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Implementing Positive Behavior Supports in Juvenile Corrections C. Michael Nelson Suana Wessendorf David Houchins Megan McGlynn.

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Presentation on theme: "Implementing Positive Behavior Supports in Juvenile Corrections C. Michael Nelson Suana Wessendorf David Houchins Megan McGlynn."— Presentation transcript:

1 Implementing Positive Behavior Supports in Juvenile Corrections C. Michael Nelson Suana Wessendorf David Houchins Megan McGlynn

2 Overview Rationale for application of Positive Behavior Support in juvenile corrections Rationale for application of Positive Behavior Support in juvenile corrections Overview of Positive Behavior Support Overview of Positive Behavior Support Implementation at Iowa Juvenile Home Implementation at Iowa Juvenile Home Issues identified through analysis of focus group data Issues identified through analysis of focus group data Group discussion of issues, strategies Group discussion of issues, strategies Description of the juvenile justice/positive behavior support initiative Description of the juvenile justice/positive behavior support initiative

3 Why PBS in Juvenile Corrections? Is proving to be an effective and efficient alternative to harsh, inconsistent, and ineffective disciplinary methods in public schools Is proving to be an effective and efficient alternative to harsh, inconsistent, and ineffective disciplinary methods in public schools Discipline provided in many juvenile justice facilities is not any better than in most public schools--often worse, because of inconsistency Discipline provided in many juvenile justice facilities is not any better than in most public schools--often worse, because of inconsistency Decisions about disciplinary systems in juvenile corrections tend not to be linked to data on youth behavior Decisions about disciplinary systems in juvenile corrections tend not to be linked to data on youth behavior

4 What is Positive Behavior Support? PBS is a broad range of systemic & individualized strategies for achieving important social & learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior.

5 PBIS “Big Idea” Goal is to establish host environments that support adoption & sustain use of evidence-based practices Goal is to establish host environments that support adoption & sustain use of evidence-based practices (Zins & Ponti, 1990) (Zins & Ponti, 1990)

6 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Decision Making Supporting Youth Behavior Positive Behavior Support

7 Discipline is…. The actions caregivers take to increase youth success (Charles, 1980). Prevention Rules, Routines, Arrangements Reaction Positive and Negative Consequences

8 Non-classroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems

9 Education Program Housing Units Other Programs Facility-wide System Positive Behavior Support Systems in JJS Programs

10 Key word: PREVENTION Primary Primary Reduce # new cases Reduce # new cases Secondary Secondary Reduce # current cases Reduce # current cases Tertiary Tertiary Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases Reduce complications, intensity, severity of current cases

11 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

12 Does this model apply to programs in the JJS? Does the proportion of incarcerated youth who are discipline problems approximate that found in public schools? √ ~80%-- 1 or 0 discipline reports per month √ 10-15% per month √ 1-5%-- multiple discipline reports Does the proportion of incarcerated youth who are discipline problems approximate that found in public schools? √ ~80%-- 1 or 0 discipline reports per month √ 10-15% per month √ 1-5%-- multiple discipline reports

13 Program-Wide Behavior Support System 1. Commitment by >80% of program staff to preventative approach to problem behavior 2. Preventive program-wide systems of proactive discipline Available to all youth, & Available to all youth, & To which >80% of youth respond predictably & successfully To which >80% of youth respond predictably & successfully

14 Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support System 3. Facility-wide leadership team to oversee program-wide PBS & discipline 4. Administrative support, leadership, & participation 5. Data-based decision making

15 What data are useful for decision-making? USE WHAT YOU HAVE USE WHAT YOU HAVE Behavior Reports (BRs) Behavior Reports (BRs) Measure of overall environment. Data are affected by (a) youth behavior, (b) staff behavior, (c) administrative context Measure of overall environment. Data are affected by (a) youth behavior, (b) staff behavior, (c) administrative context An under-estimate of what is really happening An under-estimate of what is really happening Collect & analyze # BRs per day per month Collect & analyze # BRs per day per month Administrative segregation, detention Administrative segregation, detention Other? Other?

16 Questions to Drive Data- Based Disciplinary Planning How many BRs occur Per day? Per week? Per month? How many BRs occur Per day? Per week? Per month? Where do behavior problems occur? Location Time of day Activity Where do behavior problems occur? Location Time of day Activity How are incidents distributed among youth? How are incidents distributed among youth?

