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Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the.

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Presentation on theme: "Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)

2 The Industrial Revolution

3 Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Farming in the Middle Ages: Disadvantages: Forces for change: Graphic: Enclosure Movement: Crop Rotation: Other Discoveries: Results of the Agricultural Revolution: Graphic:

4 Traditional/Pre-Industrial Society
Farming in the Middle Ages: Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming) One of three fields left fallow (empty_ to regain fertility Animals grazed in common pastures Disadvantages: Land use was inefficient Farmers didn’t experiment with new farming methods. Forces for change: Population growing- more food is needed French blockade- no corn- more food is needed.

5 The Agricultural Revolution
Enclosure Movement: Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and experimented with new farming technology Villages lost common lands and political power, peasants became poorer Crop Rotation: Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop replenished by planting different crops Fields not left inefficiently fallow. Other Discoveries: Seed drill planted seeds efficiently New crops: Corn and potato Results of the Agricultural Revolution: More food available Population increased

6 Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry:
Capitalism: Effects of the Cottage Industry: Graphic: Textile Industry Invented: Rise of the Factory: Effects of Textile Factories in Britain: Graphic:

7 Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism
Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry: Supplied materials- wool and cotton- to cottages to be carded and spun Took supplies from spinning cottage to weaving cottage to dying cottage to sell finished cloth Merchants sell product for mote than material and labor costs= profit +larger investment= higher profit. Capitalism: An economic system based on private ownership, free competition, and profit Cottage industry is an example of early capitalism. Effects of the Cottage Industry: Big profits for new class of merchants Alternative source of income for peasants

8 Shift from Cottage Industry to Factory Work

9 The Textile Industry and Factory System
Textile Industry Invented: Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textiles Spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improved spinning Power loom sped up weaving Cotton gin separated seeds from cotton Rise of the Factory: New machines, often too big for homes, were put in factories Factories located new power source: coal, iron, water Effects of Textile Factories in Britain: Prices of mass-produced textiles were much lower than hand produced items Britain’s textile industry increased enormously ‘Majority of villagers forced to leave to find work in urban factories.

10 The Need for Energy: How the Steam Engine Worked: Effect of Steam Engine: Graphic: The Need for Iron: The Need for Coal: Effect of Iron and Coal: Graphic:

11 Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution
The Need for Energy: Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water mills Steam engine evolved in response to the increasing need for power How the Steam Engine Worked: Steam forced from high to low pressure produces power Effect of Steam Engine: Steam Power, used wherever coal existed, increased textile production Improved mining which increased metal which in turn fueled other industries

12 Iron and Coal: Energy for the Industrial Revolution
The Need for Iron: Farming tools, new factory machinery, railways Smelting makes iron more pure, but requires carbon The Need for Coal: Carbon necessary for smelting iron Steam engines powered by coal Effect of Iron and Coal: Britain produced more iron than all other countries of the world combined Coal powered Britain’s enormous navy.

13 The Need for Better Transportation:
Inventions: Effects of Railroads: Graphic: Geography: Government: Social Factors: Colonial Empire: Advantages of Industrializing First::

14 Transportation The Need for Better Transportation:
Increased production increased need to transport goods quickly and cheaply Pre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and dirt roads Inventions: Stone and eventually asphalt roads Canals Railroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829 Effects of Railroads: Expanded rapidly throughout Britain Cheaper transportation increased production and profits Railways fueled other industries: Coal, steam engines, iron, steel, and many manufactured products

15 Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution

16 Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution
Geography: Climate good for textile production Plenty of natural resources such as iron and coal Separation from the European continent kept them out of wars Government: Internal trade encouraged Population allowed to relocate Helped build canals and roads Social Factors: British society less rigid than other European countries Colonial Empire: Supplied raw material for manufactured goods Provided market for goods Advantages of Industrializing First: No other countries competing for manufactured goods Monopoly on technology



19 Sensory Figures What do I see? What do I hear? What do I feel?
What do I say? What do I smell? What do I touch?

20 Large population increase Political Stability
Expanding economy Large population increase Political Stability Industry Develops in Great Britain Many natural resources Factors of production Creativity & new inventions Highly developed banking systems Causes Effects Enclosure Movement New agricultural methods Forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to cities Crop Rotation No more exhausted farm land Inventions in Textiles Took spinning & weaving out of house and into factories Transportation Improvements Steam engine, steamboat, road transportation, & locomotive Railroads Increased industrial growth, boosted agricultural & fishing industry, thousands of new jobs, & travel made easier (country to city)

