within the context of a sentence or story. 3.Teachers provide students with extensive opportunities to practice using vocabulary words that foster a deeper and more complex level of understanding. 4.Teachers structure ample review opportunities that allow students to discuss words multiple times both within and across lessons. Delivery: How We Teach

36 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Curriculum Example: Developing Story Vocabulary  Print each word below on an index card. Display each card and read the word, then have the children repeat it. Then read the word again and provide the definition with students repeating.  Have children open their books to page 37 for sentence reading. Have them read the first sentence and identify the vocabulary word. Call on volunteers to re-read the sentence replacing it with the definition. Repeat with remaining sentences. breaks—splits into partsgrew—got bigger sown—plantedbrewed—boiled with tea leaves Evaluating A Lesson

37 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Rating the Lesson Examine the instructional language. Does the lesson demonstrate explicit steps and strategies? Count the number of modeled examples. Does the lesson model multiple examples? Count the number of opportunities to practice. Does the lesson provides multiple opportunities to practice? How well do you feel the lesson will meet the needs of the students? Evaluating A Lesson

38 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Areas Targeted for Enhancement CriteriaHow to Enhance Explicit steps & strategies (NA) Number of modeled examples Add modeled examples. Opportunities to practice Provide students with additional opportunities to practice using and discussing words at a deeper level. Fix-Up for the Lesson

39 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Curriculum Example: Developing Story Vocabulary  Print each word below on an index card. Display each card and read the word, then have the children repeat it. Then read the word again and provide the definition with students repeating.  Have children open their books to page 37 for sentence reading. “I’ll read the first sentence. After the seeds were sown, Jack went inside for the night. I noticed that one of our new words was in that sentence – sown. Sown means planted. Now I’ll read the sentence again with our definition. After the seeds were planted, Jack went inside for the night. (Lesson repeats same modeling procedure with the next sentence.) Fix-Up for the Lesson breaks—splits into partsgrew—got bigger sown—plantedbrewed—boiled with tea leaves

40 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Curriculum Example: Developing Story Vocabulary  “Now its your turn. Lets read the next sentence together. That night, the beanstalk grew. Raise your hand if you noticed one of our new words.” (Have students identify the vocabulary word and provide the definition.) “Yes, that’s right. Grew means got bigger. Now lets read the sentence with our definition. That night, the beanstalk got bigger.”  (Use the following questions to facilitate discussion of the word grew. Encourage students to use the word grew in their responses. Ensure that all students have an opportunity to contribute to the discussion.) “Have any of you every planted anything that grew? What?” “The (tree, puppy, fire, etc.) grew because…” “Do you think a (rock, river, building) ever grew? Why or why not?” “Before Jack knew it, the beanstalk was taller than the house. Am I talking about brewed or grew?” (Lesson repeats same practice procedure with the remaining words.) Fix-Up for the Lesson

41 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Fix-Up for the Lesson Enhancements:  Modeled multiple examples of providing the definition and using it in the context of the sentence.  Provided students with opportunities to practice providing the definition and using it in the context of the sentence. Facilitated using and discussing words at a deeper level. Curriculum Example: Developing Story Vocabulary

42 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Curriculum Example: Preteaching Story Vocabulary  Display Transparency 5 to introduce and discuss the following words:  Tease: to disturb by persistent irritating or provoking: The brother teased his sister with a piece of candy.  Stiff: something not easily bent; rigid: The piece of plastic pipe was very stiff.  Seriously: thoughtfully; sincerely: My dad said he would seriously consider letting me go on the trip.  Have students read the word, definition, and sentence. Ask for volunteers to use the target word in their own sentence.  Have students enter new vocabulary words in the notebooks with a sentence. Evaluating A Lesson

43 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Rating the Lesson Examine the instructional language. Does the lesson demonstrate explicit steps and strategies? Count the number of modeled examples. Does the lesson model multiple examples? Count the number of opportunities to practice. Does the lesson provides multiple opportunities to practice? How well do you feel the lesson will meet the needs of the students? Evaluating A Lesson

44 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Fix-Up for the Lesson  What skill is being taught: ____________  Is it a high priority skill? Yes No Areas Targeted for Enhancement CriteriaHow to Enhance Explicit steps & strategies Ensure that definitions are clear and easily understandable. Number of modeled examples Model using the definition in the context of the sentence. Opportunities to practiceProvide students with opportunities to use the definition in the context of the sentence. Provide practice using and discussing words at a deeper level.

45 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Fix-Up for the Lesson Curriculum Example: Preteaching Story Vocabulary  Display Transparency 5 to introduce the following words:  Tease: kept bothering: The brother teased his sister with a piece of candy. (Read the definition and the sentence. Then read the sentence with the definition. The brother kept bothering his sister with a piece of candy.)  Have students read the word, definition, and sentence. Ask for volunteers to use the definition in the sentence. (Lesson repeats same modeling and practice procedure with the remaining words.)

46 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard © Curriculum Example: Preteaching Story Vocabulary Fix-Up for the Lesson Enhancements:  Rewrote definition to make more clear and understandable  Provided students with opportunities to practice providing the definition and using it in the context of the sentence. How could you enhance students’ opportunities to use and discuss words at a deeper level of understanding? ___________________________ ________________________________________

47 Coyne, Kame'enui, & Chard ©  Using your adopted core reading materials, identify an initial lesson teaching vocabulary and complete the included Application Activity.  What things do you want to follow-up on within your team reading meetings? Evaluating A Lesson in Your Core Program


Download ppt "Instruction Goals Assessment For Each Student For All Students Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction in Core Reading Instruction (2-3) Institute on Beginning."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google