Presentation on theme: "Industrialization & Nationalism 1800-1870. Factors of Production."— Presentation transcript:
Industrialization & Nationalism
Factors of Production
People James Watts Stevenson Eli Whitney Henry Ford Karl Marx Proletariat Bourgeoisie Class struggle Marxism Great Famine
Essential Questions Trace patterns of industrialism in the world. Analyze how new innovations made industrialism more successful. Contrast the circumstances of labor [workers] before and after the Industrial Revolution. Discuss the emergence of industrial capitalism and its implications. Discuss the impact of industrialism on society.
Cottage Industry Factory System Cottage Industry / Factory System Cottage Industry Piecework Earnings directly tied to how much produced. Made in home Family enterprise Whole families helped Factory System Centralized work place> outside home Paid by how much time you worked Women & children paid less $ than men Machines set pace Direct control of workforce Limited breaks to maximize production
Cottage Industry A Diagram of The Factory SystemA Diagram of The Factory System
Patterns of Industrialization Great Britain First emerged there Favorable conditions & demand for textiles Mechanization of Industry Kay > flying shuttle increased production 100 X previous production Crompton’s mule > new spinning machine Cartwright’s > power loom
Industrial Innovation Britain source of many innovations James Watt’s > steam engine Iron & Steel Use of coke to fuel furnaces Bessemer Process > cheap steel making Transportation Railroads & steam ships lowered costs Stevenson  Steam powered locomotive
New Social Classes Emerge Owner class Wealthy entrepreneurs & investors Well educated High standard of living Working class Labor force of poor / immigrants No education b/c child labor Exploited for their labor
Industrial Capitalism Eli Whitney Machine tools Standardized interchangeable parts Henry Ford Assembly line production of automobile Lowered costs Paid workers more [$5 a day] Workers could afford cars [$200]
Industrial Capitalism Big Businesses / corporations Were promoted b/c High cost of factories Capital investment British & French Laid legal groundwork for modern corporations
Industrial Capitalism MONOPOLIES Direct domination of any industry CAPITALISTS Either formed: Trusts Many businesses run as one Cartels Groups that set production & price O.P.E.C.
Spread of Industrialism Napoleonic Wars abolished guilds & trade barriers Facilitated industrialization in W. Europe Belgium, Germany, & France Industrialized by 1900
Social Impact of Industrialism Population growth Better diets & improved sanitation Urbanization Internal migration rural to urban Demographic transition Relative stability Voluntary birth control low fertility rate
Urbanization & Migration Urbanization Internal migration From farms to factories Growth in number & size of cities TRANSCONTINENTAL External migration Mostly Europe to America 50M from early 19 th to early 20 th Cent.
Social Impact of Industrialization New Social Classes Captains of Industry extreme wealth Middle class largest beneficiary Working class poorly paid, unskilled
Social Implications INDUSTRIAL FAMILIES: Families lead separate lives Men gain stature Workers resisted work discipline Working women [only lower class] Child labor common because of low wages to family & child
Great Famine Ireland A direct colony of Britain Oppressed among Western nations Dispossessed of their land and vote Tenants in their own land Potatoes Crop failure lead to famine Britain exported food during the famine 1M died / 2M emigrate
Resistance to Industrial Domination KARL MARX Intense competition lead to exploitation Political & social institutions served only the interests of the capitalists Promoted “class struggle” Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat Business owners / workers Did not believe capitalism could reform itself
Nationalism Part 2
Essential Questions What influence did the Crimean War have on European nationalism? How did the Principles of Legitimacy and of Intervention impact European relationships? Compare the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany. Identify the reform movements of the era.
People & Concepts Crimean War Florence Nightingale Metternich Otto Von Bismarck Cavour & Girabaldi Czar Alexander II British North America Act Queen Victoria Nationalism Congress of Vienna Principle of Intervention Principle of Legitimacy Emancipation of Serfs Ausgleich Documents of Liberalism Realpolitik
Nationalism Nationalism IDEOLOGY OF A NATION STATE Emerged after the French Revolution Revolutions in Central Europe Based on universal male suffrage Austrian Empire Multinational state Fragmentation of interests of its people
Impact of Crimean War CRIMEAN WAR Direct impetus for new alliances in Europe Russia & Austria now enemies Promoted a new rise of nationalism in the Balkans Spread throughout Europe
Congress of Vienna PEACE SETTLEMENT AFTER NAPOLEONIC WARS Metternich [Austrian foreign minister] Conservative ideologist PRINCIPLE OF LEGITIMACY Great Powers PRINCIPLE OF INTERVENTION Right to send armies to intervene with revolutions
Opposition to Conservatism Liberalism & nationalism Powerful forces for change Liberalism Enlightenment was the source Supported Civil liberties, free speech, press, religion Separation of church & state Were not democrats Only equality and power to white men of property
Documents of Liberalism American Declaration of Independence Equality Popular Sovereignty Life – liberty – pursuit of happiness Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen Liberty– equality - fraternity
Map Austria-Hungarian Empire
National Unification Movements ITALY  Mazzini’s Young Italy spurred uprisings Cavour Expelled Austria from northern Italy Garibaldi Consolidated south Vittore Emmanuele GERMANY  Otto Von Bismarck Prime Minister Provoked wars to swell German pride Prussian Self-proclaimed Emperor of 2 nd Reich
Unification of Germany Bismarck Unified by force Autocratic rule Militarism Power base Realpolitik Practical politics not based in ideology
Franco-Prussian War 
Reforms France King Louis Napoleon Created empire Very successful until war with Prussia France returned to republic Napoleon III (r
Reform Austria Ausgleich 1867 Split into two: Austria-Hungarian Empire Emperor Francis Joseph (r )
Russia Czar Alexander II Emancipation of serfs Opposition of conservatives & demands of liberals forced his return to repressive rule Reform
Reforms Reforms Changes brought about indirectly by revolutions Britain Liberal parliamentary reform Queen Victoria’s sense of respectability Promoted economic & political stability
Canadian Nation United Provinces of Canada United upper & lower Canada British North American Act Parliamentary move –feared American intentions Dominion of Canada Domestic self rule No control over foreign affairs
Reform in the U.S. Divisive factor in U.S. Industrial north / agricultural south Lincoln – dedicated to free territories Southern economy base – slavery Democratic politics brought many into the fray Abolition – source of division
Enduring Questions What are the long and short-term benefits of industrialism globally? What are the long and short-term problems that have emerged locally and globally as a result of industrialism? What past and present problems in the world can be traced to nationalism?