Presentation on theme: "Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the."— Presentation transcript:
1Topic 3: The Industrial Revolution (Chapter 25), Age of Democracy & Progress (Chapter 26), Age of Imperialism (Chapter 27), & Transformations Around the Globe (Chapter 28)
3Causes of the Industrial Revolution Farming in the Middle Ages:Disadvantages:Forces for change:Graphic:Enclosure Movement:Crop Rotation:Other Discoveries:Results of the Agricultural Revolution:Graphic:
4Traditional/Pre-Industrial Society Farming in the Middle Ages:Villages feed themselves (subsistence farming)One of three fields left fallow (empty_ to regain fertilityAnimals grazed in common pasturesDisadvantages:Land use was inefficientFarmers didn’t experiment with new farming methods.Forces for change:Population growing- more food is neededFrench blockade- no corn- more food is needed.
5The Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Movement:Wealthy landlords fenced in common pastures and experimented with new farming technologyVillages lost common lands and political power, peasants became poorerCrop Rotation:Fields depleted of nutrients by one crop replenished by planting different cropsFields not left inefficiently fallow.Other Discoveries:Seed drill planted seeds efficientlyNew crops: Corn and potatoResults of the Agricultural Revolution:More food availablePopulation increased
6Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry: Capitalism:Effects of the Cottage Industry:Graphic:Textile Industry Invented:Rise of the Factory:Effects of Textile Factories in Britain:Graphic:
7Cottage Industry and Early Capitalism Merchant’s Role in Cottage Industry:Supplied materials- wool and cotton- to cottages to be carded and spunTook supplies from spinning cottage to weaving cottage to dying cottage to sell finished clothMerchants sell product for mote than material and labor costs= profit +larger investment= higher profit.Capitalism:An economic system based on private ownership, free competition, and profitCottage industry is an example of early capitalism.Effects of the Cottage Industry:Big profits for new class of merchantsAlternative source of income for peasants
9The Textile Industry and Factory System Textile Industry Invented:Cottage industry couldn’t keep up with demand for textilesSpinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule improved spinningPower loom sped up weavingCotton gin separated seeds from cottonRise of the Factory:New machines, often too big for homes, were put in factoriesFactories located new power source: coal, iron, waterEffects of Textile Factories in Britain:Prices of mass-produced textiles were much lower than hand produced itemsBritain’s textile industry increased enormously‘Majority of villagers forced to leave to find work in urban factories.
10The Need for Energy:How the Steam Engine Worked:Effect of Steam Engine:Graphic:The Need for Iron:The Need for Coal:Effect of Iron and Coal:Graphic:
11Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution The Need for Energy:Early factories relied on horses, oxen, and water millsSteam engine evolved in response to the increasing need for powerHow the Steam Engine Worked:Steam forced from high to low pressure produces powerEffect of Steam Engine:Steam Power, used wherever coal existed, increased textile productionImproved mining which increased metal which in turn fueled other industries
12Iron and Coal: Energy for the Industrial Revolution The Need for Iron:Farming tools, new factory machinery, railwaysSmelting makes iron more pure, but requires carbonThe Need for Coal:Carbon necessary for smelting ironSteam engines powered by coalEffect of Iron and Coal:Britain produced more iron than all other countries of the world combinedCoal powered Britain’s enormous navy.
13The Need for Better Transportation: Inventions:Effects of Railroads:Graphic:Geography:Government:Social Factors:Colonial Empire:Advantages of Industrializing First::
14Transportation The Need for Better Transportation: Increased production increased need to transport goods quickly and cheaplyPre-Industrial society used horses, mules, and dirt roadsInventions:Stone and eventually asphalt roadsCanalsRailroad era ushered in with the Rocket in 1829Effects of Railroads:Expanded rapidly throughout BritainCheaper transportation increased production and profitsRailways fueled other industries: Coal, steam engines, iron, steel, and many manufactured products
15Steam Engine: Energy for the Industrial Revolution
16Why Britain Led the Industrial Revolution Geography:Climate good for textile productionPlenty of natural resources such as iron and coalSeparation from the European continent kept them out of warsGovernment:Internal trade encouragedPopulation allowed to relocateHelped build canals and roadsSocial Factors:British society less rigid than other European countriesColonial Empire:Supplied raw material for manufactured goodsProvided market for goodsAdvantages of Industrializing First:No other countries competing for manufactured goodsMonopoly on technology
19Sensory Figures What do I see? What do I hear? What do I feel? What do I say?What do I smell?What do I touch?
