Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Effective & Practical Restorative Justice Practices

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Effective & Practical Restorative Justice Practices"— Presentation transcript:

1 Effective & Practical Restorative Justice Practices
Dr. Wiechmann Sanger Unified School District Dr. J. Hannigan Central Unified School District

2 Enter 22333 in your “To Field”
For multiple choice just enter the number 773676 Word wall: Enter “684216” followed by a word “ compassionate

3 https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/Rj8hpXTZzY30onj

4

5 Educational Leadership 101

6 Educational Leadership 101

7 Educational Leadership 101

8 5 Second Philosophy Check
Which best describes your approach?

9 https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/5bbMhf6h4WK2don

10

11 Objectives Setting the framework for restorative justice
Missions of School History of school discipline Social justice issues related to excluding students from school Consequences Theoretical Framework Review how Sanger & Central Unified Started Identify where we were Talk about the process Provide usable forms to get started Be honest about where we are

12 Mission of Schools-Example
The primary mission of any school system is to educate students. To achieve this goal, the school district must maintain a culture and environment where all students feel safe, nurtured, and valued and where order and civility are expected standards of behavior. Schools cannot allow unacceptable behavior to interfere with the school district’s primary mission (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013).

13 Quick Check #2 Write down what you think is the primary mission of your school or district regarding discipline. Discuss this with others at your table. Be prepared to share out.

14 https://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/lbfQJycgVAvCYfo

15

16 So what is discipline? Why does this matter?
Out-of-school suspension and expulsion are the most severe consequences that a school district can impose for unacceptable behavior. Traditionally, these consequences have been reserved for offenses deemed especially severe or dangerous and/or for recalcitrant offenders. However, the implications and consequences of out-of-school suspension and expulsion and “zero-tolerance” are of such severity that their application and appropriateness for a developing child require periodic review (American Academy of Pediatrics, 2013).

17 Educational History of Discipline
The Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 (Pub L No , x 14601) popularized the concept of zero tolerance in the theory and practice of behavior control and discipline in schools and, in many cases, profoundly altered the entire discussion of these topics. Solidified by Columbine 1999.

18 So what is your district policy on discipline?
Answer the following questions about policies at your school or district…… and why they are the way they are. Student brings a gun to school Sells drugs Has less than an ounce of marijuana Stole the teachers iPhone Got in a fist fight Threatens to stab someone

19 Educational Policy Outcomes
According to the Education Commission of the States (2002), 64% of the states have passed legislation since 1993 that mandate student placement in alternative education schools or programs for various behavioral infractions “zero tolerance”. As a result, there are currently 10,000 alternative education schools and programs in operation across the United States, serving over 600,000 students who have been removed from comprehensive campuses.

20 Social Justice Outcomes
Harvard Civil Rights project reported that over 3.1 million students were suspended from school and over 87,000 students were expelled under the pressure of policies that replaced professional judgment with mandated recommendations for suspensions or expulsions for major and minor behavioral infractions.

21 Social Justice Outcomes Continued…
As with many educational policies the intended outcome is justice for all. Justice should be blind, however, like many educational issues, justice appears to be blind only to certain populations (Christle, Nelson, & Jolivette, 2004; Mendez & Knoff, 2003; SRA and Associates, 2000; Townsend, 2000).

22 Social Justice Outcomes Continued…
African American students make up 17% of the school population, however, they account for over 32% of the suspensions. Comparatively speaking, White students make up 63% of the school population, however, they account for only 50% of suspensions.

23 Social Justice Outcomes Continued…
Verdugo (2002) examined if minority students simply act out more, which lead to a higher percentage of suspensions and expulsions. He found that minority students were suspended or sanctioned more often under ambiguous rather than concrete violations. Minority students were suspended and expelled for violations that required an authoritative interpretation, such as class disruptions, or being a danger on campus. White students, however, were more often suspended or expelled for concrete violations, such as bringing drugs to school or possessing weapons. For California this was the k violation.

24 https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/TGFdDvhjBQVM9az

25

26 Stand Alone 48900 k Violations State of California 2012-1013: Data Trends
Defiance Suspensions (In School) Defiance Suspensions (Out School) Other Suspensions (In School) Other Suspensions (Out School) Total Suspensions Defiance Expulsions Other Expulsions Total Expulsions Hispanic Or Latino Of Any Race 54,885 85,296 18,591 164,022 322,794 217 4,623 4,840 American Indian Or Alaska Native, Not Hispanic 1,372 2,316 577 4,134 8,399 24 123 147 Asian, Not Hispanic 1,512 2,712 748 6,774 11,746 6 186 192 Pacific Islander, Not Hispanic 627 899 232 2,100 3,858 3 48 51 Filipino, Not Hispanic 699 1,064 366 2,673 4,802 65 African American, Not Hispanic 18,042 30,903 6,344 61,785 117,074 60 1,095 1,155 White, Not Hispanic 21,287 31,221 8,275 62,355 123,138 167 1,690 1,857 Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic 2,042 3,831 911 7,848 14,632 9 185 194 None Reported 488 758 216 1,871 3,333 54 63

27 Observed vs. Expected Total Suspensions expected suspensions
Difference Hispanic Or Latino Of Any Race 322794 American Indian Or Alaska Native, Not Hispanic 8399 Asian, Not Hispanic 11746 Pacific Islander, Not Hispanic 3858 Filipino, Not Hispanic 4802 African American, Not Hispanic 117074 White, Not Hispanic 123138 Two Or More Races, Not Hispanic 14632

28 Background Research on Discipline
From Skiba and Peterson study (2002). Many of the students interviewed cited suspensions or being pushed out of school as a bridge to other trouble outside of school. One student noted “When they suspend you, you get in more trouble, cause you’re out in the street…and that’s what happened to me once"

29 Discipline Research Findings
Ultimately, being suspended, being poor, and being a minority has developed into a triple threat of dropping out of school. For many of these students, graduating high school may be the first step to breaking a vicious cycle of poverty and criminal behavior, however, their ability to accomplish this may be taken out of their control by bias and racially motivated policies.