21 Upper Class: rich entrepreneurs, factory owners, merchants, bankers Upper Middle Class: Government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers of factories Lower Middle Class: factory overseers, skilled workers, printers Working Class: Laborers

22 Industrial Changes Positive Effects Earn higher wages Better food
Heat homes (could afford it) Better food Better clothing Created jobs England’s economy grew Negative Effects Living conditions Working conditions Alcoholism Class tensions Domestic violence inc. Pollution

23 Section 4: Reform and Economics
The pamphlet I co-authored is called ___________ The economic policy I support is ___________ My book is called __________ The economic policy I support is ____________. The Wealth of Nations Communist Manifesto Capitalism Socialism


25 Britain’s Steps Toward Democracy
Chapter 26

26 Removal of religious restrictions Trade unions legalized
Vote extended to most male property owners Redistribution of seats in House of commons Slavery abolished in Britain and British colonies 1830s Removal of religious restrictions Trade unions legalized 1820s Fewer than 5% of the population has the right to vote Politics dominated by wealthy men Religious restrictions on voting and holding office Rotten boroughs 1815

27 Vote extended to include most men Secret ballot introduced
Reforms in public housing & health 1880s Free elementary education for all children 1870 1867 Vote extended to working-class men

28 Vote extended to all women
1928 Vote extended to all women 1918 Vote extended to women over 30 Restrictions on power of the House of Lords 1911

29 Women Demand the Vote! When? Where? Organizations? Accomplishments?
Britain Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) organized the movement brought attention to the cause success was gradual, right to vote does not come until after WWI

30 Definition: prejudice against Jews
Anti-Semitism Definition: prejudice against Jews The Dreyfus Affair- Jewish Officer Dreyfus, France, accused of selling military secrets to Germany- found guilty, but evidence shows he was framed Leads to widespread anti- Semitism in Europe- pogroms Rise of Zionism- movement for a Jewish homeland in Palestine An anti-Dreyfus poster: Jews are being driven out of France. The caption reads: "Long live France! Long live the Army! Down with the Jews! Death to the traitors!" The poster also calls for a boycott of Jewish shops.

31 Chartist Movement What? Where? When? Accomplishments?
What? Where? When? Accomplishments? 19th-century Britain, members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men. Britain 19th-century (1838) By the early 1900s: Suffrage for all men & secret ballot

32 Charles Darwin Who? Ideas? When? Accomplishments?
Who? Ideas? When? Accomplishments? English Naturalist (Scientist) Survival of the Fittest Theory of Evolution Late 19th-century Wrote book: The Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)

33 Overview of Imperialism

34 Imperialists Divide Africa
Make a Web of the Factors Enabling the Scramble for Africa Military Force: Better Technology Racism: Social Darwinism Railways and Steam Engines: travel inland Cultural and Language Diversity: over 1000 languages Need Raw Materials to Industrialize: diamonds, gold, ivory Ethnic and Tribal Problems and Rivalries

35 Berlin Conference Laid rules for dividing Africa b/t Europeans (NO African leaders) Divided with NO REGARD to native culture, language, or ethnicity Carved Africa into pieces (only 2 left independent)

36 3 Groups Clash in South Africa Boers Zulus British Boer War:
Dutch Settlers Largest tribe in S. Africa Cape Colony Slave Trade Invade Lands Boer War: Dutch and British fight over diamonds and gold British win and control South Africa


38 Later: poor economy, weak leaders, weak nationalism
Muslim Lands Fall to Imperialist Demands Review of Ottoman Empire: Capture Constantinople from the Byzantines in 1451 Convert the church Hagia Sophia into a mosque Suleiman the Lawgiver- expanded the empire and created a highly structured government Culture flourishes under Suleiman’s leadership Later: poor economy, weak leaders, weak nationalism Muslim states failed to keep European imperialists out of their lands. Egyptian leaders cannot complete modernization. Suez Canal Persia falls to economic imperialism. GEOPOLITICS Ottoman Empire tries to reform but fails. Geography Application

39 Wanted access to Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean
Motives Actions Russia Wanted access to Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean Took territories from Persia by force Britain Wanted Afghanistan as a barrier between Russia and India Took Afghanistan by force Persia Wanted to raise capital to develop resources Sold concessions to Europe Which two bodies of water are joined by the Suez Canal? Why was the building of this canal important? Where is the canal?


