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Unit 1, Part 1 UNIT 1, Part 1 Encountering the Unexpected Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1, Part 1 UNIT 1, Part 1 Encountering the Unexpected Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Unit 1, Part 1 UNIT 1, Part 1 Encountering the Unexpected Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue

3 Unit 1, Part 1 MAIN MENU Encountering the Unexpected (pages 9–49) Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

4 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 12–19)

5 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ Meet Saki Click the picture to learn about the author.

6 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ In Saki’s “The Open Window,” two characters act on their first impressions of each other. Before you read the short story, think about the following questions: Think about the first time you met someone. What assumptions did you make about him or her? Has your first impression of someone ever turned out to be wrong? Connecting to the Story

7 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ “The Open Window” takes place at the country manor of the Sappletons, a typical upper-class English family. Wealthy families such as the Sappletons often lived in the city but maintained a second residence in the English countryside, where the pace of life was less stressful It was not unusual for upper-class families to welcome into their homes strangers who brought with them a letter of introduction from a mutual acquaintance. Building Background

8 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ At the time of this story, hunting was a popular amusement among the upper classes. In “The Open Window,” the men are hunting snipe, which are wetland game birds. Bird dogs, such as spaniels, were brought along on a hunt to flush out birds resting in the brush and then retrieve the felled birds. Building Background

9 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ As you read, pay attention to how Saki uses the twists and turns in the story to manipulate not only the story characters, but his readers as well. Setting Purposes for Reading Encountering the Unexpected

10 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Setting Purposes for Reading BEFORE YOU READ A flashback is an interruption of the chronological order of the story to show an event that happened earlier. Authors use flashback to give readers information that may help explain the main events of the story. Flashback

11 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ Identifying Sequence To identify sequence is to recognize the order in which the most important events in a literary work happen. In a fictional story such as “The Open Window,” we can look for clues or signal words that point to the chronological, or time, order of events.

12 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ Reading Tip: Organize Events Use a sequence chart like the one on the next slide to put important events in the story in chronological order. Identifying Sequence

13 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ

14 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ moormoor n. a tract of open, rolling, wild land, often having marshes (p. 15) He pulled on a good pair of boots before hiking across the moor. self-possessedself-possessed adj. in control of oneself; composed (p. 14) Many people were nervous, but she was completely self-possessed. dulyduly adv. rightfully; suitably (p. 14) He was duly impressed with the grand house. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

15 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window BEFORE YOU READ infirmityinfirmity n. a weakness or ailment (p. 16) He once was a vibrant, energetic man, but age and infirmity had slowed him down. imminentimminent adj. likely to happen soon (p.16) Dark, thick clouds are gathering, and rain seems imminent. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

16 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window

17 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Flashback Read the text highlighted in purple on page 14. What background information does this flashback provide? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Nuttel is in the country. His sister has encouraged him to visit people to help his nerves.

18 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Flashback Read the text highlighted in purple on page 14. Based on this flashback, do you believe this visit will help Nuttel’s nerves? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary. Some will say that it is better to be around people; others will say that it will make him more nervous.

19 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Identifying Sequence Read the text highlighted in blue on page 14. Is this taking place before or after Framton Nuttel’s arrival at the Sappleton’s home? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: This is after Framton’s arrival at their home. He is sitting with the niece, thinking about the conversation in the flashback.

20 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 15. Why might the reader be as surprised by the mention of tragedy as Nuttel is? READING THE SELECTION Answer: First meetings rarely reveal such drama.

21 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Identifying Sequence Read the text in the second column on page 15. What is the sequence of events that leads up to Nuttel wanting to change the topic? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Vera tells Nuttel about “the tragedy.” Mrs. Sappleton arrives and speaks as if nothing bad has ever happened. Reading Strategy

22 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Encountering the Unexpected Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 16. Why is this exclamation unexpected? READING THE SELECTION Answer: If the husband and brothers are dead, no one should be “here at last.”

23 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Encountering the Unexpected Read the second text highlighted in tan on page 16. Why does Saki wait until the last line of the story to tell readers that telling tales was Vera’s specialty? READING THE SELECTION Answer: If the readers knew ahead of time that she made up tales, there would be no surprises in the story. The story becomes entertaining when the reader does not quite know what is going on until the end.

24 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window

25 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.What was your reaction to Vera and Framton Nuttel?

26 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) Why does Framton Nuttel visit Mrs. Sappleton? (b) What do you think Vera notices as they sit in silence and wait for Mrs. Sappleton?

27 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Nuttel is taking a vacation to improve his nerves. His sister gives him a letter of introduction encouraging him. (b) Nuttel’s discomfort and nervousness

28 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) What does Vera ask Framton Nuttel to break the silence? (b) Do you think that she asks this question because she is curious, or do you think she has another motive?

29 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) If Nuttel knows anyone in the area (b) She has another motive. She must make sure that Nuttel doesn’t know about her uncle or her brothers, or he will know that the story is not true.

30 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Vera stares in horror out the open window. (b) It makes her story more believable. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 4.(a) What is Vera’s reaction to the appearance of the three men returning from the moor? (b) How do you think this contributed to Nuttel’s reaction?

31 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 5.(a) How might Vera’s poise and self- confidence contribute to her being believed? (b) In analyzing Vera’s behavior, what might you conclude about Vera’s motives?

32 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate Answer: (a) She probably seems mature and unlikely to tell childish tales. (b) She is mischievous, she is mean.

33 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Answer: Mr. Nuttel’s quick exit and Mrs. Sappleton’s response to it are told in an amused tone, and Vera’s final tale is so absurd as to be humorous. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 6.Saki is often described as a master of wit and humor. Would you describe this story as witty or humorous? Explain.

34 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Answer: Vera senses Nuttel’s weaknesses and attacks him. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 7.The author subtly plays with the theme of hunting in this story. How is Vera like a hunter and Framton Nuttel like her prey?

35 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 8.Would you like to be friends with Vera? Why or why not? Use details from the story to support your opinion? Encountering the Unexpected

36 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 9.A surprise reversal of events is a common theme in Saki’s stories. (a) How does Saki employ this theme in “The Open Window”? (b) What was your reaction to this reversal? Explain. Encountering the Unexpected

37 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Answer: (a) There are several reversals: from humor (nervous Nuttel) to tragedy (the three deaths) to horror (the “ghosts” appear) to humor (Nuttel departs and Vera tells an outrageous story. (b) Answers will vary. Encountering the Unexpected

38 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Flashback Authors frequently use flashback to help readers understand a character’s current attitude and behavior. It gives the reader more information than would be gained from simply watching the events of the story unfold.

