Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution Begins (1750 – 1850). Social Revolutions Paleolithic Rev. over 4 million yrs ago first stone tools hunting, gathering Neolithic."— Presentation transcript:
Social Revolutions Paleolithic Rev. over 4 million yrs ago first stone tools hunting, gathering Neolithic Revolution * 10,000 years ago * farming begins * domesticated animals
Agricultural Revolution Charles Townsend's crop rotation plant different crop each year
Enclosure Movement English landowners bought and fenced village land. Farmers had to pay to use of the land Forced to make the most out of their land Farmers moved to cities.
Weekly Budget for a Family of Seven in Manchester England, 1830s Total Income = $6.25 Expenses: Butter.31Bread.12 Tea.09Sugar.18 Oatmeal.13Pepper/salt.06 Bacon.18Coal.38 Potatoes.33Rent.87 Milk.43TOTAL $4.47 Meat (1lb).14 Soap, candles.25
Enclosure Movement in Great Britain From 1727 to 1845 there were 1,385 enclosure acts. From 1700 to 1845 about 14,000,000 acres were enclosed which was a quarter of the arable land in the country. In 1873, 2,250 persons owned about half the land of England How many total acres of arable land were there in England? If 2,250 people owned half the land of England how many acres did each own, on average?
Jethro Tull’s Seed Drill 1. sow seeds in rows, at specific depths 2. larger share of seed germinated. 3. crop yields increased 4. population increased
Dawn of Industrial Age How did an agricultural revolution contribute to a population explosion?
A Population Explosion Causes: 1.The agricultural revolution contributed to a rapid growth of population that continues today. 2.The population boom of the 1700s was due more to declining death rates than to rising birthrates. How?
Why England? Manchester a “Premier Industrial City” cheap agricultural products (wool-sheep, flax-linen, cotton from colonies) no church control capital large work force natural resources democratic
Colonies A- mercantilism made England rich B- “The sun never sets on the British Empire.”
The Textile Industry Why? Cotton was used for everything! Sails for ships, clothing Need more cotton Whitney’s cotton gin Need fast producing machines
Cottage Industry Textile Industry Inventions 1764 Flying Shuttle –weaving 1733 -Spinning Jenny
From Cottage/Domestic System to the Factory System Flying shuttle for hand loom = wider fabric, faster weaving Hargreaves’ spinning jenny (home use) = more yarn needed Arkwright’s water frame (factory spinning) = More cotton needed Eli Whitney’s cotton gin = faster removal of seeds Growers raise more cotton
Factory System 1964 The Water Frame started the first factory system
Mother Necessity Merchants compete to sell cheaper, better goods need to lower costs need quicker transportation need bigger factories need more markets shift to SKILLED workers
Energy Revolution - Steam Power Not all factories could be near water Need for new power machinery 1st Newcomen, then Watt’s improved steam engine
John McAdam roadbed of large crushed stones with smooth layer of crushed stones. The "macadam" road is still the basis for most of our modern highways.
The waterframe was an invention that benefited which industry? a)the iron industry b)the transportation industry c)the textile industry d)the railroad industry The trip from London to Manchester took how much longer in 1750 than in 1850? a) approximately 70 hours b) approximately 5 hours c) approximately 100 hours d) approximately 30 hours
Which was true of life in the factory system? a) Women were not permitted to work in the factories b) Workers who were sick or injured benefited from insurance. c) Laws prevented workers from working more than eight hours a day. d) Many people worked 12 to 16 hours a day. Which was a benefit of the Industrial Revolution? a)the cost of railroad travel rose. b) wages fell. c) the poor lived in decent homes & neighborhoods. d) More jobs were created.
Communications 1844 Morse Code telegraph 1866 Atlantic cable connects N. America and Europe 1884 Bell Telephone replaced telegraph 1886 Marconi “wireless”
Which was a result of the enclosure movement? a) Farm output dropped. b) Farm output rose. c) Farm output stayed the same. d) More people became involved in farming. All of the following contributed to the population explosion except a) Women ate better. b) Peasant farmers gained more land. c) Hygiene and sanitation improved. d) Medical care improved.
Effects - Social Urbanization No sanitary or building codes Lack of adequate housing & education Child Labor 14+ hours a day One 40 min. break 1830 Manchester Family of Seven earned $6.25/week!
Life Expectancy LeedsLiverpool Gentlemen 44Gentlemen 34 Tradesman 27Tradesman 22 Industrial Worker 19Industrial Worker 15 Average Life Expectancy 1980s = 70-75
Effects of Industrial Revolution Urbanization 1600= 10% 1850= 40% Today = 80% Depletion of natural resources
Pollution Desertification Globalization Global Warming Environmental Effects
Higher Standard of Living lower prices quantity over quality shrinking world slums, homeless labor unions illegal stock corporations automation replaces workers
Effect = New Social Order Before After Rich industrialized nations vs. Poor “third world” nations New wealthy Middle Class
Socialism & Communism (Marx) Socialism - workers share the wealth Workers were exploited proletariat to unite and overthrow factory owners dictatorship of the proletariat Communism = society run by working class, no government necessary Karl Marx
Why??? –unions now legal –nationalism –end of laissez faire Marx’s Communism does not occur
Workers’ Rights Starts in England Reform Act of 1832 = representation for cities Reform Bill of 1867 = universal male suffrage 1825 = Legalization of Trade Unions 1911 House of Commons takes all legislative power 1918 = women suffrage
Spread of Industrialization From England to Germany, France and United States (Gilded Age) Japan in 1854 Russia begins by 1900
A Turning Point in History Why was the Industrial Revolution a turning point in world history?
Industrial Rev. Leads to Imperialism Get cheap raw materials from colonies Use colonies as market to sell products