Presentation on theme: "Industrialization & Nationalism"— Presentation transcript:
1Industrialization & Nationalism The key component for industrialism is availability of resources, labor, capital investment, efficient transportation & communication.
2Factors of Production Factors of production: Factors of production are various types of resources used in the production of goods and services. They are:Land (natural resource) - natural resources used in the creation of products, paid in economic rent, because they are simply irreproduceable.Labor - human efforts provided in the creation of products, paid in wage.Capital goods - human-made goods or means of production (including machinery, building and so forth) used in the production of other goods, paid in interest.Income from exploiting the 3 production factors comprises the national income.Capital and labor are active factors while land is passive. One can only shift capital and labor rather than land which is given limited, to get a production-factor combination, which is further reflected in the technology a firm employs to produce products and services.Labor operates capital to produce. The ratio of labor over capital is a major decision almost all firms must make. In the decision process, decision makers must understand that neither too much labor per unit of capital nor too much capital per unit of labor is acceptable since either way efficiency is not achieved. The 2 factors must come around someplace that both of them contribute equally to the final economic value realized.
3People James Watts Stevenson Eli Whitney Henry Ford Karl Marx ProletariatBourgeoisieClass struggleMarxismGreat Famine
4Essential Questions Trace patterns of industrialism in the world. Analyze how new innovations made industrialism more successful.Contrast the circumstances of labor [workers] before and after the Industrial Revolution.Discuss the emergence of industrial capitalism and its implications.Discuss the impact of industrialism on society.
5Cottage Industry / Factory System Centralized work place> outside homePaid by how much time you workedWomen & children paid less $ than menMachines set paceDirect control of workforceLimited breaks to maximize productionCottage IndustryPieceworkEarnings directly tied to how much produced.Made in homeFamily enterpriseWhole families helped
9The International Labor Organization (ILO) has estimated that 218 million children between the ages of five and seventeen work in developing countries. Of these, million children work in the Asia-Pacific region, 49.3 million work in Sub-Saharan Africa, and 5.7 million work in Latin America and the Caribbean. Most working children in rural areas are found in agriculture; many children work as domestics; urban children work in trade and services, with fewer in manufacturing and construction. Child labor ranges from four-year-olds tied to rug looms to keep them from running away, to seventeen-year-olds helping out on the family farm. In some cases, a child's work can be helpful to him or her and to the family; working and earning can be a positive experience in a child's growing up. This depends largely on the age of the child, the conditions in which the child works, and whether work prevents the child from going to school. The Children's Rights Division at Human Rights Watch has focused its efforts on the worst forms of child labor, those prohibited by the ILO’s Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention. Children who work long hours, often in dangerous and unhealthy conditions, are exposed to lasting physical and psychological harm. Working at rug looms, for example, has left children disabled with eye damage, lung disease, stunted growth, and a susceptibility to arthritis as they grow older. Children making silk thread in India dip their hands into boiling water that burns and blisters them, breath smoke and fumes from machinery, handle dead worms that cause infections, and guide twisting threads that cut their fingers. Children harvesting sugar cane in El Salvador use machetes to cut cane for up to nine hours a day in the hot sun; injuries to their hands and legs are common and medical care is often not available. Denied an education and a normal childhood, some children are confined and beaten, reduced to slavery. Some are denied freedom of movement—the right to leave the workplace and go home to their families. Some are abducted and forced to work. The human rights abuses in these practices are clear and acute. We have found similar problems in Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the United States: children who work for too many hours and too many days, for too little, or sometimes no pay, subject often to physical abuse, exposed to dangerous pesticides, and made to work with too dangerous tools. Our objectives in tackling these aspects of the complex and troubling child labor issue include drawing attention to the plight of child workers, helping to end these appalling practices, and contributing to the debate on the rights dimension of the larger issue of children and work.