39 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Flashback In literature, the reader must rely on elements in the story for clues, such as a change of scene or someone talking who is not present before the flashback begins. Flashback allows a writer to explain the past in a dramatic, creative fashion.

40 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Flashback Answer: Waiting for Mrs. Sappleton’s appearance 1.How does the setting provide an opportunity for the author to use flashback in the story?

41 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Flashback Answer: Visiting did not help Nuttel’s nerves 2.Explain how the flashback makes the outcome of the story ironic.

42 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ As you learned on page 10, plot refers to the sequence of events from the beginning to the end of a story. Review: Plot

43 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Partner Activity Meet with another classmate and work together to identify the plot elements of “The Open Window.” Working with your partner, create a plot diagram like the one pictured. Then fill it in with specific events from the story. Review: Plot

44 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ “The Open Window” tells the story of what happens when Framton Nuttel pays a visit to the country home of the Sappletons. Within this story is a second narrative. That is the story that Vera tells Nuttel about her uncle’s death while hunting on the moors. Review the sequence chart you created to recall how the main events in the story are connected. Identifying Sequence

45 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Identifying Sequence 1.Use your sequence chart to summarize the story.

46 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Identifying Sequence Answer: He converses with his absent sister. The flashback explains why Nuttel is visiting Mrs. Sappleton; this must come before the actual visit. 2.When the author used a flashback at the beginning of the story, what helped you recognize that?

47 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Context Clues Read each of the following sentences and identify the word or words that provide a context clue for the word in bold.

48 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Practice 1.The younger daughter was always self- possessed, unlike her nervous older sister. A.The younger daughter B.unlike her nervous

49 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Practice 2.He always did the right thing, and he was duly polite in addressing the young woman. A.always did the right thing B.addressing the young woman

50 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Practice 3.We stood at the edge of the moor and gazed out at the wide stretch of wet, marshy land. A.stood at the edge B.wet, marshy land

51 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. deduce v. to use logic to draw a conclusion about someone or something mental adj. related to the mind; often used to describe disorders of the mind

52 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: Creative, spontaneous, mischievous 1.What can you deduce about Vera’s personality?

53 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: Nervous and gullible, he runs from the horror 2.How does Framton Nuttel’s mental state affect his behavior and the outcome of this story?

54 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Analyze Setting and Plot Think about the setting for “The Open Window.” Could this story have taken place at any other time or in any other place? Write a brief essay in which you analyze Saki’s choice of setting and explain how the setting impacts the main events in the plot. Use evidence from the story to support your analysis.

55 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature As you draft, write from start to finish. Follow the writing pattern shown on the next slide to help you organize your essay and keep you on track.

56 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Describe the setting. Tell where the action takes place, the time of day, and the social status of the characters. Explain how different elements of the setting affect the development of the plot. Briefly summarize your analysis of the setting and its impact on the plot.

57 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature After you complete your draft, meet with a peer reviewer to evaluate each other’s work and to suggest revisions. Then proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

58 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Literary Criticism Group Activity “The cruelty is certainly there,” writes critic Elizabeth Drew about Saki’s stories, “but it has nothing perverted or pathological about it.... It is the genial heartlessness of the normal child, whose fantasies take no account of adult standards of human behavior.”

59 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Literary Criticism Write a short response in which you state whether you agree or disagree that this statement applies to “The Open Window” and to Vera. Include evidence from the story to support your opinion. Then use your response to debate this issue with your group.

60 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Using Parenthetical Phrases In “The Open Window,” Saki makes use of parenthetical phrases to expand, explain, or digress from a thought within a sentence and within the narrative. Most people’s thought patterns follow this style, so by using parenthetical phrases Saki creates more natural, casual sounding dialogue and prose. Saki’s Language and Style

61 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Notice how the use of the parenthetical phrase, set off by commas in the following sentence, makes Nuttel’s sister sound like a real person. “Some of them, as far as I can remember, were quite nice.” Saki’s Language and Style

62 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Consider the use of parenthetical phrases in these other sentences from the story and the information that they add. “Framton wondered whether Mrs. Sappleton, the lady to whom he was presenting one of the letters of introduction, came into the nice division.” “My sister was staying here, at the rectory, you know, some four years ago, and she gave me letters of introduction to some of the people here.” Saki’s Language and Style

63 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Activity Find two other examples of sentences with parenthetical phrases in the story, and think about whether they expand, explain, or digress from the thoughts in the sentence. Then write two sentences of your own with parenthetical phrases. Remember to use commas to set off the parenthetical phrases in the sentences. Saki’s Language and Style

64 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window AFTER YOU READ Adding information through the use of parenthetical phrases is something to consider when revising your own writing. With a partner, go through your setting and plot analysis and note places where you could expand or explain an idea more clearly with a parenthetical phrase. Revise your draft to include parenthetical phrases, and check that you have used commas correctly to set them off. Revising Check: Parenthetical Phrases

65 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window

66 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 20–30)

67 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Meet Mark Twain Click the picture to learn about the author.

68 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ What makes a dwelling feel like home? In Twain’s short story “The Californian’s Tale,” the narrator visits a dwelling that gives him great comfort. Before you read the story, think about the following questions: What kinds of things make a home a comfortable place? How important is it to have people that care about you, whether they are relatives, friends, or neighbors, live near you? Connecting to the Story

69 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ This story takes place in central California. Gold was first discovered there in 1848 near what is now Sacramento. Within the next year, almost 100,000 people, most of them young men, had moved to California, trying to strike it rich by prospecting for gold. They were called the “forty-niners,” referring to the year that they came to California. Building Background

70 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Only a few of the forty-niners made a fortune during the gold rush. Most of them had little luck finding gold. In many places where gold was discovered in the early 1850s, the mineral was not very plentiful. Such areas underwent a quick boom and a just-as-rapid bust; Twain’s story takes place in one such deserted mining area in the late 1860s or the early 1870s. Building Background

71 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading As you read “The Californian’s Tale,” examine how the unexpected affects the events of the story and the lives of the characters. Encountering the Unexpected

72 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Foreshadowing is a writer’s use of clues to hint at events that will happen later in a story. As you read, look for clues that suggest that all is not necessarily as it seems. Foreshadowing

73 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Cause-and- Effect Relationships A cause is something that makes something else happen; an effect is what happens as a result of a cause. Fiction writers include cause-and-effect relationships to further the action of a plot.

