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Dr. Wiechmann Sanger Unified School District Dr. J. Hannigan Central Unified School District.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Wiechmann Sanger Unified School District Dr. J. Hannigan Central Unified School District."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Wiechmann Sanger Unified School District Dr. J. Hannigan Central Unified School District 1

2 Enter in your “To Field” Word wall: Enter “684216” followed by a word “ compassionate For multiple choice just enter the number

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5 Educational Leadership 101 5

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8 5 Second Philosophy Check Which best describes your approach? 8

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11 Objectives Setting the framework for restorative justice – Missions of School – History of school discipline – Social justice issues related to excluding students from school – Consequences – Theoretical Framework Review how Sanger & Central Unified Started – Identify where we were – Talk about the process – Provide usable forms to get started – Be honest about where we are 11

12 Mission of Schools-Example The primary mission of any school system is to educate students. To achieve this goal, the school district must maintain a culture and environment where all students feel safe, nurtured, and valued and where order and civility are expected standards of behavior. Schools cannot allow unacceptable behavior to interfere with the school district’s primary mission (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013). 12

13 Quick Check #2 Write down what you think is the primary mission of your school or district regarding discipline. Discuss this with others at your table. Be prepared to share out. 13

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16 So what is discipline? Why does this matter? Out-of-school suspension and expulsion are the most severe consequences that a school district can impose for unacceptable behavior. Traditionally, these consequences have been reserved for offenses deemed especially severe or dangerous and/or for recalcitrant offenders. However, the implications and consequences of out-of-school suspension and expulsion and “ zero-tolerance ” are of such severity that their application and appropriateness for a developing child require periodic review (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013). 16

17 Educational History of Discipline The Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 (Pub L No , x 14601) popularized the concept of zero tolerance in the theory and practice of behavior control and discipline in schools and, in many cases, profoundly altered the entire discussion of these topics. Solidified by Columbine

18 So what is your district policy on discipline? Answer the following questions about policies at your school or district…… and why they are the way they are. – Student brings a gun to school – Sells drugs – Has less than an ounce of marijuana – Stole the teachers iPhone – Got in a fist fight – Threatens to stab someone 18

19 Educational Policy Outcomes According to the Education Commission of the States (2002), 64% of the states have passed legislation since 1993 that mandate student placement in alternative education schools or programs for various behavioral infractions “zero tolerance”. As a result, there are currently 10,000 alternative education schools and programs in operation across the United States, serving over 600,000 students who have been removed from comprehensive campuses. 19

20 Social Justice Outcomes Harvard Civil Rights project reported that over 3.1 million students were suspended from school and over 87,000 students were expelled under the pressure of policies that replaced professional judgment with mandated recommendations for suspensions or expulsions for major and minor behavioral infractions. 20

21 Social Justice Outcomes Continued… As with many educational policies the intended outcome is justice for all. Justice should be blind, however, like many educational issues, justice appears to be blind only to certain populations (Christle, Nelson, & Jolivette, 2004; Mendez & Knoff, 2003; SRA and Associates, 2000; Townsend, 2000). 21

22 Social Justice Outcomes Continued… African American students make up 17% of the school population, however, they account for over 32% of the suspensions. Comparatively speaking, White students make up 63% of the school population, however, they account for only 50% of suspensions. 22

23 Social Justice Outcomes Continued… Verdugo (2002) examined if minority students simply act out more, which lead to a higher percentage of suspensions and expulsions. He found that minority students were suspended or sanctioned more often under ambiguous rather than concrete violations. Minority students were suspended and expelled for violations that required an authoritative interpretation, such as class disruptions, or being a danger on campus. White students, however, were more often suspended or expelled for concrete violations, such as bringing drugs to school or possessing weapons. For California this was the k violation. 23

