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The Industrial Revolution & Its Impact on European Society

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1 The Industrial Revolution & Its Impact on European Society
Chapter 20 The Industrial Revolution & Its Impact on European Society

2 The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain
Origins Industrial Revolution began sometime after 1750 in Great Britain By 1850 – G.B. wealthiest country in the world The Agricultural Revolution was a major factor in the birth of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain Changes in methods of farming & livestock breeding made for more productive yields Crop rotation, enclosed fields, steel tools more common, Tull’s drill Could now feed more people at lower prices & w/ less labor more productive & used less labor, people moved to towns to get factory jobs British families spent less of total income on food, more money to buy manufactured goods Pop. growth provided pool of surplus labor for new factories Supply of Capital Successful farmers from the A.R. had capital to invest in urban industries Profits from trade & cottage industry Stable central bank & flexible credit facilities help industrial growth Early factory owners were merchants & tailors from 18th cent cottage industry

3 Early Industrial Entrepreneurs
Britain had many individuals interested in making a profit Very hazardous – fortunes lost as quickly as they were gained Fluid structure of firms – partnerships could end quickly if not productive Mineral Resources Great Britain had many natural resources huge supplies of coal & iron ore (principle raw materials of the IR) harbors that would be used for ports rivers that flow year around (provide power & transportation) public & private resources spent to build roads & bridges unlike continental countries, no customs barriers to hinder domestic trade

4 Provided favorable business climate
Role of Government Provided favorable business climate Passed laws protecting private property & provided stable government Fewer restrictions on private entrepreneurs than any other European country of the period Markets huge supply of markets gave G.B. ready outlet for finished goods exports quadrupled from 1660 – 1760 merchant marine could transport goods anywhere in world best markets not in Europe (countries protected own industry) America, Asia, & Africa (wanted sturdy, inexpensive clothing) provided by wool or cotton as opposed to silk, etc. demand from domestic & foreign markets showed inability of the old (cottage) system to fill demand new methods of manufacturing & inventions developed, initiating the Industrial Revolution

5 Technical Changes & New Forms of Industrial Organization
1770s & 80s – the textile industry took first major step towards the I.R. w/ creation of the modern factory In early 18th cent, G.B. surged ahead in cotton goods using the cottage method as the material became more “in-demand” new inventions came into being to increase production John Kay invented the flying shuttle (increased the speed of weaving) James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny (increased the speed of spinning yarn) Richard Arkwright invented the water frame (used water power to run a spinning machine) Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule (combined aspects of spinning jenny & water frame) Edmund Cartwright invents the power loom (allowed weaving of cloth to catch up w/ speed of spinning) Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin (could separate seeds from raw cotton 50x faster than a human)

6 more complicated machinery developed as demand increased as well
soon the cottage system could not keep up w/ demand for manufactured goods led to building of factories in cities or on rivers in the countryside caused cities to grow & towns developed around new factories as demand increased, cottage industries were forced out of business. more complicated machinery developed as demand increased as well The Steam Engine 1760s – James Watt created a steam engine that pumped water out of mines 3x as fast as earlier engines 1782 – Watt developed a rotary engine that could turn a shaft & drive a machinery Steam engines fired by coal, didn’t need running water for power Demand for coal increased, coal prod. quadrupled revolutionized production of cotton goods cotton processed so quickly had to be imported to keep up w/ demand mil lbs., 1787 – 22 mil lbs., 1840 – 366 mil lbs. allowed factory system to spread to other industries

7 radically transformed during I.R.
Iron Industry radically transformed during I.R. iron production changed little from Middle Ages to early 18th cent. 1780s – Henry Cort developed a new method of burning away impurities in pig iron (called puddling) Caused boom in iron production (caused by demand for machines) 17,000 tons in 1740; 3 million tons in 1852 Revolution in Transportation : networks of canals were built Railroads emerged in the 1830s & 40s Started in Germany in 1500s in mining operations England in 1600s 1804 – Richard Trevithick produced the first steam powered locomotive (pulled 10 tons of iron ore & 70 people at 5 mph) 1840 – G.B had 2,000 miles of rail 1850 – 6,000 miles of railroad track

8 The Industrial Factory
Factories became the chief means of organizing labor for new machines workers no longer owned means of production, just paid wages to run machines Factory sys. needed new type of discipline from workers owners couldn’t let expensive machines sit idle workers had to work regulated hours in shifts to keep things production moving at a steady pace pre-industrial workers & cottage industrialists had a hard time w/ this to instill such discipline required in some cases very detailed regulations (p.568) The spread of the Methodist faith helped factory owners of the early I.R. by emphasizing following a disciplined path laziness & wasteful habits were sinful acceptance of hardship in this life paved way for joys of the next life Early industrialists proved successful. The 2nd & 3rd generations of workers looked at a regular work week as part of life.