74 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Cause-and- Effect Relationships Reading Tip: Taking Notes Use diagrams like the one on the next slide to analyze some of the causes and effects in this short story.

75 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ Analyzing Cause-and- Effect Relationships

76 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ predecessorpredecessor n. one who comes, or has come before in another time (p. 23) Groups of Native Americans were the predecessors of the miners who settled in central California. solacesolace n. relief from sorrow or disappointment; comfort (p. 23) Homey touches in a hotel room may give solace to weary travelers. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

77 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale BEFORE YOU READ sedatesedate adj. quiet and restrained in style or manner; calm (p. 25) Dominique felt so sedate while reading that she promptly fell asleep. imploringimploring adj. asking earnestly; begging (p. 26) He gave an imploring glance, as if to ask, “Did you bring me a gift for my birthday?” bodingboding n. a warning or indication, especially of evil (p. 27) Their boding about the theft was a result of the disorder. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

78 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale

79 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Encountering the Unexpected Keep this question in mind as you read. Why does Henry’s house seem unusual to the narrator? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Similar cottages were abandoned.

80 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Encountering the Unexpected Keep this question in mind as you read. How does the house affect the narrator? READING THE SELECTION Answer: First he wants to run away; later he anticipates Henry’s wife’s return.

81 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Analyzing Cause-and-Effect Relationships Read the text highlighted in blue on page 22. Why are there no longer many people living along the Stanislaus River in this part of California? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: People have moved away because there is no more gold to be mined there.

82 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Look at the painting on page 22. How does Grant Wood’s regional painting compare to Twain’s writing style? Viewing the Art READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary.

83 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Analyzing Cause-and-Effect Relationships Read the text highlighted in blue on page 23. Summarize the circumstances that have caused these men to end up pride-smitten, poor, and alone. Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION

84 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Answer: The men came to California early during the gold rush and either had made money and spent it all, had lost it for some other reason, or had not made any money. Their pride prevented them from going back to their original homes, and they ended up alone. Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION

85 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 23. How does the mood of the story here differ from the mood evoked in the first paragraph? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The emphasis is on the loneliness of the land rather than on its beauty.

86 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Foreshadowing Read the text highlighted in purple on page 24. What idea or feeling does this detail give you about the home? About the woman? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: This detail suggests that the home is almost too perfect and that the woman must be extremely fastidious.

87 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 24. What do you think the man hopes the narrator will discover? What mood does this guessing game help create? READING THE SELECTION

88 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Answer: The man hopes that the narrator will find his beloved’s picture. The guessing game creates mystery, intrigue, and fun, but it makes the narrator uncomfortable. READING THE SELECTION

89 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Identifying Sequence Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 25. In staying, what risk does the narrator decide he will face? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION

90 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: The narrator decides he will face the risk of falling in love with the woman and having his heart broken. There is also the subtle implication that the narrator fears that the woman will fall in love with him, and that he will destroy a marriage, another man, and a beautiful home.

91 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Identifying Sequence Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 25. What does Tom do when he hears the woman’s letter read aloud? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: He breaks into tears.

92 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 26. What questions do you have about this comment? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary.

93 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Identifying Sequence Read the text highlighted in blue on page 26. Why does Henry become uneasy in this situation? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Henry becomes uneasy because the narrator keeps looking at his watch.

94 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Foreshadowing Read the text highlighted in purple on page 27. What hint does this image give you about what might happen? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: This detail heightens the tension in the story and makes it seem more likely that the woman will not be coming home.

95 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 27. Why do you think Joe says this to the narrator? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The drink is spiked with a drug and is intended only for Henry.

96 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale

97 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.Did the ending of the story surprise you? Why or why not?

98 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 2.(a) Describe how the narrator comes upon Henry’s cottage. How is his cottage different from other dwellings that the narrator has seen in the area so far? (b) Why is this difference surprising? AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

99 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Answer: (a) He is prospecting when he finds Henry’s cozy, well-kept cottage. Miners’ cottages are dirty and uncomfortable. (b) Other cottages are deserted and overgrown. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

100 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 3.(a) Summarize what happens at the cottage on Saturday night before Henry falls asleep. (b) What might Henry’s state of mind indicate about him and about the action of the story? AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

101 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Answer: (a) Henry worries that something has happened to his wife. Friends arrive and decorate the house, play music, toast his wife’s health, and give Henry a sedating drink. (b) Henry’s nervous and frantic behavior foreshadow the tragic ending and indicate that Henry may know his wife is not coming home. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

102 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 4.(a) Explain what the narrator learns at the end of the story about the woman. (b) Why do Henry’s friends wait so long to reveal the truth to the narrator? AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Henry’s wife is dead. (b) They may be afraid that the narrator will tell Henry and upset him. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret

103 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 5.What is the narrator’s attitude toward the men who live in the log cabins? Support your answer with evidence from the story. AFTER YOU READ Answer: The narrator pities them, calling them “living dead men” and “poor fellows.” Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

104 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 6.(a) Identify three or more ways that Twain builds suspense. (b) Which do you think was most effective? AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

105 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Answer: (a) Descriptions of the cottage, the woman, and Henry; the narrator’s desire to see her; Henry’s awaiting; and Tom’s statement, “One more drink and she’ll be here.” (b) Students should give one example of suspense. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

106 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 7.(a) Why do you think Twain decided not to reveal Henry’s wife’s name? (b) Do you think this made the story more effective? Explain. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

107 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Answer: (a) To increase the suspense, or to make her a symbol for women (b) Students may respond to her universality, or say that a named character would make Henry’s grief more poignant. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

108 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 8.(a) In what ways does the final twist in the plot change the way you think about the characters? (b) Do you think Twain intended you to change your ideas about the characters? Why or why not? AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) The miners are kind and sensitive. (b) Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Encountering the Unexpected

109 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale 9.Do you think Henry’s friends have been doing the right thing? Explain your answer. AFTER YOU READ Answer: You may think that it is right because it is done out of kindness. Others may think that the lack of truth harms Henry. Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Encountering the Unexpected

110 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Foreshadowing Although the ending of the story “The Californian’s Tale” proves to be a surprise for most readers, Twain uses foreshadowing to hint at the ending. Foreshadowing can be conveyed by mood or mood shifts, by details of the setting or the characters that are strange or jarring, or by plot events that serve as clues as to how the story will be resolved.

