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McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 22 The Revolution in Energy and Industry Cover Slide.

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1 McKay 8e A History of Western Society Chapter 22 The Revolution in Energy and Industry Cover Slide

2 Origins of the Industrial Revolution Britain's Atlantic and mercantilists trade helped set the stage –Extensive colonial market –Available power Agriculture’s role in Britain –Productivity up / prices down made more money available for buying goods Britain’s Bank and credit markets –Made money available for expansion Infrastructure –Network of Canals to move goods –Large deposits of iron and coal in Britain

3 Cottage Industry and Transportation in eighteenth century England Cottage Industry and Transportation in Eighteenth-century England England had an unusually good system of navigable rivers. From about 1770 to 1800 a canal-building boom linked these rivers together and greatly improved inland transportation.

4 The Industrial Revolution The industrial transformation of western society culminated in the so-called industrial revolution. –England “takes off” first in the age of the industrial revolution. The influence of Calvinism was an important factor in England’s early lead. Social and economic factors influenced England’s take off. A stable government also fostered industrial growth in England.

5 The Industrial Revolution England’s first factories A growing demand for textiles led to the creation of the world’s first large factories in cotton. The putting-out system could not keep up with the demand. Breakthrough in Spinning to increase production –Hargreaves spinning jenny –Richard Arkwright’s water frame »Required power and specialized mills »Spinning concentrated in factories »Weavers could not keep up and compete »Everything changed –William Cockerill – English carpenter who built cotton spinning equipment to support Hargreaves

6 Model of Hargreaves's spinning jenny A gifted carpenter, James Hargreaves invented his cotton-spinning jenny about 1765. It was simple and inexpensive; it was also hand-operated. The loose cotton strands on the slanted bobbins passed up to the sliding carriage, and then on to the spindles in back for fine spinning. The worker, almost always a woman, regulated the sliding carriage with one hand, and with the other she turned the crank on the wheel to supply power. By 1783 one woman could spin by hand a hundred threads at a time on an improved model. Model of Hargreaves's spinning jenny

7 The harnessing of steam power helped to transform Europe industrially. –This was one of the hallmarks of the industrial revolution. –Shortage of Wood kept British industry back / not enough power to operate –Part of the general revolution was the transformation from wood burning to coal burning. –Transportation and manufacturing were revolutionized by steam power. –The early steam engines of Savery and Neweomen were converters of coal into energy. –James Watt increased the efficiency of the steam engine. –Steam power was used in many industries. Unlimited power / major breakthrough in energy and power supplies 1 st used to drained water from mines then helped with power Led to Puddling furnaces Made iron cheap and available The Industrial Revolution

8 George Robertson, Nat-Y-Glo Iron Works This watercolor painting by George Robertson depicts the Nat-Y-Glo (Natyglo) Iron Works, Collieries, and Mine Works, in the parish of Aberystwith, South Wales, belonging to Messrs. J. & C. Bailey. This mining operation figures in the Royal Commission Reports of 1842 on the Employment (and Treatment) of Children and Young Persons in the Iron Works of South Wales. George Robertson, Nat-Y-Glo Iron Works

9 Watt steam engine In the early 1760s, a gifted young Scot named James Watt (1736-1819) was called on to repair a Newcomen engine being used in a physics course. He saw that this engine's waste of energy could be reduced by adding a separate condenser. Watt went into partnership with a wealthy English toymaker who provided the risk capital and manufacturing plant. Twenty years of constant effort and the help of skilled mechanics enabled Watt to create an effective vacuum and regulate a complex engine. Watt steam engine

10 The harnessing of steam power led to the railroads –George Stephenson’s Rocket 1 st train –By 1830 trains moved at 16 miles per hour (1 st RR was between Liverpool and Manchester) –RRs reduced costs and uncertainty of shipping –Continental RRs helped by Governments to various degrees –Markets became larger and nationwide –Factories could now lower process and force cottage workers out of business –Made life in rural areas dull and unappealing –Workers wanted more / willing to go to cities to get it The Industrial Revolution

11 Turner, Rain, Steam, and Speed Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) is known for his dramatic treatment of natural light and atmospheric effects in landscapes. This masterpiece, Rain, Steam, and Speed: The Great Western Railway (1844), which conveys the excitement people felt about the new means of transportation, grew out of an unforgettable personal experience. While riding through a rainstorm, Turner stuck his head out of a train window and watched the locomotive race along for ten minutes. The train on his canvas speeds across the bridge, a streak of motion in a landscape blurred by the rain. (Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY) Turner, Rain, Steam, and Speed

12 Population –Crystal Palace Exhibition 1851 Made GB workshop of the world / commemorated Britain's industrial dominance in the world –GB 1 st industrialized nation –GNP rose / people more healthily / more productive and made population increases –Thomas Malthus and David Ricardo believed that population expansion would always keep workers at a subsistence level and people poor Malthus’s Essay on Principle of Population – believed population would always grow faster than the food supply Ricardo’s Iron law of wages The Industrial Revolution

13 The Industrial Transformation in England, ca. 1850 Industry developed in the areas rich in coal and iron fields. Important cities sprang up nearby and were soon linked by a growing rail network.

