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Industrialization & Nationalism 1800-1870. Factors of Production.

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Presentation on theme: "Industrialization & Nationalism 1800-1870. Factors of Production."— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrialization & Nationalism

2 Factors of Production

3 People  James Watts  Stevenson  Eli Whitney  Henry Ford  Karl Marx  Proletariat  Bourgeoisie  Class struggle  Marxism  Great Famine

4 Essential Questions  Trace patterns of industrialism in the world.  Analyze how new innovations made industrialism more successful.  Contrast the circumstances of labor [workers] before and after the Industrial Revolution.  Discuss the emergence of industrial capitalism and its implications.  Discuss the impact of industrialism on society.

5 Cottage Industry Factory System Cottage Industry / Factory System  Cottage Industry  Piecework  Earnings directly tied to how much produced.  Made in home  Family enterprise  Whole families helped  Factory System  Centralized work place> outside home  Paid by how much time you worked  Women & children paid less $ than men  Machines set pace  Direct control of workforce  Limited breaks to maximize production

6 Cottage Industry A Diagram of The Factory SystemA Diagram of The Factory System

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8 Factory System

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10 Patterns of Industrialization  Great Britain  First emerged there  Favorable conditions & demand for textiles  Mechanization of Industry  Kay [1733]> flying shuttle  increased production 100 X previous production  Crompton’s mule [1779]> new spinning machine  Cartwright’s [1785]> power loom

11 Industrial Innovation  Britain source of many innovations  James Watt’s [1765]> steam engine  Iron & Steel  Use of coke to fuel furnaces  Bessemer Process > cheap steel making  Transportation  Railroads & steam ships lowered costs  Stevenson [1815]  Steam powered locomotive

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13 New Social Classes Emerge  Owner class  Wealthy entrepreneurs & investors  Well educated  High standard of living  Working class  Labor force of poor / immigrants  No education b/c child labor  Exploited for their labor

14 Industrial Capitalism  Eli Whitney  Machine tools  Standardized interchangeable parts  Henry Ford  Assembly line production of automobile  Lowered costs  Paid workers more [$5 a day]  Workers could afford cars [$200]

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16 Industrial Capitalism  Big Businesses / corporations  Were promoted b/c  High cost of factories  Capital investment  British & French  Laid legal groundwork for modern corporations

17 Industrial Capitalism  MONOPOLIES  Direct domination of any industry  CAPITALISTS Either formed:  Trusts Many businesses run as one  Cartels Groups that set production & price O.P.E.C.

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20 Spread of Industrialism  Napoleonic Wars abolished guilds & trade barriers  Facilitated industrialization in W. Europe  Belgium, Germany, & France  Industrialized by 1900

21 Social Impact of Industrialism  Population growth  Better diets & improved sanitation  Urbanization  Internal migration  rural to urban  Demographic transition  Relative stability  Voluntary birth control low fertility rate

22 Urbanization & Migration  Urbanization  Internal migration  From farms to factories  Growth in number & size of cities  TRANSCONTINENTAL  External migration  Mostly Europe to America  50M from early 19 th to early 20 th Cent.

23 Social Impact of Industrialization  New Social Classes  Captains of Industry  extreme wealth  Middle class  largest beneficiary  Working class  poorly paid, unskilled

24 Social Implications  INDUSTRIAL FAMILIES:  Families lead separate lives  Men gain stature  Workers resisted work discipline  Working women [only lower class]  Child labor common because of low wages to family & child

25 Casualties: 148

26 Great Famine  Ireland  A direct colony of Britain  Oppressed among Western nations  Dispossessed of their land and vote  Tenants in their own land  Potatoes  Crop failure lead to famine  Britain exported food during the famine  1M died / 2M emigrate

27 Resistance to Industrial Domination  KARL MARX  Intense competition lead to exploitation  Political & social institutions served only the interests of the capitalists  Promoted “class struggle”  Bourgeoisie vs. Proletariat  Business owners / workers  Did not believe capitalism could reform itself

28 Nationalism Part 2

29 Essential Questions  What influence did the Crimean War have on European nationalism?  How did the Principles of Legitimacy and of Intervention impact European relationships?  Compare the unification of Italy and the unification of Germany.  Identify the reform movements of the era.

30 People & Concepts  Crimean War  Florence Nightingale  Metternich  Otto Von Bismarck  Cavour & Girabaldi  Czar Alexander II  British North America Act  Queen Victoria  Nationalism  Congress of Vienna  Principle of Intervention  Principle of Legitimacy  Emancipation of Serfs  Ausgleich  Documents of Liberalism  Realpolitik

31 Nationalism  Nationalism  IDEOLOGY OF A NATION STATE  Emerged after the French Revolution  Revolutions in Central Europe  Based on universal male suffrage  Austrian Empire  Multinational state  Fragmentation of interests of its people

32 Impact of Crimean War  CRIMEAN WAR  Direct impetus for new alliances in Europe  Russia & Austria now enemies  Promoted a new rise of nationalism in the Balkans  Spread throughout Europe

33 Crimean War

34 Florence Nightingale

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37 Congress of Vienna  PEACE SETTLEMENT AFTER NAPOLEONIC WARS  Metternich  [Austrian foreign minister] Conservative ideologist  PRINCIPLE OF LEGITIMACY  Great Powers  PRINCIPLE OF INTERVENTION  Right to send armies to intervene with revolutions

38 Opposition to Conservatism  Liberalism & nationalism  Powerful forces for change  Liberalism  Enlightenment was the source  Supported  Civil liberties, free speech, press, religion  Separation of church & state  Were not democrats Only equality and power to white men of property

39 Documents of Liberalism  American Declaration of Independence  Equality Popular Sovereignty  Life – liberty – pursuit of happiness  Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen  Liberty– equality - fraternity

40 Map Austria-Hungarian Empire

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42 National Unification Movements  ITALY [1860]  Mazzini’s Young Italy spurred uprisings  Cavour  Expelled Austria from northern Italy  Garibaldi  Consolidated south  Vittore Emmanuele  GERMANY [1871]  Otto Von Bismarck  Prime Minister  Provoked wars to swell German pride  Prussian  Self-proclaimed  Emperor of 2 nd Reich

43 Giuseppe Garibaldi

44 Unification of Germany  Bismarck  Unified by force  Autocratic rule  Militarism  Power base  Realpolitik  Practical politics not based in ideology

45 Franco-Prussian War [1870]

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47 Reforms  France  King Louis Napoleon  Created empire  Very successful until war with Prussia  France returned to republic Napoleon III (r

48 Reform  Austria  Ausgleich 1867  Split into two:  Austria-Hungarian Empire Emperor Francis Joseph (r )

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50  Russia  Czar Alexander II  Emancipation of serfs  Opposition of conservatives & demands of liberals forced his return to repressive rule Reform

51 Reforms  Reforms  Changes brought about indirectly by revolutions  Britain  Liberal parliamentary reform  Queen Victoria’s sense of respectability  Promoted economic & political stability

52 Canadian Nation  United Provinces of Canada  United upper & lower Canada  British North American Act  Parliamentary move –feared American intentions  Dominion of Canada  Domestic self rule  No control over foreign affairs

53 Reform in the U.S.  Divisive factor in U.S.  Industrial north / agricultural south  Lincoln – dedicated to free territories  Southern economy base – slavery  Democratic politics brought many into the fray  Abolition – source of division

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55 Enduring Questions  What are the long and short-term benefits of industrialism globally?  What are the long and short-term problems that have emerged locally and globally as a result of industrialism?  What past and present problems in the world can be traced to nationalism?


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