111 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Foreshadowing 1.Which details related to the setting and the characters foreshadow the ending of the story? Explain how each detail you mention provides a hint about the ending.

112 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Foreshadowing Answer: The miners are in their forties, and Henry’s wife is nineteen, which is unlikely. The immaculate cleanliness of the home seems too perfect. The region is both peaceful and desolate, raising questions about what a woman might face on a journey home.

113 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Foreshadowing Answer: Answers will vary. You may mention Tom’s and Joe’s weeping when they hear the letters or the rising tension as Henry’s wife does not arrive. 2.Which plot events help foreshadow the ending of the story? Explain how each event hints at this ending.

114 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ As you learned on page 10–11, writers use exposition to introduce the setting, the characters, and the plot of a story. In “The Californian’s Tale,” the exposition helps readers picture the land along the Stanislaus River, the cottage, and Henry. The exposition also helps readers enter into the events witnessed by the narrator once he enters the cottage. Turn to the beginning of “The Californian’s Tale” and reread Twain’s exposition. Review: Plot

115 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Partner Activity Work with another classmate to fill in a graphic organizer like the one shown on the next slide. In the graphic organizer, record details of the story that help readers gain their first impressions of the setting, characters, and plot. Share your organizer with the class. Review: Plot

116 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Review: Plot

117 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ The ending of “The Californian’s Tale” is a series of events that form a cause- and-effect chain. Review the diagrams you made as you read the story, and add additional causes and effects that you notice. Analyzing Cause-and Effect Relationships

118 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ 1.What questions do you have about the ending of the story and the cause-and- effect chains that you made? Analyzing Cause-and Effect Relationships Answer: Answers will vary. You should discuss questions raised by the surprise ending and whether the causes presented in the story have multiple effects.

119 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ 2.Based on the ending and the questions you came up with, how believable is this story? Explain. Analyzing Cause-and Effect Relationships Answer: Answers will vary. You may find it implausible that Henry’s friends have maintained their deception for nineteen years.

120 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice Word Parts Read the roots and definitions on the next slide. Then choose the best definition for each vocabulary word.

121 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice Latin root: decedere—“to depart” Latin root: solari—“to console” Latin root: sedere—“to sit” Latin root: implorare—“to call for help” Old English: bodain—“to proclaim”

122 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice 1.predecessor A.ancestor B.offspring C.superior

123 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice 2.solace A.sunshine B.comfort C.cruelty

124 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice 3.sedate A.anxious B.calm C.wise

125 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice 4.imploring A.arguing B.desiring C.begging

126 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Practice 5.boding A.warning B.evidence C.home

127 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary These words will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. annual adj. occurring once a year convene v. to assemble or to cause to assemble

128 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: All of the preparations that Henry’s friends perform are annual events. 1.Which events of the story are annual?

129 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: They convene at his house to fool Henry into thinking that his wife is on her way home. 2.Why do Henry’s friends convene at his house?

130 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Evaluate Author’s Craft Although Henry’s wife is absent from the story, a detailed image of her emerges. Write a five-paragraph essay in which you explain how Twain is able to create such a clear image of a character who never appears in the story.

131 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Begin by going back through the story and finding specific ways in which Twain characterizes Henry’s wife. Record these details on a web like the one shown on the next slide.

132 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature

133 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature In your essay, discuss specific details of the story and explain how they help to create a clear image of the wife. Refer to your graphic organizer as you write your essay. After you complete your draft, meet with a peer reviewer to evaluate each other’s work and to suggest revisions. Then proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

134 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale AFTER YOU READ Interdisciplinary Activity Research the gold deposits that lured forty- niners to California in the mid-1800s. You might focus on what geological forces created such gold deposits or on how miners extracted the gold from the land. Make a model or a drawing to illustrate your findings and share it with the class.

135 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale

136 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 31–34)

137 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind BEFORE YOU READ Author Joyce Carol Oates won the National Book Award in 1969 for her novel Them. A contemporary short story is a fictional narrative in prose containing the elements of plot, character, setting, theme, and point of view. In this excerpt from the introduction to the Oxford Book of American Short Stories, Oates traces the history of the short story and how it has evolved with the voices of such writers as Mark Twain. Building Background

138 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Read to discover the history of the short story and elements of fiction used by writers such as Mark Twain. BEFORE YOU READ Set a Purpose for Reading

139 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Evaluating Historical Influences When you examine the social influences of a historical period on a literary work or genre, you are evaluating historical influences. As you read, take notes on how history has influenced the short story. Use a timeline like the one below. BEFORE YOU READ

140 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind

141 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Evaluating Historical Influences Read the second paragraph on page 31. How does the author support her claim that storytelling is “as old as mankind”? Reading Strategy Answer: Oates argues that the human imagination demands that reality be embellished with stories. Human cultural history is filled with folktales and stories written thousands of years ago. READING THE SELECTION

142 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Encountering the Unexpected Keep the following question in mind as you read. What assumptions does the author make about the short story? Answer: It is an ancient form that comes naturally with language and once existed mainly as a folktale or ballad. The “flavor” of the oral tale makes a written story better. READING THE SELECTION

143 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Encountering the Unexpected Keep the following question in mind as you read. What characteristics make Mark Twain’s writing unique in American literature, according to the author? Answer: He brought the vernacular flavor to written stories. His stories were read by people at all levels of culture. READING THE SELECTION

144 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Evaluating Historical Influences Read the first column on page 33. Why do you think Mark Twain’s writing is still popular today? Reading Strategy Answer: His writing is clear and has a distinctive voice. His characters seem to act, speak, and think like real people. Such characteristics appeal to readers across time. READING THE SELECTION