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26 Stand Alone k Violations State of California : Data Trends Defiance Suspensions (In School) Defiance Suspensions (Out School) Other Suspensions (In School) Other Suspensions (Out School) Total Suspensions Defiance Expulsions Other Expulsions Total Expulsions Hispanic Or Latino Of Any Race 54,88585,29618,591164,022322, ,6234,840 American Indian Or Alaska Native, Not Hispanic 1,3722, ,1348, Asian, Not Hispanic 1,5122, ,77411, Pacific Islander, Not Hispanic ,1003, Filipino, Not Hispanic 6991, ,6734, African American, Not Hispanic 18,04230,9036,34461,785117,074601,0951,155 White, Not Hispanic 21,28731,2218,27562,355123, ,6901,857 Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic 2,0423, ,84814, None Reported ,8713,

27 Observed vs. Expected Total Suspensions expected suspensionsDifference Hispanic Or Latino Of Any Race American Indian Or Alaska Native, Not Hispanic Asian, Not Hispanic Pacific Islander, Not Hispanic Filipino, Not Hispanic African American, Not Hispanic White, Not Hispanic Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic

28 Background Research on Discipline From Skiba and Peterson study (2002). Many of the students interviewed cited suspensions or being pushed out of school as a bridge to other trouble outside of school. One student noted “When they suspend you, you get in more trouble, cause you’re out in the street…and that’s what happened to me once" 28

29 Discipline Research Findings Ultimately, being suspended, being poor, and being a minority has developed into a triple threat of dropping out of school. For many of these students, graduating high school may be the first step to breaking a vicious cycle of poverty and criminal behavior, however, their ability to accomplish this may be taken out of their control by bias and racially motivated policies. 29

30 Discipline Research Findings Continued… Students who experience out-of-school suspension and expulsion are as much as 10 times more likely to drop out of high school than are those who do not get suspended or expelled. 30

31 Discipline Research Findings Continued… If the student’s parent(s) work, there may be no one at home during the day to supervise the student’s activity, making it more likely that the student (1) will not pursue a home-based education program; (2) will engage in more in- appropriate behavior ; and (3) will associate with other individuals who will further increase the aforementioned risks 31

32 Your District Data: How is your district doing? In your folder you have been provided with the k violations for the school year as reported by CDE. Review your numbers and share them with your table. What does your distribution look like? Be prepared to share out. 32

33 What does it mean? 33

34 It’s Always Been that Way!! 34

35 It’s Always Been that Way!! 35

36 It’s Always Been that Way!! 36

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38 So what can we do? We can create systems that supports behavior interventions similar to academic interventions. 38

39 Balancing Discipline and Learning 39

40 RTI Academics 40

41 PBIS Behavior 41

42 Restorative Justice Look Familiar? 42

43 So what is Restorative Justice? Old School Way/Spare the Rod…. Restorative justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by inappropriate behavior. It is best accomplished through cooperative processes that include all stakeholders. – Justice requires that we work to restore those who have been injured. Empathy – Those most directly involved and affected by crime should have the opportunity to participate fully in the response if they wish. 43

44 Restorative Justice continued… For the growing number of districts using restorative justice, the programs have helped strengthen campus communities, prevent bullying and reduce student conflicts. Early adopting districts have seen drastic reductions in suspension and expulsion rates, and students say they are happier and feel safer. 44

45 Resiliency as a Theoretical Framework for Discipline and Restorative Justice The idea of resiliency focuses on an individual’s ability to overcome obstacles and develop into a healthy productive adult. This line of research was first highlighted by Werner and Smith (1992). Protective factors are defined as positive relationships or connections to a healthy adults, a positive connection to school, a positive connection to home, or a positive connection to the community (Bernard, 2000). Empirical studies also support the idea that a student’s resiliency is powerful enough to help him/her avoid and overcome negative behavioral choices (e.g., drug use) and powerful enough to lead to higher educational outcomes. 45

46 Linking Resiliency and Protective Factors to Restorative Justice and PBIS Perfect fit for schools utilizing PBIS Policies based upon the protective factors of – Meaningful participation – High expectations – Caring adults 46

47 The Shift… From… Efforts to suppress misbehavior based on the view that misbehavior is evidence of failing students or classrooms. Authority driven disciplinary actions that focus only on the identified misbehaving students. Punishment and exclusion is used to control misbehavior and motivate positive behavior changes. To….. Recognizing and using the inherent value of misbehavior as an opportunity for social and emotional learning Restorative circles that bring together everyone who is most immediately affected by the incident. Dialogue leading to understanding and action to set things right and repair and restore 47

