Presentation on theme: "Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the."— Presentation transcript:
Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)
Farming in the Middle Ages: Disadvantages: Forces for change: Graphic: Enclosure Movement: Crop Rotation: Other Discoveries: Results of the Agricultural Revolution: Graphic:
Farming in the Middle Ages: Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming) One of three fields left fallow (empty_ to regain fertility Animals grazed in common pastures Disadvantages: Land use was inefficient Farmers didn’t experiment with new farming methods. Forces for change: Population growing- more food is needed French blockade- no corn- more food is needed.
Enclosure Movement: Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and experimented with new farming technology Villages lost common lands and political power, peasants became poorer Crop Rotation: Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop replenished by planting different crops Fields not left inefficiently fallow. Other Discoveries: Seed drill planted seeds efficiently New crops: Corn and potato Results of the Agricultural Revolution: More food available Population increased
Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry: Capitalism: Effects of the Cottage Industry: Graphic: Textile Industry Invented: Rise of the Factory: Effects of Textile Factories in Britain: Graphic:
Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry: Supplied materials- wool and cotton- to cottages to be carded and spun Took supplies from spinning cottage to weaving cottage to dying cottage to sell finished cloth Merchants sell product for mote than material and labor costs= profit +larger investment= higher profit. Capitalism: An economic system based on private ownership, free competition, and profit Cottage industry is an example of early capitalism. Effects of the Cottage Industry: Big profits for new class of merchants Alternative source of income for peasants
Shift from Cottage Industry to Factory Work
Textile Industry Invented: Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improved spinning Power loom sped up weaving Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton Rise of the Factory: New machines, often too big for homes, were put in factories Factories located new power source: coal, iron, water Effects of Textile Factories in Britain: Prices of mass-produced textiles were much lower than hand produced items Britain’s textile industry increased enormously ‘Majority of villagers forced to leave to find work in urban factories.
The Need for Energy: How the Steam Engine Worked: Effect of Steam Engine: Graphic: The Need for Iron: The Need for Coal: Effect of Iron and Coal: Graphic:
The Need for Energy: Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water mills Steam engine evolved in response to the increasing need for power How the Steam Engine Worked: Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power Effect of Steam Engine: Steam Power, used wherever coal existed, increased textile production Improved mining which increased metal which in turn fueled other industries
The Need for Iron: Farming tools, new factory machinery, railways Smelting makes iron more pure, but requires carbon The Need for Coal: Carbon necessary for smelting iron Steam engines powered by coal Effect of Iron and Coal: Britain produced more iron than all other countries of the world combined Coal powered Britain’s enormous navy.
The Need for Better Transportation: Inventions: Effects of Railroads: Graphic: Geography: Government: Social Factors: Colonial Empire: Advantages of Industrializing First::
The Need for Better Transportation: Increased production increased need to transport goods quickly and cheaply Pre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and dirt roads Inventions: Stone and eventually asphalt roads Canals Railroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829 Effects of Railroads: Expanded rapidly throughout Britain Cheaper transportation increased production and profits Railways fueled other industries: Coal, steam engines, iron, steel, and many manufactured products
Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution
Geography: Climate good for textile production Plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal Separation from the European continent kept them out of wars Government: Internal trade encouraged Population allowed to relocate Helped build canals and roads Social Factors: British society less rigid than other European countries Colonial Empire: Supplied raw material for manufactured goods Provided market for goods Advantages of Industrializing First: No other countries competing for manufactured goods Monopoly on technology
Sensory Figures What do I see? What do I hear? What do I feel? What do I say? What do I smell? What do I touch?
Industry Develops in Great Britain Large population increase Expanding economy Political Stability Factors of production Creativity & new inventions Highly developed banking systems Many natural resources CausesEffects Enclosure MovementNew agricultural methods Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to cities Crop RotationNo more exhausted farm land Inventions in TextilesTook spinning & weaving out of house and into factories Transportation ImprovementsSteam engine, steamboat, road transportation, & locomotive RailroadsIncreased industrial growth, boosted agricultural & fishing industry, thousands of new jobs, & travel made easier (country to city)
U pper Class: rich entrepreneurs, factory owners, merchants, bankers Upper Middle Class: Government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers of factories Lower Middle Class: factory overseers, skilled workers, printers Working Class: Laborers
Industrial Changes Positive Effects Earn higher wages Heat homes (could afford it) Better food Better clothing Created jobs England’s economy grew Negative Effects Living conditions Working conditions Alcoholism Class tensions Domestic violence inc. Pollution
My book is called __________ The economic policy I support is ____________. The pamphlet I co-authored is called ___________ The economic policy I support is ___________ The Wealth of Nations Capitalism Communist Manifesto Socialism
Britain’s Steps Toward Democracy Chapter 26
Fewer than 5% of the population has the right to vote Politics dominated by wealthy men Religious restrictions on voting and holding office Rotten boroughs Removal of religious restrictions Trade unions legalized Vote extended to most male property owners Redistribution of seats in House of commons Slavery abolished in Britain and British colonies
Vote extended to working-class men Free elementary education for all children Vote extended to include most men Secret ballot introduced Reforms in public housing & health
Restrictions on power of the House of Lords Vote extended to women over 30 Vote extended to all women
When? Where? Organizations? Accomplishments? 1800s Britain Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) organized the movement brought attention to the cause success was gradual, right to vote does not come until after WWI
Anti-Semitism Definition: prejudice against Jews The Dreyfus Affair- Jewish Officer Dreyfus, France, accused of selling military secrets to Germany- found guilty, but evidence shows he was framed Leads to widespread anti- Semitism in Europe- pogroms Rise of Zionism- movement for a Jewish homeland in Palestine An anti-Dreyfus poster: Jews are being driven out of France. The caption reads: "Long live France! Long live the Army! Down with the Jews! Death to the traitors!" The poster also calls for a boycott of Jewish shops.