145 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Evaluating Historical Influences Read the second column on page 33. How important do you think it was that popular magazines like Harper’s Monthly paid writers for their short stories? Reading Strategy Answer: It was very important. Writers had a chance to support themselves with their writing if they were paid for their stories. READING THE SELECTION

146 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind

147 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind 1.Were you surprised to learn that contemporary short story writers most often begin their careers with magazine publications? Why or why not? Answer: Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond AFTER YOU READ

148 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind 2.(a) What is the earliest “ancestor” of the contemporary short story? (b) How is this heritage apparent in modern short stories you have read? Answer: (a) An oral tale (b) Narrator, dialect, and vernacular Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret AFTER YOU READ

149 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind 3.(a) What are some facets of Mark Twain’s writing that recapture, as Oates writes, “that lost flavor” of American writing? (b) What do you think these elements of writing add to a literary work? Answer: (a) Regional dialect and comic vernacular (b) A conversational, humorous tone Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret AFTER YOU READ

150 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind 4.(a) Why do you think short stories became popular selections for contemporary magazines? (b) Do you think that literature printed in magazines is any less significant than literature printed in books? Explain. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Extend AFTER YOU READ

151 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Answer: (a) Short stories can be read quickly, and often complement a magazine’s theme. (b) Answers will vary. Literature in magazines is not less significant, but it may be perceived as less valuable. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Extend AFTER YOU READ

152 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind 5.(a) Joyce Carol Oates is a prolific writer of fiction, including novels and short stories. What biases might she have about the craft of short story writing? (b) Do you think her biases affect her point of view in this excerpt? Why or why not? Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Extend AFTER YOU READ

153 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind Answer: (a) She may think the short story form is superior. (b) Answers will vary. Her experience provides a writer’s insight. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Extend AFTER YOU READ

154 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind 6.(a) What did Oates claim made Mark Twain a “uniquely American writer”? (b) How is this trait represented in “The Californian’s Tale”? Answer: (a) His use of vernacular (b) A casual, conversational tone, with many contractions, fragments, and interjections Responding and Thinking Critically Connect AFTER YOU READ Encountering the Unexpected

155 Unit 1, Part 1 Storytelling is as Old as Mankind

156 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People SELECTION MENU Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read Selection Menu (pages 35–49) Vocabulary Workshop

157 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ Meet Shirley Jackson Click the picture to learn about the author.

158 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ We all have places where we feel that we belong. Sometimes, however, it is good to vary our routine a little and get to know other people and places better. Before you read the story, think about these questions: What makes you feel like you belong in a place? How do you treat outsiders—people who come from somewhere else? Connecting to the Story

159 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ “The Summer People” takes place during the late 1940s or 1950s in rural New England. It tells the story of a couple that lives in New York City during the winter and in a cabin near a small country town during the summer. The couple’s home in the country lacks modern conveniences such as central heat, electricity, and indoor plumbing. The couple normally leaves the country for the city around Labor Day, a holiday that occurs on the first Monday of September. At the time the story is set in, cellular phones did not exist. Building Background

160 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Have you ever heard the saying “expect the unexpected”? Everyone responds differently to surprises. As you read, notice how the characters in the story respond to unexpected events. Encountering the Unexpected

161 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Most stories revolve around a conflict, or struggle between opposing forces. A conflict can be external or internal. An external conflict is one between a character and an outside force, such as another character, nature, society, or fate. Conflict

162 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading An internal conflict takes place within the mind of a character who is torn between different courses of action. As you read, try to determine what conflicts lie at the heart of the story. Conflict

163 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ Responding to Plot Responding is identifying and expressing what you like, dislike, or find surprising in a selection. When you react in a personal way to what you read, you enjoy your reading more and remember it better. As you read the story, think about your reactions. How do you feel about what is happening? What attracts your attention as you read?

164 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ Responding to Plot Reading Tip: Making a Chart Use a chart like the one shown below to record notable or striking details of the story’s plot and the responses you have to those details.

165 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ precariousprecarious adj. uncertain or unpredictable (p. 37) Due to problems with this year’s crops, the store’s supply of vegetables is precarious. vaguevague adj. unclear or undetermined (p. 38) When she questioned Robert, he was vague; his mind seemed to be somewhere else. acutelyacutely adv. very perceptively or discerningly (p. 39) The expert was acutely aware of the differences between the two species. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

166 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People BEFORE YOU READ erraticallyerratically adv. in an irregular or unpredictable way (p. 40) I don’t see my aged aunt very often; I visit her part of the country erratically. improvidentimprovident adj. wasteful or unthrifty (p. 41) His refusal to recycle bottles or cardboard was improvident. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

167 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People

168 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 37. What are your first impressions of the Allisons’ summer home? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary. You may say the passage creates a sense of an idyllic rural home.

169 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the first paragraph on page 38. Observations help us form ideas about what will happen. Sometimes, though, we encounter the unexpected. Think of an event you would not expect to happen at the Allisons’ summer cottage. READING THE SELECTION Answer: Possible answer: Wild parties and violence are things that would seem extraordinary in this setting.

170 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 38. What is your response to the Allisons’ decision? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Answers will vary. You may say that good weather and nice surroundings would be good reasons to stay.

171 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 38. What possible conflicts have you identified so far? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: The Allisons experienced conflict about staying at the cottage longer; conflict between Mrs. Allison’s and Mr. Babcock’s point of view.

172 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 38. What are some ways a writer shows conflict in a character? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Through conversation, actions, body language. Mrs. Allison’s movements show conflict.

173 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 39. How does Mr. Walpole respond to the Allisons’ unexpected news? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Mr. Walpole is not encouraging and is reserved about the news that the couple is staying.

174 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 39. How do Mr. Walpole’s actions indicate his reaction to the news? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Mr. Walpole seemed distracted or preoccupied by the news. He fumbled with the sheets of paper and appeared to be concentrating on the string, taking a long time to wrap Mrs. Allison’s package.

175 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Description The author describes the country people as having an “instinctive distrust” of things that do not seem permanent. What does this tell you about the people of the town? Writer’s Technique READING THE SELECTION Answer: The people are skeptical and do not easily trust other people or things they do not know.

176 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 40. What sets newcomers apart from townspeople? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Townspeople have established routines and seem to share common viewpoints; newcomers are regarded suspiciously.