10Patterns of Industrialization Great BritainFirst emerged thereFavorable conditions & demand for textilesMechanization of IndustryKay > flying shuttleincreased production 100 X previous productionCrompton’s mule > new spinning machineCartwright’s > power loom
11Industrial Innovation Britain source of many innovationsJames Watt’s > steam engineIron & SteelUse of coke to fuel furnacesBessemer Process > cheap steel makingTransportationRailroads & steam ships lowered costsStevenson Steam powered locomotive
13New Social Classes Emerge Owner classWealthy entrepreneurs & investorsWell educatedHigh standard of livingWorking classLabor force of poor / immigrantsNo education b/c child laborExploited for their labor
14Industrial Capitalism Eli WhitneyMachine toolsStandardized interchangeable partsHenry FordAssembly line production of automobileLowered costsPaid workers more [$5 a day]Workers could afford cars [$200]
20Spread of Industrialism Napoleonic Wars abolished guilds & trade barriersFacilitated industrialization in W. EuropeBelgium, Germany, & FranceIndustrialized by 1900
21Social Impact of Industrialism Population growthBetter diets & improved sanitationUrbanizationInternal migrationrural to urbanDemographic transitionRelative stabilityVoluntary birth control low fertility rate"In the eighty years or so after 1780 the population of Britain nearly tripled, the towns of Liverpool and Manchester became gigantic cities, the average income of the population more than doubled, the share of farming fell from just under a half to just under a fifth of the nation's output, and the making of textiles and iron moved into steam-driven factories. So strange were these events that before they happened they were not anticipated, and while they were happening, they were not comprehended… The British economy from 1780 to 1860 was unpredictable because it was novel, not to say bizarre."(D. N. McCloskey, 1981)
22Urbanization & Migration Internal migrationFrom farms to factoriesGrowth in number & size of citiesTRANSCONTINENTALExternal migrationMostly Europe to America50M from early 19th to early 20th Cent.
23Social Impact of Industrialization New Social ClassesCaptains of Industryextreme wealthMiddle classlargest beneficiaryWorking classpoorly paid, unskilled
24Social Implications INDUSTRIAL FAMILIES: Families lead separate lives Men gain statureWorkers resisted work disciplineWorking women [only lower class]Child labor common because of low wages to family & childWorkers resist pace and discipline of factory system. The system was so restrictive that workers labored for long hours w/o breaks for very little compensation.
25Casualties: 148 http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/trianglefire/ The conditions of the factory were typical of the time. Flammable textiles were stored throughout the factory, scraps of fabric littered the floors, patterns and designs on sheets of tissue paper hung above the tables, the men who worked as cutters sometimes smoked, illumination was provided by open gas lighting, and there were a few buckets of water to extinguish fires.The ninth floor had only two doors leading out. One stairwell was already filling with smoke and flames by the time the seamstresses realized the building was on fire. The other door had been locked, ostensibly to prevent workers from stealing materials or taking breaks and to keep out union organizers.The single exterior fire escape, a flimsy, and poorly-anchored iron structure, soon twisted and collapsed under the weight of people trying to escape. The elevator also stopped working, cutting off that means of escape, partly because the panicked workers tried to save themselves by jumping down the shaft to land on the roof of the elevator.Sixty-two of the women who died did so when, realizing there was no other way to avoid the flames, they broke windows and jumped to the pavement nine floors below, much to the horror of the large crowd of bystanders gathering on the street level. Others pried open the elevator doors and tumbled down the elevator shaft. Of the jumpers, a single survivor was found close to drowning in water collecting in the elevator shaft. The fallen bodies and falling victims made it difficult for the fire department to reach the building.Casualties: 148
26Great Famine Ireland Oppressed among Western nations A direct colony of BritainOppressed among Western nationsDispossessed of their land and voteTenants in their own landPotatoesCrop failure lead to famineBritain exported food during the famine1M died / 2M emigrateThe famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland. Its effects extended well beyond its immediate demographic impact and permanently changed the island's political and cultural landscape. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory and became a rallying point for various nationalist movements. Virtually all modern historians of Ireland regard it as a dividing line in the Irish historical narrative, referring to the preceding period of Irish history as "pre-Famine.“In 1845, the onset of the Famine resulted in over 1,000,000 deaths. Ottoman Caliph Abdülmecid declared his intention to send 10,000 sterling to Irish farmers but Queen Victoria requested that the Caliph send only 1,000 sterling, because she had sent only 2,000 sterling. The Caliph sent the 1,000 sterling but also secretly sent 3 ships full of food. The English courts tried to block the ships, but the food arrived in Drogheda harbour and was left there by Ottoman sailors.