20Large population increase Political Stability Expanding economyLarge population increasePolitical StabilityIndustry Develops in Great BritainMany natural resourcesFactors of productionCreativity & new inventionsHighly developed banking systemsCausesEffectsEnclosure MovementNew agricultural methodsForced small farmers to become tenant farmers or move to citiesCrop RotationNo more exhausted farm landInventions in TextilesTook spinning & weaving out of house and into factoriesTransportation ImprovementsSteam engine, steamboat, road transportation, & locomotiveRailroadsIncreased industrial growth, boosted agricultural & fishing industry, thousands of new jobs, & travel made easier (country to city)
21Upper Class: rich entrepreneurs, factory owners, merchants, bankers Upper Middle Class: Government employees, doctors, lawyers, managers of factories Lower Middle Class: factory overseers, skilled workers, printers Working Class: Laborers
23Section 4: Reform and Economics The pamphlet I co-authored is called ___________The economic policy I support is___________My book is called __________The economic policy I support is____________.The Wealth of NationsCommunist ManifestoCapitalismSocialism
26Removal of religious restrictions Trade unions legalized Vote extended to most male property ownersRedistribution of seats in House of commonsSlavery abolished in Britain and British colonies1830sRemoval of religious restrictionsTrade unions legalized1820sFewer than 5% of the population has the right to votePolitics dominated by wealthy menReligious restrictions on voting and holding officeRotten boroughs1815
27Vote extended to include most men Secret ballot introduced Reforms in public housing & health1880sFree elementary education for all children18701867Vote extended to working-class men
28Vote extended to all women 1928Vote extended to all women1918Vote extended to women over 30Restrictions on power of the House of Lords1911
29Women Demand the Vote! When? Where? Organizations? Accomplishments? BritainWomen’s Social and Political Union (WSPU)organized the movementbrought attention to the causesuccess was gradual, right to vote does not come until after WWI
30Definition: prejudice against Jews Anti-SemitismDefinition: prejudice against JewsThe Dreyfus Affair- Jewish Officer Dreyfus, France, accused of selling military secrets to Germany- found guilty, but evidence shows he was framedLeads to widespread anti- Semitism in Europe- pogromsRise of Zionism- movement for a Jewish homeland in PalestineAn anti-Dreyfus poster: Jews are being driven out of France. The caption reads: "Long live France! Long live the Army! Down with the Jews! Death to the traitors!" The poster also calls for a boycott of Jewish shops.
31Chartist Movement What? Where? When? Accomplishments? What?Where?When?Accomplishments?19th-century Britain, members of the working class demanded reforms in Parliament and in elections, including suffrage for all men.Britain19th-century (1838)By the early 1900s: Suffrage for all men & secret ballot
32Charles Darwin Who? Ideas? When? Accomplishments? Who?Ideas?When?Accomplishments?English Naturalist (Scientist)Survival of the FittestTheory of EvolutionLate 19th-centuryWrote book: The Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859)
34Imperialists Divide Africa Make a Web of the Factors Enabling the Scramble for AfricaMilitary Force: Better TechnologyRacism: Social DarwinismRailways and Steam Engines: travel inlandCultural and Language Diversity: over 1000 languagesNeed Raw Materials to Industrialize: diamonds, gold, ivoryEthnic and Tribal Problems and Rivalries
35BerlinConferenceLaid rules for dividing Africa b/t Europeans (NO African leaders)Divided with NO REGARD to native culture, language, or ethnicityCarved Africa into pieces (only 2 left independent)
363 Groups Clash in South Africa Boers Zulus British Boer War: Dutch SettlersLargest tribe in S. AfricaCape Colony Slave Trade Invade LandsBoer War:Dutch and British fight over diamonds and goldBritish win and control South Africa
38Later: poor economy, weak leaders, weak nationalism Muslim Lands Fall to Imperialist DemandsReview of Ottoman Empire:Capture Constantinople from the Byzantines in 1451Convert the church Hagia Sophia into a mosqueSuleiman the Lawgiver- expanded the empire and created a highly structured governmentCulture flourishes under Suleiman’s leadershipLater: poor economy, weak leaders, weak nationalismMuslim states failed to keep European imperialists out of their lands.Egyptian leaders cannot complete modernization.Suez CanalPersia falls to economic imperialism.GEOPOLITICSOttoman Empire tries to reform but fails.Geography Application
39Wanted access to Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean MotivesActionsRussiaWanted access to Persian Gulf and Indian OceanTook territories from Persia by forceBritainWanted Afghanistan as a barrier between Russia and IndiaTook Afghanistan by forcePersiaWanted to raise capital to develop resourcesSold concessions to EuropeWhich two bodies of water are joined by the Suez Canal?Why was the building of this canal important?Where is the canal?