177 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 40. How long does it seem to take to become accepted as a citizen of the town? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: A long time; Mrs. Martin is still considered a relative newcomer, and the Allisons have been summer visitors for 17 years.

178 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 40. What do you find most striking about the townspeople’s responses to the Allisons? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may be struck by how townspeople repeat the point that summer people do not extend their stays; their lack of encouragement for Allisons’ plans.

179 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 40. Why do you think summer visitors in this town have never stayed past Labor Day? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: It may be that people had to return to jobs or children to school; or that people expected the weather to worsen.

180 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 40. What are Mrs. Allison’s expectations about the coming weeks? READING THE SELECTION Answer: She plans to decorate the cabin, possibly bake, and continue to enjoy the rural lifestyle.

181 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 41. What is your reaction to the Allisons’ attitudes about the townspeople and country living? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may react negatively to the slight disrespect that the Allisons exhibit for the townspeople.

182 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Look at the painting on page 41. Does the painting reflect your idea of what the area surrounding the Allison’s cottage looks like? Viewing the Art READING THE SELECTION Answer: This image is desolate and unfriendly, similar to the countryside after the summer is over.

183 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 42. What is your reaction to the kerosene man’s words? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may be surprised, or you may think that the Allisons’ unpleasant suspicions are being confirmed.

184 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 42. What conflict occurs between Mrs. Allison and the kerosene man? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION

185 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Mrs. Allison needs to have kerosene delivered so she and her husband can stay in their cottage past Labor Day, while the kerosene man says he cannot provide something for which he has not planned. Both parties cannot meet their goals.

186 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Read the sentence containing the word placatingly on page 42. How do the context clues help you to understand the meaning of placatingly? Vocabulary READING THE SELECTION Answer: Clearly Mrs. Allison was trying to make her husband feel better; therefore, placatingly must have something to do with making people feel better.

187 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 43. Are you surprised by Mr. Babcock’s refusal to deliver groceries? What are your inferences about the townspeople? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may not be surprised because of Mrs. Allison’s conflict with the Kerosene man. You may infer that the townspeople do not want the Allisons to stay in the town.

188 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 43. How is Mrs. Allison’s attitude toward her problems beginning to shift? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Mrs. Allison is beginning to be worried by her transactions with the townspeople. She suspects that they do not want her in the town.

189 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 43. How well-prepared for the unexpected are the Allisons? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The Allisons are unprepared for the problems besetting them. They lack basic provisions and friends whom they can call on for help.

190 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the second paragraph on page 44. Do you think it is unexpected that the Allison’s car will not start? Why or why not? READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may say it is not unexpected, since the can is old. You also may cite the many other things that seem to be going wrong in the Allison’s life, so therefore the car trouble is expected.

191 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 44. What aspects of this scene grab your attention? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may notice the increasingly negative mood in the story.

192 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 44. Do you think this story could have taken place in another setting? Why? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Your answer should reflect the idea that the plot depends on an isolated setting; however, the events could have taken place in many other remote areas.

193 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 44. What are your feelings about this detail? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: Your answer should indicate your perception that Mr. Allison is growing older and his health is not as good as it once was.

194 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 45. What is unexpected or unusual about Jerry’s letter? READING THE SELECTION Answer: Jerry’s letter is later than expected, and the letter itself seems insensitive, even cruel. The Allisons are used to receiving pleasant letters from their children.

195 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 45. How do you think Mr. and Mrs. Allison feel after reading Jerry’s letter? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The letter appeared to be unsettling for them. Their actions suggest that they may be feeling apprehensive.

196 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Look at the painting on page 45. How does the mood in this painting reflect the mood of the story? Viewing the Art READING THE SELECTION Answer: The lonely and empty mood in the painting is similar to the cool cruelty of the town.

197 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Responding to Plot Read the text highlighted in blue on page 46. What is your response to this news? Reading Strategy READING THE SELECTION Answer: You may be horrified to realize what is happening to the Allisons.

198 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Conflict Read the text highlighted in purple on page 46. Who might want to tamper with the Allison’s car and phone wires? Literary Element READING THE SELECTION Answer: Someone who wants to do harm to the Allisons would do such things. This could be anyone in the town who does not want the summer visitors to stay past Labor Day.

199 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Encountering the Unexpected Read the text highlighted in tan on page 46. Why was the light at the Hall place unexpected? READING THE SELECTION Answer: The light at the Hall was unexpected because Mr. Babcock, the grocer, had claimed that the Halls had left town to visit relatives.

200 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People

201 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Answer: Answers will vary. You may say the cruelty of townspeople. Responding and Thinking Critically Respond 1.In your opinion, what was the most frightening or disturbing moment of the story? Explain.

202 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) They won’t return to the city; the weather is nice. (b) By having peaceful and pleasant time Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 2.(a) What decision do the Allisons make at the beginning of the story? Why? (b) How do they expect to spend autumn as a result of their decision?

203 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 3.(a) What happens when the Allisons go into town? (b) How do the townspeople learn of the Allisons’s decision? How do they react?

204 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) They buy provisions, discuss decision with townspeople. (b) They tell Mr. Babcock; news travels fast throughout town. Townspeople tell Allisons summer people never stay past Labor Day.

205 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 4.(a) For what goods and services do the Allisons rely on the townspeople? Why? (b) What happens when they try to obtain these goods and services after Labor Day?

206 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret Answer: (a) Heating fuel and food; Cottage lacks basic plumbing, electricity. (b) Townspeople refuse to help them.

207 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Children’s letters may help him feel he is in contact with outside world. (b) Letter seems insensitive. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 5.(a) Why is Mr. Allison anxious about the mail? (b) How would you describe the letter the Allisons receive from their son Jerry?

208 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Townspeople have conspired against them. (b) They might be waiting for death or help. Responding and Thinking Critically Recall and Interpret 6.(a) At the end of the story, what do the Allisons realize? (b) In the closing scene, what do you think the Allisons are waiting for? Explain.

209 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Townspeople seem unfriendly and narrowminded. (b) They are hostile toward outsiders. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 7.(a) From the story, what ideas did you form about the town and its inhabitants? (b) What do you infer about the townspeoples’ attitudes toward outsiders?

210 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Answer: (a) Friendly but condescending (b) Answers will vary. Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate 8.(a) What attitudes does Mrs. Allison display toward the townspeople? (b) Were there points in the story when you felt sympathy for the townspeople? Explain.