27Resistance to Industrial Domination KARL MARXIntense competition lead to exploitationPolitical & social institutions served only the interests of the capitalistsPromoted “class struggle”Bourgeoisie vs. ProletariatBusiness owners / workersDid not believe capitalism could reform itself
29Essential QuestionsWhat influence did the Crimean War have on European nationalism?How did the Principles of Legitimacy and of Intervention impact European relationships?Compare the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany.Identify the reform movements of the era.
30People & Concepts Nationalism Congress of Vienna Principle of InterventionPrinciple of LegitimacyEmancipation of SerfsAusgleichDocuments of LiberalismRealpolitikCrimean WarFlorence NightingaleMetternichOtto Von BismarckCavour & GirabaldiCzar Alexander IIBritish North America ActQueen Victoria
31Nationalism Nationalism Revolutions in Central Europe IDEOLOGY OF A NATION STATEEmerged after the French RevolutionRevolutions in Central EuropeBased on universal male suffrageAustrian EmpireMultinational stateFragmentation of interests of its people
32Impact of Crimean War CRIMEAN WAR Direct impetus for new alliances in EuropeRussia & Austria now enemiesPromoted a new rise of nationalism in the BalkansSpread throughout EuropeThe chain of events leading to Britain and France declaring war on Russia on 28 March 1854 can be traced to the 1851 coup d'état in France. Napoleon III had his ambassador to the Ottoman Empire force the Ottomans to recognize France as the "sovereign authority" in the Holy Land.Quickly, the Russians made counterclaims to this newest change in "authority" in the Holy Land. Pointing to two more treaties, one in 1757 and the other in 1774, the Ottomans reversed their earlier decision, renouncing the French treaty and insisting that Russia was the protector of the Orthodox Christians in the Ottoman Empire. Napoleon III responded with a show of force, sending the ship of the line Charlemagne to the Black Sea, a violation of the London Straits Convention. France's show of force, combined with aggressive diplomacy and money, induced Sultan Abdülmecid I to accept a new treaty, confirming France and the Roman Catholic Church as the supreme Christian authority in the Holy Land with control over the Christian holy places and possession of the keys to the Church of the Nativity, previously held by the Greek Orthodox Church.Tsar Nicholas I then deployed his 4th and 5th Army Corps along the River Danube, and had Count Karl Nesselrode, his foreign minister, undertake talks with the Ottomans. Nesselrode confided to the British ambassador in St Petersburg, Sir :[The dispute over the holy places] had assumed a new character - that the acts of injustice towards the Greek church which it had been desired to prevent had been perpetrated and consequently that now the object must be to find a remedy for these wrongs. The success of French negotiations at Constantinople was to be ascribed solely to intrigue and violence - violence which had been supposed to be the ultima ratio of kings, being, it had been seen, the means which the present ruler of France was in the habit of employing in the first instance.
33Crimean WarThe Treaty of Paris attempted to ensure that future Russian intervention at the expense of Europe and the Ottoman Empire would be halted. Russia won only minor concessions from the war. Moreover, her causalities were high, as more than 450,0004 Russians lost their lives during the conflict. After the death of Nicolas I, his son Alexander II soon realized that he could no longer rely on the labor of the surfs, and that Russia must embrace the new technologies. Thus, on March 3, 1861 the Tzar issued the order emancipating the peasants. Causalities were significant for both sides. In addition the high losses of the Russians, the French lost 95,0005 and the English lost 22,0006, 7. Turkey's losses are reported to be similar in number to French casualties8. France seemed to have gained the most from the Crimean War. French armies had won the most impressive victories in the final attacks on Sebastopol, and France supplanted Russia as the dominant power in Europe. The Ottoman Empire, a first glance, also seemed to gain much from the conflict. However, the war actually hastened its slow disintegration which was finally complete by the outbreak of World War I. The British gain was at first slow to be realized, but because of the concerns about the British military, reforms were finally instituted which began the modernization of the army. As in most defeats, the loser learns more than the winner. Russia instituted reforms following the Crimean war, both militarily and civilian, and began a slow national modernization.