48 The Shift Continued….. Restorative justice emphasizes values of empathy, respect, honesty, acceptance, responsibility, and accountability. Restorative justice also: Provides ways to effectively address behavior and other complex school issues. Offers a supportive environment that can improve learning. Improves safety by preventing future harm. Offers alternatives to suspension and expulsion. 48

49 PBIS Tier 1 49

50 Restorative Justice Pyramid/PBIS Tier 1 Alameda County Health Care Agency: School Health Services Coalition 50

51 School-Wide Restorative Justice Relational Practices: working to understand – how individuals in the classroom or school – community relate to one another. Circles: coming together to facilitate student – and teacher connectivity. Routines/Respect Agreements: creating classroom values, such as – Classroom Constitutions, adhering to them, – discussing them, questioning them. Questioning Techniques: Ways to address students that helps them process through mistakes in a positive way. 51

52 Respect Agreement Example 52

53 Another Example 53

54 Resources Circles Teaching Restorative Practices with Classroom Circles 20and%20Scripts%20and%20PowePoints/Classroom%20Curriculum/Teaching%20Restorativ e%20Practices%20in%20the%20Classroom%207%20lesson%20Curriculum.pdf 54

55 General Questioning Strategies For all levels When challenging behavior: What happened? What were you thinking of at the time? What have you thought about since? Who has been affected by what you have done? In what way have they been affected? What do you think you need to do to make things right? To help those affected: What did you think when you realized what had happened? What impact has this incident had on you and others? What has been the hardest thing for you? What do you think needs to happen to make things right? 55

56 PBIS Pyramid 56

57 Restorative Justice Pyramid 57

58 Managing Difficulties Disruptions and fledgling conflicts should not require intensive intervention, yet without response, they can develop into top-tier crises. A restorative approach represents a shift in thinking for the school community: behavior issues provide youth with teachable moments. 58

59 Managing Difficulties Problem-Solving Circles: making space in the classroom to resolve conflict and solve problems. Restorative Conversation: having informal conversations using restorative dialogue to repair or prevent harm. Hallway Conferences: using quick conversations to understand how people were affected and take steps to prevent harm. Restorative Conference: meeting formally to prevent harm, enable people to resolve differences, and build social- emotional capacity through empathy. Peer Mediation: using a peer mediator to help resolve conflict before it becomes harmful. 59

60 A Peacemaking process (look at handout) 60

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62 Restitution Student makes amends for the result of his/her inappropriate behavior Fix, repair or clean up ‘problem’ situation Approval/agreement from the person(s) that were offended is obtained that the restitution will suffice Certification of completion from the person(s) that were offended is obtained 62

63 New and Improved: Detentions, Saturday School Incorporate a social skills component Behavioral lessons embedded- Detention more meaningful Saturday School Parent training component Early-release days may be another option Hands off academy PBIS academies based on behavior 63

64 Reflective Activities Student: Reflects on what happened Determines what could be done differently next time Develops a plan Teacher follows up with student at regular intervals Can be combined with other alternatives PBIS worksheets PBIS homework assignments 64

65 Peer Mediation Trained peers hear and review both sides of the situation Peers decide the outcomes Both parties must agree to abide by the outcomes Kids come up with very creative ideas! 65

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67 Cool-Off Passes Ideal for students who have difficulty managing frustration Student receives “X” number of passes for the week Pass allows student to go a pre-determined area to cool down and reflect If student has passes left at the end of the week, and additional reward is earned 67

68 Behavior Contracts Guidelines: Focus on only one behavior per contract Develop contract collaboratively with student Set realistic time frame and requirements Identify reward if contract is met Identify negative consequence if contract is broken Sample templates: Tough Kid Toolbox

69 Sample Behavior Contract 69

70 PBIS 70

71 Restorative Justice Pyramid 71

72 Intense Intervention Intense intervention focuses on rebuilding relationships and repairing harm. Practices at this level involve facilitated dialogue with those affected to determine what the harm was, what needs have arisen in its wake, and who has responsibility to address those needs. Discipline concerns at this level often involve people who were directly harmed. However, in just about all cases, the school as a whole or in part is also directly impacted. In some cases the neighborhood is affected as well. 72