What? Where? When? Accomplishments? 19 th -century Britain, members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men. Britain 19 th -century (1838) By the early 1900s: Suffrage for all men & secret ballot
Who? Ideas? When? Accomplishments? Wrote book: The Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859) English Naturalist (Scientist) Survival of the Fittest Theory of Evolution Late 19 th -century
Overview of Imperialism
Make a Web of the Factors Enabling the Scramble for Africa Military Force: Better Technology Railways and Steam Engines: travel inland Need Raw Materials to Industrialize: diamonds, gold, ivory Racism: Social Darwinism Cultural and Language Diversity: over 1000 languages Ethnic and Tribal Problems and Rivalries
Laid rules for dividing Africa b/t Europeans (NO African leaders) Divided with NO REGARD to native culture, language, or ethnicity Carved Africa into pieces (only 2 left independent)
Dutch Settlers Cape Colony Slave Trade Invade Lands Largest tribe in S. Africa Boer War: Dutch and British fight over diamonds and gold British win and control South Africa
Muslim states failed to keep European imperialists out of their lands. Review of Ottoman Empire : Capture Constantinople from the Byzantines in 1451 Convert the church Hagia Sophia into a mosque Suleiman the Lawgiver- expanded the empire and created a highly structured government Culture flourishes under Suleiman’s leadership Later: poor economy, weak leaders, weak nationalism Ottoman Empire tries to reform but fails. Egyptian leaders cannot complete modernization. Suez Canal Persia falls to economic imperialism. GEOPOLITICS Geography Application
MotivesActions RussiaWanted access to Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean Took territories from Persia by force BritainWanted Afghanistan as a barrier between Russia and India Took Afghanistan by force PersiaWanted to raise capital to develop resources Sold concessions to Europe Which two bodies of water are joined by the Suez Canal? Why was the building of this canal important? Where is the canal?
Chapter 28: Transformations Around the Globe China Japan &
1842 Treaty of Nanjing Taiping Rebellion 1899 Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion Opium War 1900 Internal ProblemsExternal Problems Overpopulation Widespread Hunger Opium Addiction Foreign Influence Became Sphere of Influence to many European Powers & US
EventDateForeign Powers Causes of EventEffects of Event Changes Made in China The Opium Wars The Taiping Rebellion The US Open Door Policy The Boxer Rebellion 1839Britain Chinese addiction to opium B refuse to stop trading opium with Chinese C defeated Treaty of Nanjing- Hong Kong Extraterritorial rights 1853 British French China’s poverty 20 mil. Chinese died Short lived Taiping Govt. Inc. foreign pressure 1899US US fears of external forces colonizing China Protected US trading rights Prevented C from being colonized Inc. foreign presence 1900 US & European Nations Frustration w/foreigners poverty Nationalism Established Constitutional government Reform movements
China resists foreign influence China falls to foreign influence China rebels against foreign influence
Japan Under Shogun Rule After AD 1000 Japan became increasingly feudalized, with various regions controlled by lords who retained samurai (warrior noblemen) to protect them and their property. In the late 12th century, the Minamoto family, led by Yoritomo, was one of the most powerful bands of samurai. After Yoritomo defeated a strong rival clan, the emperor of Japan gave Yoritomo the title of shogun (military commander in chief). The military form of government in Japan, known as the shogunate, survived through several dynasties until its demise in 1867.
Japanese Samurai in Armor A distinct social class, the samurai served powerful chiefs called shoguns, who ruled Japan from the 12th century until The samurai lived by a rigid code of conduct called Bushido, or “the way of the warrior,” which encompassed ideals of loyalty and sacrifice.