34Crimean War Florence Nightingale British nurse Florence Nightingale established the foundations of modern nursing with her treatment of the sick and injured during the Crimean War of 1853 to Once back in London after the war, she founded the Nightingale School and Home for Nurses using money donated in tribute to her services. The school marked the beginning of professional education in the nursing field. Her book Notes on Nursing became the first definitive textbook for the field.Florence Nightingale
35Illustrates encroachment of Russia into areas of Austria’s sphere of influence.
36Illustrates ethnic diversity of the Balkans Illustrates ethnic diversity of the Balkans. Diversity leads to desire for self-determination. Territorial sovereignty?
37Congress of Vienna PEACE SETTLEMENT AFTER NAPOLEONIC WARS Metternich [Austrian foreign minister]Conservative ideologistPRINCIPLE OF LEGITIMACYGreat PowersPRINCIPLE OF INTERVENTIONRight to send armies to intervene with revolutions
38Opposition to Conservatism Liberalism & nationalismPowerful forces for changeLiberalismEnlightenment was the sourceSupportedCivil liberties, free speech, press, religionSeparation of church & stateWere not democratsOnly equality and power to white men of property
39Documents of Liberalism American Declaration of IndependenceEquality Popular SovereigntyLife – liberty – pursuit of happinessDeclaration of the Rights of Man and the CitizenLiberty– equality - fraternity
42National Unification Movements GERMANY Otto Von BismarckPrime MinisterProvoked wars to swell German pridePrussianSelf-proclaimedEmperor of 2nd ReichITALY Mazzini’s Young Italy spurred uprisingsCavourExpelled Austria from northern ItalyGaribaldiConsolidated southVittore EmmanueleHitler created the 3rd Reich. What was the 1st Reich?
44Unification of Germany BismarckUnified by forceAutocratic ruleMilitarismPower baseRealpolitikPractical politics not based in ideologyRealpolitik becomes the official ‘ideology’ of the Nixon administration – Henry Kissinger.
45Franco-Prussian War  Sedan, 2 September 1870; A shattered Emperor Louis Napoleon, frequently in tears, surrendered his sword to William, King of Prussia (later proclaimed Kaiser of German Empire a year later at Versailles), after 44 days of warfare that have devastated France and confirmed newly-united Germany as the most powerful new nation in Europe.
50Reform Russia Czar Alexander II Emancipation of serfsOpposition of conservatives & demands of liberals forced his return to repressive rule
51Reforms Reforms Britain Changes brought about indirectly by revolutionsBritainLiberal parliamentary reformQueen Victoria’s sense of respectabilityPromoted economic & political stability
52Canadian Nation United Provinces of Canada British North American Act United upper & lower CanadaBritish North American ActParliamentary move –feared American intentionsDominion of CanadaDomestic self ruleNo control over foreign affairsBritish North America Act, law passed by the British Parliament in 1867 that provided for the unification of the Canadian provinces into the dominion of Canada. Until 1982 the act also functioned as the constitution of Canada. The act enumerated the powers of the provincial legislatures and gave the residual powers to the dominion; its interpretation by the privy council somewhat nullified this design by giving a very extended scope to the provincial power of “property and civil rights,” and developing a doctrine of “emergency powers” to give the dominion the authority needed by a national government in time of war. This act was superseded by the Canada Act of 1982.
53Reform in the U.S. Divisive factor in U.S. Industrial north / agricultural southLincoln – dedicated to free territoriesSouthern economy base – slaveryDemocratic politics brought many into the frayAbolition – source of division
55Enduring QuestionsWhat are the long and short-term benefits of industrialism globally?What are the long and short-term problems that have emerged locally and globally as a result of industrialism?What past and present problems in the world can be traced to nationalism?