2 1. In the United States, the change from the "cottage system" to the "factory system" first took place in which of the following industries?a. thread spinningb. hide tanningc. cloth weavingd. iron forgingIn early industrial days, cloth weaving was originally a "cottage" industry because spinning machinery to produce thread was developed first, but the machinery to weave the thread into cloth was not invented until later. Samuel Slater had memorized plans for spinning machinery in Great Britain.
3 2. From which country did most pre-Civil War immigrants come? a. Italyb. Irelandc. Russiad. SpainThe influx of Irish immigrants was particularly heavy during the Irish Potato Famine of the late 1840s. Some native-born Americans, who were predominantly Protestant, objected to the Catholic religious beliefs of the Irish. Some of these, called nativists, wanted Congress to block Irish immigration to America.
4 3. The "nativist" movement of the 1840s, which gave rise to the Know-Nothing Party of the 1850s, supporteda. abolition of slaveryb. popular sovereigntyc. a halt to immigrationd. fugitive slave lawsResentment by some Protestants fueled the nativist movement. They were concerned about the increased immigration of Catholics and had fears that immigrants were taking jobs from native-born Americans.
5 4. Between 1800 and 1840 the number of work hours needed to produce 100 bushels of wheat dropped from 373 to For corn it dropped from 30 to 25 hours. The most probable explanation for this change isa. better fertilizerb. larger farmsc. more machineryd. more farmersBetween 1800 and 1840 the cast-iron plow was introduced, along with the reaper and the steel-blade plowshare. These inventions helped farmers produce more in less time.
6 a. He applied the factory system to the manufacture of steamboats. 5. How did Eli Whitney help to push forward the Industrial Revolution in the United States?a. He applied the factory system to the manufacture of steamboats.b. He developed the use of the assembly line.c. He introduced the concept of interchangeable parts.d. He invented the first useable steam engine.Previously, manufactured goods had been made by hand, with each part tailor-made to the individual completed piece. In 1798 Whitney wrote to Alexander Hamilton requesting a contract to, "undertake the manufacture of 10,000 to 15,000 stand of arms [rifles]. I am persuaded that machinery moved by water would greatly diminish the labor and facilitate the manufacture of this article." He got the contract. Two years later he appeared with the parts to make 10 guns. He divided the parts into stacks for each kind of part and government officials were asked to randomly pick a part from each stack. Whitney then assembled a gun from each set of parts selected. All 10 guns worked.