Japanese Feudal Society Emperor- No Power Daimyo- Landowners Samurai- defenders Peasants, Artisans, Merchants Shogun- Actual Ruler
Portuguese arrive in Japan (1543) Spanish, Dutch, and English traders arrive Japan acquires knowledge of European weapons and ideas Christian missionaries arrive Japan fears presence of missionaries will bring conquest by Western powers Japan suspects Japanese Christians will be loyal to Church instead of nation. Japan expels missionaries, persecutes Japanese Christians Japan bars Western merchants and bans foreign travel Foreign trade severely limited Japan’s only contact with the West comes through annual visit of a few Dutch merchant ships Internal trade booms Cities Grow Japan is forced to reopen relations with the West (1853) Japan Shuts the Door (Early 1600s)
Meiji Era Studied Western ways Modernized military Increased coal production Strong centralized government Universal public education Industrialized RR (1872)
ModernizationImperialism Claimed feudal lands for government Studied Western ways Industrialized Abolished extraterritorial rights Forced Korean ports to open Fought Sino-Japanese and Russo- Japanese wars Annexed Korea ChinaJapan Both Remains committed to traditional values Loses numerous territorial conflicts Grants other nations spheres of influence within China Finally accepts necessity for reform Have well- established traditional values Initially resist change Oppose Western imperialism Considers modernization to be necessary Borrows and adapts Western ways Strengthens its economic and military power Becomes an empire builder
Meiji Changes 1. Military Forces: FromTo 2. Military Technology: FromTo 3. Ruler (s): FromTo 4. Political System: FromTo samurai Imperial Japanese Army Well-trained Well-armed Strongest military power in Asia Primitive Modernized (modeled German Army & British navy) Tokugawa Shogun Mutsuhito (Emperor) Military dictatorship Emperor (Centralized Government)
5. People’s Participation in Gov’t.: FromTo 6. Economy: FromTo 7. Industry: FromTo Meiji Changes None Constitution (Representation) Isolated Modern World Market (Industrial) Tea processing & Silk production Industrial (RR’s, factories, ship building, etc.)
8. Education: FromTo 9. Gender Roles: FromTo 10. Land Ownership: FromTo 11. Cultural Pursuits: FromTo Meiji Changes No standards Universal Public Education Tough restrictions (Women escorted when travel) Women: Some rts. But segregates facilities Feudal Nobility controlled (wealth) Isolationism Discover Western ways
Learned from the West, Sent people to study in the West Invited Western experts to aid in development Had strong central governments Had well-organized bureaucracies Adopted Western business and banking methods Built railroads Improved ports Developed industry- factories became organized into monopolies Introduced social reform Resisted Western influence Western experts came in to represent Western companies Had weak governments Faced power struggles within governments Western investors controlled economies Westerners built and owned railroads Westerners developed and controlled ports Economies depended on one crop or resource Retained old social systems
Latin America After Independence: Majority of Latin American nations remained poor Latin Americans often worked for large landowners (workers went into debt) Debt was passed on from generation to generation (generational poverty) Unequal distribution of wealth and land in Latin America prevented social and economic development Rise of military dictators (Caudillos) Latin Americans lacked a voice in government
Latin America & Foreign Influence Britain & US main trading partners Not self-sufficient Borrowed money from foreign countries (unable to pay back loans) Foreign lenders threatened to take facilities that they funded by force (increased foreign presence) New age of economic colonialism emerged in Latin America
The US & Latin America Why did the US have an interest in Latin America other than for money? The security of the US depended on the security of Latin America. What was the Monroe Doctrine? Document created by President James Monroe in 1823 that stated that, “the American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” How was the Panama Canal built & what was America’s role in its creation? The US encouraged and supported Panama to fight for independence from Columbia. As a result the US was given the rights to connect the Pacific & Atlantic Oceans by way of the Panama Canal. It opened in 1914.
The Roosevelt Corollary Created in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to protect the economic interests of the US in Latin America. It stated that the Corollary gave the US the right to be an, “international police power in the Western Hemisphere.”
“Walk quietly & carry a big stick…” President Theodore Roosevelt
LeaderMajor Accomplishment Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Benito Juarez Porfirio Diaz Francisco Madero Emiliano Zapata Pancho Villa Venustiano Carranza 1833 Mexican President Started Liberal reform movement RR’s, banks, currency stabilized, & foreign investments Ousted Diaz/Called for democracy “Land & Liberty” Robin hood policy Adopted present day constitution & ended civil war
ChinaJapanLatin America Form of Imperialism Encountered Sphere of influence Concessions to Imperialist Powers Internal Problems Modernizing Effort Impact of Imperialism Sphere of influence Economic Imperialism Overpopulation Widespread hunger Opium Addiction feudal lands for govt. Studied western ways Industrialized Meiji Restoration Industrialized Adopted Western ways Hong Kong Sent citizens abroad to study Western govts. Creation of constitutional government Need for resources Lack of technology End of isolationism Panama Canal Lack of industrialization People in debt Poverty Panama Canal US dominant force in Latin America