41Chapter 28: Transformations Around the Globe Japan&China
42China Responds to Pressure from The West Internal ProblemsExternal ProblemsOverpopulationForeign InfluenceBecame Sphere of Influence to many European Powers & USWidespread HungerOpium Addiction18301839Opium War19001842Treaty of NanjingTaipingRebellion1899Open DoorPolicyBoxerRebellion
43China and Japan Respond to Imperialism Open Door Opium War Matthew PerryMeiji EraBoxer Rebellion
441839 Britain British French 1853 1899 US 1900 Event Date Foreign PowersCauses of EventEffects of EventChanges Made in ChinaThe Opium WarsThe Taiping RebellionThe US Open Door PolicyThe Boxer RebellionChinese addiction toopiumB refuse to stop trading opium with ChineseC defeatedExtraterritorialrightsTreaty of Nanjing-Hong Kong1839Britain20 mil. Chinese diedShort lived Taiping Govt.Inc. foreign pressureBritishFrenchChina’s poverty1853US fears of external forces colonizing ChinaProtected UStrading rightsPrevented C frombeing colonizedInc. foreignpresence1899USNationalismEstablishedConstitutionalgovernmentUS &EuropeanNationsFrustration w/foreignerspovertyReformmovements1900
45to pressure from the West China resists foreign influence1China Respondsto pressure from the West2China falls to foreign influenceChina rebels against foreign influence3
52Japan Under Shogun Rule After AD 1000 Japan became increasingly feudalized, with various regions controlled by lords who retained samurai (warrior noblemen) to protect them and their property. In the late 12th century, the Minamoto family, led by Yoritomo, was one of the most powerful bands of samurai. After Yoritomo defeated a strong rival clan, the emperor of Japan gave Yoritomo the title of shogun (military commander in chief). The military form of government in Japan, known as the shogunate, survived through several dynasties until its demise in 1867.
53Japanese Samurai in Armor A distinct social class, the samurai served powerful chiefs called shoguns, who ruled Japan from the 12th century until The samurai lived by a rigid code of conduct called Bushido, or “the way of the warrior,” which encompassed ideals of loyalty and sacrifice.