17 Focus on Program-Wide System if: More than 35% of youth in the program receive 1 or more BR More than 35% of youth in the program receive 1 or more BR Average number of BRs per youth is greater than 2.5 Average number of BRs per youth is greater than 2.5

18 Focus on Setting-Specific Systems if More than 35% of BRs come from a particular setting (recreation area, lunchroom, classrooms, living units) More than 35% of BRs come from a particular setting (recreation area, lunchroom, classrooms, living units) More than 15% of youth who receive a BR are referred from a particular setting or settings. More than 15% of youth who receive a BR are referred from a particular setting or settings.

19 Focus on Individual Student Systems Targeted Group Interventions Targeted Group Interventions If 10 or more youth have 10+ BRs If 10 or more youth have 10+ BRs Example (daily check-in, check-out) Example (daily check-in, check-out) Intensive Individual Interventions Intensive Individual Interventions Youth with multiple needs Youth with multiple needs Intense, individualized support Intense, individualized support Wrap Around Wrap Around Personal Futures Planning Personal Futures Planning Functional Assessment Functional Assessment

20 All Staff Agree to A consistent set of rules for youth behavior A consistent set of rules for youth behavior Consistent routines, especially for problem areas Consistent routines, especially for problem areas Alter physical arrangements associated with problem areas Alter physical arrangements associated with problem areas

21 Teach and Reinforce Rules, expectations, and routines across all settings Rules, expectations, and routines across all settings Reward compliance Reward compliance Treat misbehavior as an error--emphasize correction over punishment Treat misbehavior as an error--emphasize correction over punishment Pre-correct--teach routines to prevent problem behaviors in settings where they are likely to occur Pre-correct--teach routines to prevent problem behaviors in settings where they are likely to occur

22 Emphasize the Positive Increase ratio of positive to negative staff to youth interactions At least 4 to 1 At least 4 to 1 Positive event/interaction every 5 minutes Positive event/interaction every 5 minutes Follow correction for rule violation with positive reinforcer for rule following Follow correction for rule violation with positive reinforcer for rule following

23 The Iowa Behavioral Alliance: A Coalition of Partners to Improve Behavior and Learning for Students Suana Wessendorf Iowa Department of Education

24 Iowa Behavioral Alliance

25 Three Primary Aims All Iowa children and youth are healthy and socially competent. All Iowa children and youth are healthy and socially competent. All Iowa children and youth succeed in school, and are prepared for productive adulthood, and All Iowa children and youth succeed in school, and are prepared for productive adulthood, and All youth have the benefit of safe and supportive families, schools and communities. All youth have the benefit of safe and supportive families, schools and communities.

26 Cross-cutting Dimensions Multicultural Considerations Multicultural Considerations Comprehensive Professional Development Comprehensive Professional Development

27 Iowa Behavioral Alliance (Initial Partners) Drake University Drake University (School of Education and Resource Center) (School of Education and Resource Center) Iowa State University Iowa State University (Special Education, Early Childhood, RISE, 4-H Youth Development) (Special Education, Early Childhood, RISE, 4-H Youth Development) Iowa Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health Iowa Federation of Families for Children’s Mental Health

28 Iowa Behavioral Alliance (Additional Partners, in part!) RRTC (U. of Oregon) RRTC (U. of Oregon) Parent Training Information Center Parent Training Information Center Urban Education Network Urban Education Network Area Education Agencies Area Education Agencies Iowa Department of Education Iowa Department of Education Others (SAI, ISEA, IASB) Others (SAI, ISEA, IASB)

29 Three Components of the Project Positive Behavior Support Positive Behavior Support Mental Health for Children Mental Health for Children Dropout Prevention Dropout Prevention

30 PBS Outcomes PBS implementation in 42 sites PBS implementation in 42 sites Inclusion of families and communities in each site Inclusion of families and communities in each site Awareness of PBS on broad scale Awareness of PBS on broad scale Expansion district-wide in 8 sites (model/demonstration) Expansion district-wide in 8 sites (model/demonstration) Evaluation efforts (SWIS, SET) Evaluation efforts (SWIS, SET)

31 A Philosophy for education and treatment Iowa Juvenile Home Toledo, IA (641) Craig Rosen Principal

32 Needs of Juvenile Population Determine Implementation Focus Youth at Iowa Juvenile Home: greater need for specialized and more intensive individualized programming. greater need for specialized and more intensive individualized programming. Most students in the red part of the triangle are operating under escape motivated behaviors. Most students in the red part of the triangle are operating under escape motivated behaviors. 157% population turn over in 03/04—Average population was 94; Total students served was % population turn over in 03/04—Average population was 94; Total students served was 221