41 Chapter 28: Transformations Around the Globe
Japan & China

42 China Responds to Pressure from The West
Internal Problems External Problems Overpopulation Foreign Influence Became Sphere of Influence to many European Powers & US Widespread Hunger Opium Addiction 1830 1839 Opium War 1900 1842 Treaty of Nanjing Taiping Rebellion 1899 Open Door Policy Boxer Rebellion

43 China and Japan Respond to Imperialism Open Door Opium War
Matthew Perry Meiji Era Boxer Rebellion

44 1839 Britain British French 1853 1899 US 1900 Event Date
Foreign Powers Causes of Event Effects of Event Changes Made in China The Opium Wars The Taiping Rebellion The US Open Door Policy The Boxer Rebellion Chinese addiction to opium B refuse to stop trading opium with Chinese C defeated Extraterritorial rights Treaty of Nanjing-Hong Kong 1839 Britain 20 mil. Chinese died Short lived Taiping Govt. Inc. foreign pressure British French China’s poverty 1853 US fears of external forces colonizing China Protected US trading rights Prevented C from being colonized Inc. foreign presence 1899 US Nationalism Established Constitutional government US & European Nations Frustration w/foreigners poverty Reform movements 1900

45 to pressure from the West
China resists foreign influence 1 China Responds to pressure from the West 2 China falls to foreign influence China rebels against foreign influence 3


47 Opium Addiction

48 Open Door Policy

49 The Boxer Rebellion 1900


51 Japan

52 Japan Under Shogun Rule
After AD 1000 Japan became increasingly feudalized, with various regions controlled by lords who retained samurai (warrior noblemen) to protect them and their property. In the late 12th century, the Minamoto family, led by Yoritomo, was one of the most powerful bands of samurai. After Yoritomo defeated a strong rival clan, the emperor of Japan gave Yoritomo the title of shogun (military commander in chief). The military form of government in Japan, known as the shogunate, survived through several dynasties until its demise in 1867.

53 Japanese Samurai in Armor
A distinct social class, the samurai served powerful chiefs called shoguns, who ruled Japan from the 12th century until The samurai lived by a rigid code of conduct called Bushido, or “the way of the warrior,” which encompassed ideals of loyalty and sacrifice.


55 Japanese Feudal Society
Emperor- No Power Shogun- Actual Ruler Daimyo- Landowners Samurai- defenders Peasants, Artisans, Merchants

56 Historical Turning Point
Commodore Perry 1854

57 Japan Reacts to Foreigners
Before After Portuguese arrive in Japan (1543) Spanish, Dutch, and English traders arrive Japan acquires knowledge of European weapons and ideas Christian missionaries arrive Japan fears presence of missionaries will bring conquest by Western powers Japan suspects Japanese Christians will be loyal to Church instead of nation. Japan expels missionaries, persecutes Japanese Christians Japan bars Western merchants and bans foreign travel Foreign trade severely limited Japan’s only contact with the West comes through annual visit of a few Dutch merchant ships Internal trade booms Cities Grow Japan is forced to reopen relations with the West (1853) Japan Shuts the Door (Early 1600s)

58 Emperor Meiji: Meiji Resortation Japan Industrializes

59 odernization W esternization MEIJI mperialism apan ndustrialization

60 Meiji Era Meiji Era Industrialized Universal public education
Increased coal production Meiji Era Meiji Era RR (1872) Strong centralized government Studied Western ways Modernized military

61 China Japan Both Remains committed to traditional values
Modernization Imperialism Abolished extraterritorial rights Claimed feudal lands for government Forced Korean ports to open Studied Western ways Fought Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese wars Industrialized Annexed Korea China Japan Both Remains committed to traditional values Loses numerous territorial conflicts Grants other nations spheres of influence within China Finally accepts necessity for reform Considers modernization to be necessary Borrows and adapts Western ways Strengthens its economic and military power Becomes an empire builder Have well-established traditional values Initially resist change Oppose Western imperialism