211 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People 9.Suspense is the increasing feeling of interest and excitement that readers experience as the plot of a story builds. In your opinion, what elements—such as descriptions of character, setting, or plot—helped make this story suspenseful? Support your answer with examples from the story. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

212 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People Answer: Answers will vary. You may cite townspeople’s eerie responses when Allisons first announced they were staying, the strange letters, etc. AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Analyze and Evaluate

213 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect 10.(a) How do the townspeople seem to react to the unexpected? (b) In your opinion, what theme, or overall message, about human nature does Shirley Jackson express in this story? Explain. Encountering the Unexpected

214 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding and Thinking Critically Connect Answers: (a) The townspeople seem unable to adjust to the unexpected presence of visitors after Labor Day. (b) People can cause great cruelty. Encountering the Unexpected

215 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Conflict Most stories are based on a problem, or conflict, that gets resolved over the course of the story. External conflicts exist when a character struggles with an outside force, such as another person, society, fate, or nature. An internal conflict exists in a character’s mind, when he or she is torn between different feelings and goals. Many stories have more than one conflict. Typically, the conflicts are related in some way.

216 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Conflict Answer: The Allisons’ staying and townspeople wanting them to leave. 1.What is the main external conflict in “The Summer People”?

217 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Conflict Answer: Broken car and cut phone lines. The Allisons decide to wait it out. 2.Identify another external conflict in the story. How does this conflict get resolved?

218 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Conflict Answer: Mrs. Allison might be struggling with feelings of uselessness and wondering if she caused people to turn against her. 3.Describe an internal conflict that Mr. Allison or Mrs. Allison might have. How does it relate to the main conflict you identified in question 1? Explain.

219 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ As you learned on page 21, foreshadowing is the author’s use of clues to prepare readers for events that will happen later in a story. Review: Foreshadowing

220 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Partner Activity Meet with a partner to discuss Jackson’s use of foreshadowing. What details throughout the story provide clues that the Allisons are in trouble? With your partner, go back and review the story, looking for clues that help suggest what will happen to the Allisons. Use a chart like the one shown on the next slide to list the clues and to explain their significance. Review: Foreshadowing

221 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Review: Foreshadowing

222 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ By responding to the events of a story as you read, you build awareness of the story’s meaning. You also enjoy your reading more. Responding to Plot

223 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ 1.Summarize the story’s plot—the sequence of events in the story. What aspects of the plot did you find most disturbing or surprising? Responding to Plot Answer: Students should provide a brief summary of the main events of the story, support their answers, and explain what parts they found surprising or disturbing.

224 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ 2.(a) At what point in the story did you begin to realize what might happen to the Allisons? (b) What was your reaction to the ending of the story? Explain. Responding to Plot

225 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Responding to Plot Answer: (a) Answers will vary. You may say you began to realize the Allisons’ fate when the can wouldn’t start and they didn’t have the necessary oil. (b) Answers will vary.

226 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Practice Practice with Context Clues Use context clues to choose the correct definitions for the boldfaced vocabulary words on the following slides.

227 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Practice 1.Despite her precarious grip, she did not drop the vase. A.uncertain B.solid C.mandatory

228 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Practice 2.The politician’s answer was vague and unspecific. A.exact B.imprecise C.unknowing

229 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Practice 3.I can tell when my cat is acutely alert; her ears perk up. A.intensely B.intermittently C.suddenly

230 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Practice 4.My parents encourage me not to be an improvident spender. A.ungrateful B.careful C.wasteful

231 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Here are two words that will help you think, write, and talk about the selection. vary v. to change in form or appearance; alter shift v. to move or transfer something from one place or person to another

232 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: She begins the story by creating a setting that appears warm and inviting and creates an increasingly threatening atmosphere. 1.How does Jackson vary the mood of the story?

233 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Academic Vocabulary Practice and Apply Answer: He tells Mrs. Allison that the boy he hires for delivery only works during the summer; therefore, the Allisons will need to pick up their groceries themselves. 2.How does Mr. Babcock shift the burden of getting groceries to the Allisons after Labor Day?

234 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature Analyze Setting Authors use local color when they use specific details in their writing to evoke a particular region. For example, details about the way people speak, the traditions they keep, and the way in which they live and work may help authors to suggest truths about characters and to create a strong feeling of place.

235 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature How does Shirley Jackson use local color to create a convincing portrait of her story’s setting—a small New England town during the 1940s or 1950s? Write a brief essay discussing the details of local color that help characterize the people in the town. Follow the writing pattern shown on the next slide to help you organize your essay and keep you on track.

236 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ A brief statement of your main idea about what local color contributes to the story’s setting and overall meaning A discussion of at least three specific examples of local color in the story, along with an explanation of what the examples suggest about the characters and the town A brief summary of your ideas about local color in the story, a recap of the evidence you presented, and a final thought about how local color contributed to the story’s overall effect

237 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Writing About Literature After you complete your draft, meet with a peer reviewer to evaluate each other’s work and to suggest revisions. Then proofread and edit your draft for errors in spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

238 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People AFTER YOU READ Listening and Speaking Think about Mr. and Mrs. Allison sitting in their cottage, waiting for something to happen. What might they discuss as they wait? With a partner, role-play a conversation between Mr. and Mrs. Allison. In your conversation, review what has happened so far, why it happened, and what you think might happen next. Share your conversation with the class.