33 Data decision model used at the Iowa Juvenile Home   Primary Support—0-1 Class Removal (Green portion of triangle)   Secondary Support—2-5 Class Removals (Yellow portion of triangle)   Tertiary Support—6+ Class Removals (Red Portion of Triangle)

34 32% Primary Prevention: -General Education -8:1 Student to teacher ratio -School-Wide PBS -Problem Solving Process -AEA Support Services -Vocational Programs Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: -Level II Services -5:1 Student to teacher ratio -Limited integration into general education classes -Targeted Interventions Tertiary Prevention: -Level III Services - 3:1 Student to teacher ratio -Functional Behavior Assessments -Highest level of supervision and security Continuum of School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports IJH Primary Prevention: -Level I Services -8:1 Student to teacher ratio -School-Wide PBS -Paraprofessional support ~ 25% Secondary Prevention ~46% Tertiary Prevention ~29% Primary Prevention CONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT CONTINUUM OFSCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIORSUPPORT

35 Alternative Clinical Setting for Females Created a more structured environment in the clinical department for 4-6 females. Program was implemented in March 03 This data shows a 46% reduction in restraints over a twelve-month period. Reduction of 15 hours per month for one staff to be involved in a restraint. (Most restraints involve 2 or more people.)

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37 Alternative Classroom for Males Created a more structured environment for 4- 6 male students. Program was implemented at the end of December 03. Data shows a 37% reduction in males being removed from class over a 3-month period. All students are doing better academically

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40 The Ecological Congruence of PBS in JJ Settings: Conceptualizations from the Field David Houchins Georgia State University

41 Methodology Methodology Constant comparative design Constant comparative design

42 Ecological Congruence Houchins & Jolivette

43 Ecological Congruence Issues related to… Issues related to… Changing from a correctional model Changing from a correctional model Using reinforcers that might be contraband Using reinforcers that might be contraband Working with security personnel Working with security personnel Training personnel who work around the clock Training personnel who work around the clock

44 Ecological Congruence “These concepts (PBS) don’t seem to be alien concepts to what you have been doing. A major barrier is when the state imposes a rigid correctional model as the expectation.” (administrators) “These concepts (PBS) don’t seem to be alien concepts to what you have been doing. A major barrier is when the state imposes a rigid correctional model as the expectation.” (administrators) “Barrier is communicating and coordinating across staff in the cottage or between cottages and school. Night staff may still operate under a control model. It would be good if night staff could participate with our group. Kids need to work on their relationships with night staff.” (clinical staff) “Barrier is communicating and coordinating across staff in the cottage or between cottages and school. Night staff may still operate under a control model. It would be good if night staff could participate with our group. Kids need to work on their relationships with night staff.” (clinical staff) “In some settings identifying reinforcers that are not contraband may be a challenge. Don’t overlook some fairly basic objects (greeting cards). Non-tangibles can also be important such as time with staff.” (administrators) “In some settings identifying reinforcers that are not contraband may be a challenge. Don’t overlook some fairly basic objects (greeting cards). Non-tangibles can also be important such as time with staff.” (administrators)

45 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Houchins & Jolivette

46 Role Clarity Issues related to… Issues related to… Being ambiguous about role Being ambiguous about role Being conflicted about power Being conflicted about power Working with the interventionist Working with the interventionist Handling conflicting policies Handling conflicting policies

47 Role Clarity “Issues of power. In the long-run kids are more involved. You really aren’t giving up power you are gaining.” (clinical staff) “Issues of power. In the long-run kids are more involved. You really aren’t giving up power you are gaining.” (clinical staff) “Some ambiguity in how we are operating.” (teachers) “Some ambiguity in how we are operating.” (teachers) “We are putting up with some things we didn’t tolerate before.” (teachers) “We are putting up with some things we didn’t tolerate before.” (teachers)

48 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Philosophical shift & agreement Houchins & Jolivette

49 Philosophical Shift and Agreement Issues related to… Issues related to… Changing overall philosophy Changing overall philosophy Being in the middle of the change process Being in the middle of the change process Making PBS “natural” Making PBS “natural” Being conflicted when the old system is quicker and easier for addressing student behavior Being conflicted when the old system is quicker and easier for addressing student behavior Incorporating other models into a PBS model Incorporating other models into a PBS model