57Japan Reacts to Foreigners BeforeAfterPortuguese arrive in Japan (1543)Spanish, Dutch, and English traders arriveJapan acquires knowledge of European weapons and ideasChristian missionaries arriveJapan fears presence of missionaries will bring conquest by Western powersJapan suspects Japanese Christians will be loyal to Church instead of nation.Japan expels missionaries, persecutes Japanese ChristiansJapan bars Western merchants and bans foreign travelForeign trade severely limitedJapan’s only contact with the West comes through annual visit of a few Dutch merchant shipsInternal trade boomsCities GrowJapan is forced to reopen relations with the West (1853)Japan Shuts the Door(Early 1600s)
60Meiji Era Meiji Era Industrialized Universal public education Increased coal productionMeiji EraMeiji EraRR (1872)Strong centralized governmentStudied Western waysModernized military
61China Japan Both Remains committed to traditional values ModernizationImperialismAbolished extraterritorial rightsClaimed feudal lands for governmentForced Korean ports to openStudied Western waysFought Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese warsIndustrializedAnnexed KoreaChinaJapanBothRemains committed to traditional valuesLoses numerous territorial conflictsGrants other nations spheres of influence within ChinaFinally accepts necessity for reformConsiders modernization to be necessaryBorrows and adapts Western waysStrengthens its economic and military powerBecomes an empire builderHave well-established traditional valuesInitially resist changeOppose Western imperialism
62Meiji Changes 1. Military Forces: 2. Military Technology: FromTo2. Military Technology:3. Ruler (s):4. Political System:Imperial Japanese ArmyWell-trainedWell-armedStrongest military power in AsiasamuraiModernized (modeled GermanArmy & British navy)PrimitiveMutsuhito (Emperor)Tokugawa ShogunEmperor (CentralizedGovernment)Military dictatorship
63Meiji Changes 5. People’s Participation in Gov’t.: 6. Economy: FromTo6. Economy:7. Industry:Constitution (Representation)NoneModern World Market (Industrial)IsolatedIndustrial (RR’s, factories, ship building, etc.)Tea processing & Silk production
64Meiji Changes 8. Education: 9. Gender Roles: 10. Land Ownership: FromTo9. Gender Roles:10. Land Ownership:11. Cultural Pursuits:Universal Public EducationNo standardsTough restrictions (Women escorted when travel)Women: Some rts. But segregates facilitiesFeudalNobility controlled (wealth)Discover Western waysIsolationism
65Other Asian Nations (AKA China) Japan (and Thailand)Other Asian Nations (AKA China)Resisted Western influenceWestern experts came in to represent Western companiesHad weak governmentsFaced power struggles within governmentsWestern investors controlled economiesWesterners built and owned railroadsWesterners developed and controlled portsEconomies depended on one crop or resourceRetained old social systemsLearned from the West, Sent people to study in the WestInvited Western experts to aid in developmentHad strong central governmentsHad well-organized bureaucraciesAdopted Western business and banking methodsBuilt railroadsImproved portsDeveloped industry- factories became organized into monopoliesIntroduced social reform
67Latin America After Independence: Majority of Latin American nations remained poorLatin Americans often worked for large landowners (workers went into debt)Rise of military dictators (Caudillos)Latin Americans lacked a voice in governmentDebt was passed on from generation to generation (generational poverty)Unequal distribution of wealth and land in Latin America prevented social and economic development
68Latin America & Foreign Influence Britain & US main trading partnersNot self-sufficientBorrowed money from foreign countries (unable to pay back loans)Foreign lenders threatened to take facilities that they funded by force (increased foreign presence)New age of economic colonialism emerged in Latin America
69The US & Latin AmericaWhy did the US have an interest in Latin America other than for money? The security of the US depended on the security of Latin America.What was the Monroe Doctrine? Document created by President James Monroe in 1823 that stated that, “the American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.”How was the Panama Canal built & what was America’s role in its creation? The US encouraged and supported Panama to fight for independence from Columbia. As a result the US was given the rights to connect the Pacific & Atlantic Oceans by way of the Panama Canal. It opened in 1914.
70The Roosevelt Corollary Created in 1904, President Theodore Roosevelt issued the Roosevelt Corollary to protect the economic interests of the US in Latin America.It stated that the Corollary gave the US the right to be an, “international police power in the Western Hemisphere.”
79Mexican Revolutionary Leaders Major AccomplishmentAntonio Lopez de Santa AnnaBenito JuarezPorfirio DiazFrancisco MaderoEmiliano ZapataPancho VillaVenustiano Carranza1833 Mexican PresidentStarted Liberal reform movementRR’s, banks, currency stabilized, & foreign investmentsOusted Diaz/Called for democracy“Land & Liberty”Robin hood policyAdopted present day constitution & ended civil war
80China Japan Latin America Form of Imperialism EncounteredSphere of influenceConcessions to Imperialist PowersInternal ProblemsModernizing EffortImpact of ImperialismSphere of influenceEconomic ImperialismEnd of isolationismHong KongPanama CanalOverpopulationWidespread hungerOpium AddictionLack of industrializationPeople in debtPovertyNeed for resourcesLack of technologyfeudal lands for govt.Studied western waysIndustrializedSent citizens abroad to study Western govts.Panama CanalMeiji RestorationIndustrializedAdopted Western waysUS dominant force in Latin AmericaCreation of constitutional government