239 Unit 1, Part 1 The Summer People

240 Unit 1, Part 1 Vocabulary Workshop Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation Connecting to Literature In Shirley Jackson’s short story “The Summer People,” the local residents never say or do anything overtly mean to the Allisons. However, Jackson uses the connotations of the words she selects to suggest the residents’ rather sinister reaction to the Allisons’ decision to stay. VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

241 Unit 1, Part 1 Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation When Mrs. Allison says that they are simply giving it a try, “Mr. Babcock replie[s] gravely, ‘Never know till you try.’” Jackson could have used seriously, or ominously, but she chooses gravely to hint at disturbing implications in Mr. Babcock’s words. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

242 Unit 1, Part 1 Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation A chart like the one below can help you analyze, or look more closely at, words—at their similarities, their differences, and their shades of meaning. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

243 Unit 1, Part 1 Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation Follow these instructions to create a semantic chart: In the left-hand column of the chart, place the words you will analyze. Consult a dictionary to find definitions, or denotations, for them. In the second column of the chart, enter the definition for each term. In the third column of the chart, record ideas, images, or feelings that you associate with each word. Such associations are the word’s connotations. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

244 Unit 1, Part 1 Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation Exercise On a separate sheet of paper, copy and complete the chart. With your classmates, discuss the denotations and the connotations of the words you have chosen. Below the chart, explain briefly how words such as gravely contribute to the mood of the story and foreshadow its ending. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

245 Unit 1, Part 1 Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation Vocabulary Terms The denotation of a word is its literal meaning. The connotation of a word is the implied meaning. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

246 Unit 1, Part 1 Using a Semantic Chart Denotation and Connotation Test-Taking Tip If, during a test, you are asked about the denotation of a word, think about how you would define the word for someone else. To describe the word’s connotation, think about the images and ideas the word brings to mind. Vocabulary Workshop VOCABULARY WORKSHOP

247 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Bellringer What are some synonyms for the word lying? What is the difference between lying and tricking? What is the difference between lying and storytelling? Unit 1, Part 1 BELLRINGER

248 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Bellringer Do you or your family have stories you tell over and over? Invite several students to share their stories. What characteristics make these stories worth telling repeatedly? Unit 1, Part 1 BELLRINGER

249 Unit 1, Part 1 The Open Window Bellringer Option Unit 1, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.

250 Unit 1, Part 1 The Californian’s Tale Bellringer Option Unit 1, Part 1 BELLRINGER OPTION TRANSPARENCY Click on the image to see a full version of the Bellringer Option Transparency.

251 Unit 1, Part 1 A.Mrs. Sappleton’s husband B.Vera C.his sister D.his doctors Who arranged Nuttel’s visit to Mrs. Sappleton’s home? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

252 Unit 1, Part 1 A.the disappearance of her husband and two young brothers B.the drowning of her two sons C.a mysterious haunting that has shattered her nerves D.the burning and destruction of part of her home According to Vera, what is Mrs. Sappleton’s great tragedy? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

253 Unit 1, Part 1 A.He hides behind Vera. B.He rushes out of the house to get away. C.He shrieks in terror and passes out. D.He closes the large open window. What does Nuttel do when the three men approach the house? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

254 Unit 1, Part 1 A.They left because new mining equipment was cheaper to use. B.They left because they had all become wealthy. C.They left when the surface diggings gave out. D.They left because of the numerous earthquakes. Why did the people vanish from the Stanislaus region? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

255 Unit 1, Part 1 A.having no children B.their wasted lives C.not striking it rich D.not being married According to the narrator, what do the “living dead men” of California regret? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

256 Unit 1, Part 1 A.to a school to finish her education B.to visit a sick neighbor C.shopping in the nearest village D.to see her people Where does Henry say his wife has gone? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

257 Unit 1, Part 1 A.They drug him. B.They make him dance until he is exhausted. C.They tell him stories. D.They play soft, soothing music. How do the old men get Henry to sleep? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

258 Unit 1, Part 1 A.She died of an illness. B.She ran away from Henry. C.She drowned in the Stanislaus River. D.She was captured by Indians. What happened to Henry’s wife? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

259 Unit 1, Part 1 A.verse tales from the Middle Ages B.the printing press C.the phenomenon of magazine publishing D.Egyptian papyri What brought rise to the “literary” short story? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

260 Unit 1, Part 1 A.new teachings from the Roman Catholic Church B.new scientific discoveries that stressed logical thinking C.the spirit of the Renaissance D.the rise in literacy According to Oates, what marked the declining interest in old fairy tales and ballads? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

261 Unit 1, Part 1 A.a new form of the printing press B.a great increase in the number of book publishers C.mass-market newspapers and subscription book sales D.the widespread use of the telegraph What made Twain’s work’s so accessible in America? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

262 Unit 1, Part 1 A.Boccaccio B.Dickens C.Edgar Allan Poe D.Chaucer According to Oates, Twain is the American counterpart to what other writer? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

263 Unit 1, Part 1 A.They were no longer in love with each other. B.They actually disliked living at the cottage. C.There was nothing to bring them back to New York. D.They were both very lonely at the cottage. What do the Allisons’ recognize each year? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

264 Unit 1, Part 1 A.The business deal was personal. B.She knew the dishes were a bargain. C.The dishes were well wrapped. D.She was able to barter for an acceptable price. What does Mrs. Allison find gratifying about purchasing the dishes? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

265 Unit 1, Part 1 A.a boat that depends on its sail B.a man who depends on his right arm C.a bird that depends on its wings D.a tree that depends on its roots To what does the narrator compare Mr. Allison’s dependence on his car? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

266 Unit 1, Part 1 A.an upbeat letter that bordered on arrogance B.a long, rambling letter full of depressing descriptions C.a short letter full of insignificant happenings D.a pleasant, respectful letter full of family doings What kind of letter did Mrs. Allison expect from her son? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

267 Unit 1, Part 1 A.Someone had tampered with it. B.It ran out of gas. C.The tires were flat. D.It had been stolen. What does Mr. Allison say happened to the Allison’s car? CHECKPOINT QUESTIONS

268 Unit 1, Part 1 ►Literary Terms HandbookLiterary Terms Handbook ►Reading HandbookReading Handbook ►FoldablesFoldables ►Writing HandbookWriting Handbook ►Business WritingBusiness Writing ►Language HandbookLanguage Handbook ►Test-Taking Skills HandbookTest-Taking Skills Handbook ►Daily Language Practice TransparenciesDaily Language Practice Transparencies Unit 1, Part 1 REFERENCE ►Grammar and Writing Workshop TransparenciesGrammar and Writing Workshop Transparencies

269 Unit 1, Part 1 Help To navigate within this Presentation Plus! product: Click the Forward button to go to the next slide. Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide. Click the Section Back button to return to the beginning of the section you are in. If you are viewing a feature, this button returns you to the main presentation. Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Help button to access this screen. Click the Speaker button to listen to available audio. Click the Speaker Off button to stop any playing audio. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the chapter slide show. Presentation Plus! features such as the Reference Handbook, Literature Online, and others are located in the left margin of most screens. Click on any of these buttons to access a specific feature. Unit 1, Part 1 HELP


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