50 Philosophical Shift and Agreement “Moving away from an “I gotcha model.” (administrators) “Moving away from an “I gotcha model.” (administrators) “In our unit we had to change our philosophy in how we approach the children. How do we change so we don’t overly focus on the history of what has happened? How do we look at the positive qualities, not just the problems…? One of the most difficult sells here is the perception of some that we are not holding students accountable for behavior.” (clinical staff) “In our unit we had to change our philosophy in how we approach the children. How do we change so we don’t overly focus on the history of what has happened? How do we look at the positive qualities, not just the problems…? One of the most difficult sells here is the perception of some that we are not holding students accountable for behavior.” (clinical staff) “As you make the shift you have people who want to work in strength based in times of crisis we revert to control.” (administrators) “As you make the shift you have people who want to work in strength based in times of crisis we revert to control.” (administrators)

51 Philosophical Shift and Agreement “We have identified kids with unique needs and programmed accordingly. We used to be compliance oriented. Now we are looking at what is happening and using skills such as teaching and coaching. The whole milieu has changed to how can I help rather than how can I catch you at what you are doing wrong.” (clinical staff) “We have identified kids with unique needs and programmed accordingly. We used to be compliance oriented. Now we are looking at what is happening and using skills such as teaching and coaching. The whole milieu has changed to how can I help rather than how can I catch you at what you are doing wrong.” (clinical staff) “It is hard for us to give up old ways.” (teachers) “It is hard for us to give up old ways.” (teachers)

52 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Philosophical shift & agreement Cache of proactive/preventative strategies Houchins & Jolivette

53 Cache of Proactive/Preventative Strategies Issues related to… Issues related to… Looking for the positive instead of the negative Looking for the positive instead of the negative Finding positive behaviors to reinforce Finding positive behaviors to reinforce Having a preventative mindset Having a preventative mindset

54 Cache of Proactive/Preventative Strategies “I think how it got in cottages is that we became active with school staff and saw how this would work in cottages. We started with informal training, training on FBAs. Part of the culture element is the Circle of Courage that is part of cottage and individual planning. When work is going on in cottage we are centering on the skills that are being worked on.” (clinical staff) “I think how it got in cottages is that we became active with school staff and saw how this would work in cottages. We started with informal training, training on FBAs. Part of the culture element is the Circle of Courage that is part of cottage and individual planning. When work is going on in cottage we are centering on the skills that are being worked on.” (clinical staff) “In institution serving females acknowledgement may be particularly important. The FBA model can lead to more tangible payoffs when needed.” (administrators) “In institution serving females acknowledgement may be particularly important. The FBA model can lead to more tangible payoffs when needed.” (administrators)

55 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Consistent Practices Philosophical shift & agreement Cache of proactive/preventative strategies Houchins & Jolivette

56 Consistent Practices Issues related to… Issues related to… Being consistent across settings Being consistent across settings Being consistent across personnel Being consistent across personnel Being consistent across time Being consistent across time

57 Consistent Practices “What I find attractive is the integrating aspects of this. It presents a coherent model that can spread across the campus and various roles of persons in program.” (administrators) “What I find attractive is the integrating aspects of this. It presents a coherent model that can spread across the campus and various roles of persons in program.” (administrators) “We are working on consistent expectations school- wide. We get started. We have set expectations under aspects of Circle of Courage. We are also talking about what this looks like.” (teachers) “We are working on consistent expectations school- wide. We get started. We have set expectations under aspects of Circle of Courage. We are also talking about what this looks like.” (teachers)

58 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Consistent Practices Philosophical shift & agreement Cache of proactive/preventative strategies Logistics Houchins & Jolivette

59 Logistics Issues related to… Issues related to… Having enough time for… Having enough time for… Training Training Collaboration, communication, and coordination Collaboration, communication, and coordination Change Change Personal awareness of the change process Personal awareness of the change process

60 Logistics “How many staff and ability to meet the mission.” (administrators) “How many staff and ability to meet the mission.” (administrators) “Need more staff and energy.” (teachers) “Need more staff and energy.” (teachers) “Time.” (teachers) “Time.” (teachers) “There may be a significant amount of time associated with completing an FBA. It is a time concern. This should be better as we get more staff in our school program.” (teachers) “There may be a significant amount of time associated with completing an FBA. It is a time concern. This should be better as we get more staff in our school program.” (teachers)

61 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Consistent Practices Philosophical shift & agreement Cache of proactive/preventative strategies Logistics Data-based decision making Houchins & Jolivette

62 Data-base Decision Making Issues related to… Issues related to… Using data to make decisions Using data to make decisions Valuing data Valuing data Having all personnel on board with the use of data Having all personnel on board with the use of data