73 Intense Intervention/PBIS Tier 3 Intervention Circles: making space in the classroom to resolve conflict and solve problems at the intense intervention level. Peer Juries: designating youth judge, jury, prosecutor, and defense attorneys. Youth Court Restorative Conferencing: meeting formally with those involved to repair harm, enable resolution of differences, and build social emotional capacity through empathy. Trained Mediators: Conflicts are significant and require the use of trained adult mediators. Formal Restorative Plan Formally established what will be done with signatures from all parties. Formal Restorative Plan 73

74 Peer Juries & Youth Court Many Different Versions Students presents their case before a community or school- based court. Panel of judges Majority opinion wins Judges trained in alternatives to suspension, provide rationale for their opinion. Community partners should be involved Non-hearing structured. Chaired by Judge. Student has already admitted guilt. Jury of peers listens to the case, asks questions of students, deliberates and renders restorative justice consequences Court’s decision is binding. 74

75 Alternative Schedule: Structured Day or Recess Elementary Schools: One morning teacher; One afternoon teacher Secondary: Able to earn attending an elective that is highly preferred by the student Allow student to attend a preferred elective throughout the year/semester rather than rotating through electives that are non-preferred If a preferred elective is not available for the student’s grade, allow student to enroll, or combine with above 75

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77 Sanger Unified’s Formal Plan Formal Restorative Plan 77

78 Progress Check #3 Take a few minutes to write down programs that your district/school may be running that can be blended into RJ. If you already have a RJ program/philosophy working at your district/school write down how you can expand it or make it stronger. 78

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82 Developing Alternatives to Suspension Why? 82

83 Sanger Unified Reduction with Implementation of PBIS/RTI/RJ Look at the CDE for your data Total ExpulsionTotal Suspensions Physical/Verbal Altercations Possession of Knife/DO Drug/Alcohol Total ExpulsionTotal Suspensions Physical/Verbal Altercations Possession of Knife/DO Drug/Alcohol

84 Importance for schools...the why?: Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg. 45 minutes per incident) 1000 Referrals/yr2000 Referrals/yr Administrator Time 500 Hours1000 Hours Teacher Time250 Hours500 Hours Student Time750 Hours1500 Hours Totals1500 Hours3000 Hours

85 Sanger Unified Every Child, Every Day, Whatever it Takes Started with focus on academic achievement and a realization that students need to be in school to learn. Yes its rocket science. As our attendance rate increased, we have basically maxed out at 96.5% for the district, our academics increased and behavioral problems began to decrease. Started to also look at other ways students miss school and reporting student suspensions and expulsions to the board. BTW we also looked at the number of times students were sent out of class. May not be recorded as suspension, but end result is the same….. Missing instructional time. Led to district wide implementation of PBIS first and RJ next. 85

86 Restorative justice offers alternative school discipline processes. Rather than focusing on punishment, restorative justice seeks to repair the harm done. At its best, through face-to-face dialogue, restorative justice results in consensus-based plans that meet victim-identified needs. Central Unified Case Study: What Is Restorative Justice in Central? 86

87 Central Unified School District First Steps: PBIS Champion Model System Framework Respect Agreement in every classroom aligned with PBIS framework of school and classroom behavior expectations/rules Educating administrators and staff on peacemaking process Utilization of the Restorative Justice Agreement form (follow up process) Administrators using restorative justice as an alternative discipline approach 87

88 Challenges Issues – It takes more time!!! Yes it takes significantly more time! – Some are not going to like the idea of not suspending. They want a pound of flesh! – It will take time to get it into the culture of the school. It is very easy to slip back into the old way during the beginning. – Small Steps are good. Be honest about where you are in the process. 88

89 Nuts and Bolts Restorative Justice is not a one size fits all. All schools have some aspects of RJ in place. It may not be embedded in the culture yet, but it is there! I have not met one teacher, who when asked says they went into teaching to punish kids. 89

90 Ending Thoughts Yup it’s hard, but its worth doing. The Power of One 90

91 A Compliment Sandwich compliment area of growth 91


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