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© Boardworks Ltd of 20 © Boardworks Ltd of 20 Food Technology Social and Economic Issues These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Learning objectives © Boardworks Ltd of 20 To understand about the moral, social, cultural and environmental implications of food production. To learn about what considerations food manufacturers must take into account when developing food products.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Do all people have the same needs? There are thousands of different food products since people have different needs.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 What kinds of needs do people have? nutritional needs (for example, a low-fat product or one that contains two portions of vegetables) financial needs – people have different amounts of money to spend on food (for example, some people choose to spend large amounts of their income on food, buying finest brands while others prefer to spend less and buy economy brands) lifestyle needs – how much time they have or are prepared to spend to make a meal social, moral and ethical needs (vegetarianism, fair trade food, organic foods or food bought locally to save food miles). People choose products depending on their:
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 More and more people are caring about the provenance of the food they buy. Provenance means: The provenance of food where the food comes from who makes the food how the food is made and when the food is made. This might mean that the food is organic and GM free, a fair trade product or just a carefully sourced food such as one bought in a farm shop.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Fairtrade ingredients are bought directly from the farmer, cutting out the middle men. The price is set at a fixed rate which covers production costs as well as leaving a bit extra to reinvest or use for community projects. Fairtrade guarantees a better deal for producers in the developing world. What is fair and ethical trading? Ethical trading means that the basic rights of the employees of third world countries are respected. Employees do not work twelve-hour shifts for a pittance. Food suppliers such as supermarkets require food manufacturers to follow an ‘ethical trading and responsible sourcing policy’ ensuring that no child labour is used nor ingredients grown from deforested areas.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Organic describes a system of sustainable farming and food production which aims to keep the land it grows on healthy and fertile, so it will be able to be used for years and years to come. No artificial chemicals (fertilizers or pesticides) are used on the food. What is organic food? Organic is a term defined by law to make sure organic food is grown and manufactured under a strict set of standards. Organic farms take two years to convert from conventional farming. Soil fertility is maintained with the use of crop rotation (like farming in the middle ages). An important part of being an organic farm is conservation of the environment.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Organic food is not covered in poisonous chemicals – an apple can have over 20 chemicals on its skin. Organic food may contain more nutrients, e.g. organic milk often has much more Omega 3 fatty acid in it. By buying organic food, it is possible to be certain that the food has not been genetically modified. Conventionally-farmed animals are often injected with antibiotics, hormones and other medicines even when they are not ill. Some people say organic food tastes best. Organic farming supports the wildlife in the area. Conventional farming can damage the health of farm workers due to the large use of fertilizers and pesticides. What are the benefits of organic food?
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Organic or inorganic food?
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Should we be bothered that the green beans we buy from the supermarket in March come from Kenya in Africa or that the asparagus we buy in September comes from Peru? How much petrol is used to transport these two foods thousands of miles and how much pollution is produced? So maybe food miles – the distance a food travels from where it has grown to where it is eaten – does matter! If we want to have a wide choice of food products in shops, food has to be transported around the world. No matter how food is transported – air, sea, train or road – they all use oil. Every time we eat, we also ‘eat oil’. On average we use ten calories of oil for one calorie of food produced. Do food miles matter?
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Seasonal food What fruit could you use to make a winter fruit salad? What vegetables could you use for a winter salad?
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 There are historical and cultural factors that influence people’s food choices. Traditional foods Fifty years ago, everyone in the UK ate traditional foods such as roast beef and vegetables, apple crumble, cottage pie, lamb hotpot, steak and kidney pie, lemon meringue pie and fish and chips. Most of these traditional dishes actually originated from one area.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Where does each dish originate from?
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 The UK is a multicultural society with many families having origins from other parts of the world such as India, China and parts of Africa and the Caribbean. Some families originated from other countries in Europe such as Poland, Italy and Portugal. Cultural foods Cheap air travel, more disposable income and more leisure time has also had an effect on the food we eat. Today, many people have a multicultural diet.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Dishes from around the world
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Herbs and spices
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Food manufacturers must produce foods that people want to buy but that also make them a profit so they do not go out of business. They must match their products to people’s financial, nutritional, ethical and cultural lifestyle needs. At the same time, however, they must match their own production and cost needs. They must also make the product look and taste good. Needs of the food manufacturer
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Large-scale production of food entails changes to standard recipes: Production needs some ingredients might need to be changed – in the mass production of biscuits, oil can easily be transported into the mixing vats in the same way (through pipes) as flour and sugar; margarine normally needs weighing out manually and being put into the mixing vat extra ingredients might need to be added – a little oil is added in jam-making to reduce ‘foaming’; glycerine is added in cake-making to improve the moisture content additives might be added to improve a product’s shelf life, to allow the product to be transported to a retail outlet or to improve the product’s colour.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Food manufacturers must be careful with the cost of ingredients, especially expensive ingredients. Cost needs They can experiment with the proportions of ingredients – for example, how much tuna is needed in a tuna fish pie and how much of a cheaper white fish can be used. They must consider the use of bulk ingredients (inexpensive ingredients that increase the volume or bulk of a final product) – water is added to some products; textured vegetable protein (TVP) is cheaper than meat and can be used with meat to reduce cost (for example, in a cottage pie); breadcrumbs or rusk are used in sausages, burgers, stuffing and puddings; potatoes and other starchy foods such as rice and pulses are used in dishes such as soup, pasties and casseroles.
© Boardworks Ltd of 20 Key points © Boardworks Ltd of 20 There are a range of considerations which people might take into account when they are buying food products – these considerations are based on financial, nutritional, lifestyle, social, moral and ethical needs. Some people care about the provenance of their food. Historical and cultural factors may also influence people in their choice of food products. Food manufacturers need to consider all the different needs of consumers and also their own needs.
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