63 Data-based Decision Making “There are still naysayers but the data and SWIS system is important in showing how this program is working. An employee may be resistant but data shows improvement. Implications for significant improvement.” (administrators) “There are still naysayers but the data and SWIS system is important in showing how this program is working. An employee may be resistant but data shows improvement. Implications for significant improvement.” (administrators) “There may be a need for a separate SWIS system for programs such as ours.” (administrators) “There may be a need for a separate SWIS system for programs such as ours.” (administrators) “Data can be shared with cottages.” (teachers) “Data can be shared with cottages.” (teachers)

64 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Consistent Practices Philosophical shift & agreement Cache of proactive/preventative strategies Logistics Data decision making Achievement outcomes Houchins & Jolivette

65 Achievement Outcomes Issues related to… Issues related to… Demonstrating a relationship between PBS and academics Demonstrating a relationship between PBS and academics Addressing the concern that PBS takes away from academics Addressing the concern that PBS takes away from academics

66 Achievement Outcomes “Turnover rate of youth is also a challenge in measuring academic growth over a period of time.” (administrators) “Turnover rate of youth is also a challenge in measuring academic growth over a period of time.” (administrators) “A focus on trust and interactions with kids. It does take teachers somewhat away from traditional classroom activities. It focuses on relationship development but there is an academic tradeoff here.” (teachers) “A focus on trust and interactions with kids. It does take teachers somewhat away from traditional classroom activities. It focuses on relationship development but there is an academic tradeoff here.” (teachers)

67 Ecological Congruence Role Clarity Consistent Practices Philosophical shift & agreement Cache of proactive/preventative strategies Logistics Data decision making Achievement outcomes Houchins & Jolivette

68 Participant Discussion: Issues, Obstacles, and Strategies Megan McGlynn Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections

69 How Juvenile Programs Differ from Public Schools 24-hour day 24-hour day Multidisciplinary staff Multidisciplinary staff Primary focus is security Primary focus is security Education personnel not in charge of discipline Education personnel not in charge of discipline Others? Others?

70 Issues and Obstacles Belief that incarceration shouldn’t be “positive” Belief that incarceration shouldn’t be “positive” Data on youth behavior aren’t systematically collected or used for decision-making Data on youth behavior aren’t systematically collected or used for decision-making Data aren’t centrally collected or analyzed Data aren’t centrally collected or analyzed Staff don’t communicate across disciplines Staff don’t communicate across disciplines

71 Issues and Obstacles (continued) Preference for complex, multi-level “treatment” curricula Preference for complex, multi-level “treatment” curricula Disproportionate number of youth with disabilities (>30%) Disproportionate number of youth with disabilities (>30%) Others? Others?

72 Strategies: Lessons Learned in Iowa 1. Start small--single program within a facility 2. Get support from state administration--state dep’t of juvenile justice, state juvenile justice council, etc. 3. Link to an ongoing statewide behavioral initiative--Iowa Behavioral Alliance 4. Incorporate a data collection and decision model-- SWIS 5. Fit into existing overall treatment plan--Circle of Courage

73 Your Ideas and Recommendations

74 The Juvenile Corrections PBS Initiative Identify and observe programs where PBS is being implemented Identify and observe programs where PBS is being implemented Develop a blueprint/self-assessment tools to guide implementation of PBS in programs for juveniles Develop a blueprint/self-assessment tools to guide implementation of PBS in programs for juveniles Establish a network of trainers/coaches to facilitate implementation Establish a network of trainers/coaches to facilitate implementation Evaluate impact of PBS in juvenile programs Evaluate impact of PBS in juvenile programs

75 Next Steps Team identifies sites in which PBS is being implemented: barriers, issues, & strategies Team identifies sites in which PBS is being implemented: barriers, issues, & strategies Develop initial drafts of assessment tools Develop initial drafts of assessment tools Create an implementation blueprint Create an implementation blueprint

76 Your Questions, Suggestions, & Comments C. Michael Nelson, Ed.D. National Center for Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice, National Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support C. Michael Nelson, Ed.D. National Center for Education, Disability, and Juvenile Justice, National Center for Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Suana Wessendorf, M.S.. Iowa Department of Education Suana Wessendorf, M.S.. Iowa Department of Education David Houchins, Ph.D. Georgia State University David Houchins, Ph.D. Georgia State University Megan McGlynn, Ph.D. Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections Megan McGlynn, Ph.D. Arizona Department of Juvenile Corrections


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