62 Meiji Changes 1. Military Forces: 2. Military Technology:
From To 2. Military Technology: 3. Ruler (s): 4. Political System: Imperial Japanese Army Well-trained Well-armed Strongest military power in Asia samurai Modernized (modeled German Army & British navy) Primitive Mutsuhito (Emperor) Tokugawa Shogun Emperor (Centralized Government) Military dictatorship

63 Meiji Changes 5. People’s Participation in Gov’t.: 6. Economy:
From To 6. Economy: 7. Industry: Constitution (Representation) None Modern World Market (Industrial) Isolated Industrial (RR’s, factories, ship building, etc.) Tea processing & Silk production

64 Meiji Changes 8. Education: 9. Gender Roles: 10. Land Ownership:
From To 9. Gender Roles: 10. Land Ownership: 11. Cultural Pursuits: Universal Public Education No standards Tough restrictions (Women escorted when travel) Women: Some rts. But segregates facilities Feudal Nobility controlled (wealth) Discover Western ways Isolationism

65 Other Asian Nations (AKA China)
Japan (and Thailand) Other Asian Nations (AKA China) Resisted Western influence Western experts came in to represent Western companies Had weak governments Faced power struggles within governments Western investors controlled economies Westerners built and owned railroads Westerners developed and controlled ports Economies depended on one crop or resource Retained old social systems Learned from the West, Sent people to study in the West Invited Western experts to aid in development Had strong central governments Had well-organized bureaucracies Adopted Western business and banking methods Built railroads Improved ports Developed industry- factories became organized into monopolies Introduced social reform

66 Latin America

67 Latin America After Independence:
Majority of Latin American nations remained poor Latin Americans often worked for large landowners (workers went into debt) Rise of military dictators (Caudillos) Latin Americans lacked a voice in government Debt was passed on from generation to generation (generational poverty) Unequal distribution of wealth and land in Latin America prevented social and economic development

68 Latin America & Foreign Influence
Britain & US main trading partners Not self-sufficient Borrowed money from foreign countries (unable to pay back loans) Foreign lenders threatened to take facilities that they funded by force (increased foreign presence) New age of economic colonialism emerged in Latin America

69 The US & Latin America Why did the US have an interest in Latin America other than for money?  The security of the US depended on the security of Latin America. What was the Monroe Doctrine?  Document created by President James Monroe in 1823 that stated that, “the American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.” How was the Panama Canal built & what was America’s role in its creation?  The US encouraged and supported Panama to fight for independence from Columbia. As a result the US was given the rights to connect the Pacific & Atlantic Oceans by way of the Panama Canal. It opened in 1914.

70 The Roosevelt Corollary
Created in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to protect the economic interests of the US in Latin America. It stated that the Corollary gave the US the right to be an, “international police power in the Western Hemisphere.”







77 President Theodore Roosevelt
“Walk quietly & carry a big stick…”

78 Mexican Revolution Flag_of_Mexico.svg‎ (SVG file, nominally 1400 × 800 pixels, file size: 524 KB)

79 Mexican Revolutionary Leaders
Major Accomplishment Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna Benito Juarez Porfirio Diaz Francisco Madero Emiliano Zapata Pancho Villa Venustiano Carranza 1833 Mexican President Started Liberal reform movement RR’s, banks, currency stabilized, & foreign investments Ousted Diaz/Called for democracy “Land & Liberty” Robin hood policy Adopted present day constitution & ended civil war

80 China Japan Latin America
Form of Imperialism Encountered Sphere of influence Concessions to Imperialist Powers Internal Problems Modernizing Effort Impact of Imperialism Sphere of influence Economic Imperialism End of isolationism Hong Kong Panama Canal Overpopulation Widespread hunger Opium Addiction Lack of industrialization People in debt Poverty Need for resources Lack of technology feudal lands for govt. Studied western ways Industrialized Sent citizens abroad to study Western govts. Panama Canal Meiji Restoration Industrialized Adopted Western ways US dominant force in Latin America Creation of constitutional government

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