14 Population –Economics was a dismal science because of pessimism by intellectuals –Would people get their share of wealth? –Would only the rich get richer? Social upheavals –Freidrich List pushed Economic nationalism based on economics The Industrial Revolution

15 The Napoleonic wars retarded the industrial growth of continental European nations. –However, most continental countries had a tradition of a successful putting-out system. –The other countries could simply follow Britain’s lead. After Britain, Continental Europe began to industrialize

16 Difficulties were based on –Low prices from Brit mass produced goods –Expense of new technologies –Complexities of new technologies –No support from land owners and nobles –After effects of Napoleonic war Destruction / death / famine / disruption After Britain, Continental Europe began to industrialize

17 Borsig Ironworks August Borsig, an artisan, founded the Borsig Ironworks in Berlin in the 1840s. The factory expanded to meet the needs of the burgeoning German rail system. By the time of Borsig's death in 1854, his factory had built 500 locomotives. (Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz) Borsig Ironworks

18 Continental Europe began to industrialize There were several variations on the industrialization theme. –Belgium followed Britain’s lead. –France only showed gradual growth in the early nineteenth century. –By 1913 Germany and the United States were closing in on Britain.

19 Continental Industrialization, ca. 1850 Although continental countries were beginning to make progress by 1850, they still lagged far behind Britain. For example, continental railroad building was still in an early stage, whereas the British rail system was essentially complete.

20 Social implications of the industrial revolution. The growth of a middle class altered European society. –A new class of factory owners emerged in this period. –Profit had to go back into the plant in order to stay ahead or survive –Cutting costs / workers suffered Factory workers emerged as a new group in society. –The tempo and discipline of the factory was the greatest challenge to the new factory worker coming from the cottage industry –Many writers portrayed the harsh working conditions for factory workers.

21 Social implications of the industrial revolution. Working conditions –Poor conditions let to child labor by orphaned children –Engels lashed out at the middle classes in his The Condition of the Working Class in England (1844) by saying they were guilty of “mass murder and wholesale robbery”. Believed that industrial capitalism was the evil with competition and constant change –Working class improvements did not come until after 1820 –Class consciousness played out on fears between labor and capital in these days

22 Early on labor and capital problems were solved by using families and friends All European Countries were able to raise per capital industrial levels by the 1800s Workers fought back –Luddites tried to destroy anything mechanical to keep their jobs Social implications of the industrial revolution.

23 Rat-killing as a sport Some harsh forms of entertainment turned up in the industrial period. As this engraving shows, scores of working-class spectators came to see the celebrated dog "Billy" kill one hundred rats at one time at the Westminster Pit in London in 1822. (British Library) Rat-killing as a sport

24 The issues of working conditions, wages, and quality of life lead to struggles between labor and capital. –Ure and Chadwick argued that industrialization had improved the quality of life for people. Conditions of work changed in the newly emerging capitalist age. –Family units were initially hired because of family wishes –Factory work meant more discipline and lost personal freedom. –Child labor was increased. –Children and parents worked long hours. –Parliament sought to limit child labor. (Factory act of 1833) Social implications of the industrial revolution.

25 Engraving of interior textile mill, bad conditions This engraving from Frances Trollope's Michael Armstrong, Factory Boy depicts the hardship of the times. Here a boy is tearfully leaving his family to work in a textile mill. (British Library) Engraving of interior textile mill, bad conditions

26 Sexual Division of Labor Women concentrated on housework, child care and craftwork at home Separate Spheres –Women got bad jobs / no advancement –Why invest when women don’t stay around? –Men remained in charge (patriarchal system) –Mines act of 1842

27 Girl mine worker dragging coal This engraving of a girl dragging a coal wagon in the mines was one of several that accompanied a parliamentary report on working conditions in the mines. They shocked public opinion and contributed to the Mines Act of 1842. (British Lilbrary) Girl mine worker dragging coal

28 Labor Movement Classical Liberal ideas grew –Government attacked Monopolies, guilds and workers organizations in the name of individual liberty –The Combination Acts of 1799 Outlawed unions and strikes –Unions wanted to control the number of skilled workers / limit apprenticeships / bargain with owners over wages

29 Labor Movement Grand national Consolidated Trades Union –Robert Owen started it in 1834 –The movement Collapsed The Amalgamated Society of Engineers 1851 –Represented skilled machinists The Chartist Movement –Demanded political democracy and the right for all men to vote

30 Union certificate This colorful nineteenth- century certificate signifies membership in the first professional union in Britain, the Amalgamated Society of Engineers. With references to classical antiquity, British inventors, and various trades, the document highlights the nobility of the trade. (The Art Archive) Union certificate

31 The debate on the industrial revolution today. Capitalists view it as a positive step toward fulfilling human wants and needs. Socialists and communists view it as the further exploitation of the have-nots by the haves.

32 European Rails, 1850 and 1880 During the mid- nineteenth century, European states built railroads at an increasing rate, creating a dense network by the 1880s.

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