9 Britain’s Great Exhibition of 1851
world’s first industrial fair held at Kensington in London at the Crystal Palace covered 19 acres held 100,000 exhibits 6,000,000 people visited the fair in 6 months showed the wealth of Britain to the world Showed that G.B. was the world’s 1st industrial nation prod. ½ the world’s coal ½ the world’s mfd. goods G.B. cotton industry = all industry in continental Europe combined

10 The Spread of Industrialization
Industrialization began in G.B., spread to the continental countries of Europe & North America at diff. times 1st European countries – France & the German states North America – United States industrialization didn’t spread to other parts of the world until after 1850 Limitations to Industrialization France & German states didn’t experience the advantages G.B. had poor roads problems w/ river transit toll stations on important rivers customs barriers between states increased prices of goods guild restrictions generally less willing to take a financial gamble general upheaval from (French Revolutions & Napoleon) Also in 1815 – cheap British textiles flooded the market hurting the European textile industry by 1815, British machines were larger & more expensive

11 Borrowing Techniques & Practices
technical inexperience a drawback, but Continental industry could simply borrow from British ideas to combat this, British artisans were prohibited from leaving the country until 1825. until 1842, export of British machinery was forbidden regardless, by British mechanics on the continent & British machinery sold abroad legally or illegally Role of Government continental govts. accustomed to playing a role in industry provided for costs of technical ed., grants for inventors, sometimes financed factories governments assumed the costs of building canals & railways introduced tariffs to protect industry from cheap British goods the Continent also developed joint-stock investment banks Mobilized the savings of large & small investors back into industry ex. - Credit Mobilier in France, Darmstadt Bank in Germany

12 Industrial Revolution in the United States
1800 – U.S. agrarian society No cities population over 100,000 6 of 7 American workers were farmers By 1860 – tot. pop. grew from 5 million to 30 million Almost ½ lived west of Appalachian Mts States had more than doubled (16 > 34) 9 cities over 100,000 only 50% workers were farmers Steamboats & railroads very important to transportation of goods Labor came primarily from rural areas Women made up 80% of labor in textile industry As rural birth rates began to slow, immigrants replaced women & children in factories 1860 – New England was most industrialized region, per capita 40% higher than nat’l avg Myth of social mobility based on economic opportunity developed wealthiest 10% of people in cities controlled 70-80% of wealth

13 Social Impact of the I.R. Population Growth
Total pop. Europe in 1750 – 140 million 1800 – 187 million 1850 – 266 million Increase in population due to drop in death rate not increase in birthrate outbreaks of major epidemics decreased A.R. led to more food, so less death by famine & being better fed, people were more resistant to disease Irish Potato Famine Catholic peasants mainly rented from absentee British Protestant lords Potatoes produced 3 times as much food per acre as grain Summer 1845 – blight destroyed the potato crop & from over one million Irish starved & over 1 ½ million emigrated to the United States Emigration 1821 to 1850 – 110,000 immigrants came to U.S. each year In addition to 1.6 million Irish, there were 935,000 German immigrants from More often than emigrating, rural poor moved to urban areas to try to reverse their fortunes, so the 19th century was a time of great urbanization

14 ½ of total British pop. lived in cities
The Growth of Cities By 1800, London pop. 1,000,000 > by 1850 – 2,363,000 ½ of total British pop. lived in cities urban pop. on the Continent increased but less dramatically Paris 547,000 in 1800 1,000,000 in 1851 Germany & Austria only had 3 cities w/ over 100,000 in 1800 5 by 1850 Living conditions for poor very harsh (cramped & squalor) Lived close to factories in small apartments Wealthy middle class lived in individual homes in the suburbs

15 Workers in the Industrial Age
workers often tied to the factory or mine in a sense needed the job so they wouldn’t quit often indebted to the company, so they couldn’t quit horrible working conditions 12-16 hr. workdays, 6 days a week, ½ hr for lunch & dinner no job security, no minimum wage worst conditions in cotton mills dusty, dirty, degrees - 14 hours a day Coal mines very bad as well machines only lifted the coal out of the mine to the surface men, women & children still performed the labor dangerous: explosions, cave-ins, “bad-air”, dampness & cramped conditions Child labor favored in cotton mills easily broken to work, delicate touch, able to climb into cramped spaces 1838 – 29% of textile workers under 18 young as 7 worked hrs, 6 days/week, but paid 1/4 of an adult some factory owners against child labor, but were pressured by parents

16 Efforts at Reform The Workers
British govt. passed laws outlawing workers associations (1779 & 1780) Couldn’t stop trade unions from forming in new industries limited workers’ position by limiting # of people in a trade worked to gain benefits for members from employers these unions only worried about members of their own trade as Unions became more powerful, some were willing to strike Robert Owen helped create a national union the Grand National Consolidated Trades Union in 1834 Luddites were a group that attacked machines in the early 19th cent. because the machines threatened their employment Chartists made strides to improve workers conditions in the late 1830’s & 1840’s, encouraged change through peaceful means

17 Government Reforms Factory Act of 1833 1842 – Coal Mines Act
1st govt. efforts were a series of Child Labor laws from limited workday to 12 hrs max must be at least 9 yrs of age employers must educate child workers drawback: no penalty or inspection force for lawbreakers Factory Act of 1833 strengthened labor legislation all textile factories now included (factories & in-home workshops) children 9-13 could only work 8 hrs/day, work 12 hrs/day appointed inspectors could fine law-breaking owners 1842 – Coal Mines Act Outlawed employment of boys under 10 & all women in mines 1847 – Ten Hours Act 13 to 18 year olds work day reduced from 12 hours to 10 Women now also included in the 10 hour day

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