30 Discipline Research Findings Continued…
Students who experience out-of-school suspension and expulsion are as much as 10 times more likely to drop out of high school than are those who do not get suspended or expelled.

31 Discipline Research Findings Continued…
If the student’s parent(s) work, there may be no one at home during the day to supervise the student’s activity, making it more likely that the student (1) will not pursue a home-based education program; (2) will engage in more in-appropriate behavior; and (3) will associate with other individuals who will further increase the aforementioned risks

32 Your District Data: How is your district doing?
In your folder you have been provided with the k violations for the school year as reported by CDE. Review your numbers and share them with your table. What does your distribution look like? Be prepared to share out.

33 What does it mean?

34 It’s Always Been that Way!!

35 It’s Always Been that Way!!

36 It’s Always Been that Way!!

37

38 So what can we do? We can create systems that supports behavior interventions similar to academic interventions.

39 Balancing Discipline and Learning

40 RTI Academics

41 PBIS Behavior

42 Restorative Justice Intensive Intervention Managing Difficulties
School Wide Prevention Practices Look Familiar?

43 So what is Restorative Justice?
Old School Way/Spare the Rod…. Restorative justice is a theory of justice that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by inappropriate behavior. It is best accomplished through cooperative processes that include all stakeholders. Justice requires that we work to restore those who have been injured. Empathy Those most directly involved and affected by crime should have the opportunity to participate fully in the response if they wish.

44 Restorative Justice continued…
For the growing number of districts using restorative justice, the programs have helped strengthen campus communities, prevent bullying and reduce student conflicts. Early adopting districts have seen drastic reductions in suspension and expulsion rates, and students say they are happier and feel safer.

45 Resiliency as a Theoretical Framework for Discipline and Restorative Justice
The idea of resiliency focuses on an individual’s ability to overcome obstacles and develop into a healthy productive adult. This line of research was first highlighted by Werner and Smith (1992). Protective factors are defined as positive relationships or connections to a healthy adults, a positive connection to school, a positive connection to home, or a positive connection to the community (Bernard, 2000). Empirical studies also support the idea that a student’s resiliency is powerful enough to help him/her avoid and overcome negative behavioral choices (e.g., drug use) and powerful enough to lead to higher educational outcomes.

46 Linking Resiliency and Protective Factors to Restorative Justice and PBIS
Perfect fit for schools utilizing PBIS Policies based upon the protective factors of Meaningful participation High expectations Caring adults

47 The Shift… From… To….. Efforts to suppress misbehavior based on the view that misbehavior is evidence of failing students or classrooms. Authority driven disciplinary actions that focus only on the identified misbehaving students. Punishment and exclusion is used to control misbehavior and motivate positive behavior changes. Recognizing and using the inherent value of misbehavior as an opportunity for social and emotional learning Restorative circles that bring together everyone who is most immediately affected by the incident. Dialogue leading to understanding and action to set things right and repair and restore

48 The Shift Continued….. Restorative justice emphasizes values of empathy, respect, honesty, acceptance, responsibility, and accountability. Restorative justice also: Provides ways to effectively address behavior and other complex school issues. Offers a supportive environment that can improve learning. Improves safety by preventing future harm. Offers alternatives to suspension and expulsion.

49 PBIS Tier 1 PBIS Tier 1 PBIS Teir 3 TIER 1 (BRONZE)
Teach & encourage positive School Wide expectations Proactive School Wide discipline (SWIS)- Monthly TIPS Agenda Monthly Effective instruction * Rachel’s Challenge *Restorative Justice Parent and Community engagement * Active Supervision Bully Prevention * Character Education Benchmark Of Quality (BoQ) 80 or higher * PBIS Tier 1 Walkthrough elements in place (score 30-37)

50 Restorative Justice Pyramid/PBIS Tier 1
Intensive Intervention Managing Difficulties School Wide Activities Relational Practices Circles Routines Respect Agreements Questioning Strategies Alameda County Health Care Agency: School Health Services Coalition

51 School-Wide Restorative Justice
Relational Practices: working to understand how individuals in the classroom or school community relate to one another. Circles: coming together to facilitate student and teacher connectivity. Routines/Respect Agreements: creating classroom values, such as Classroom Constitutions, adhering to them, discussing them, questioning them. Questioning Techniques: Ways to address students that helps them process through mistakes in a positive way.

52 Respect Agreement Example

53 Another Example

54 Teaching Restorative Practices with Classroom Circles
Resources Circles Teaching Restorative Practices with Classroom Circles

55 General Questioning Strategies For all levels
When challenging behavior: To help those affected: What happened? What were you thinking of at the time? What have you thought about since? Who has been affected by what you have done? In what way have they been affected? What do you think you need to do to make things right? What did you think when you realized what had happened? What impact has this incident had on you and others? What has been the hardest thing for you? What do you think needs to happen to make things right?

56 PBIS Pyramid PBIS Tier 3 PBIS Tier 1 PBIS Tier 2 TIER 2 (SILVER)
Check in/out *Tier 2 team reviewing behavior data twice month Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club Peer Mediation *Structured Recess Groups PBIS Tier 1

57 Restorative Justice Pyramid
Intensive Intervention Managing Difficulties Problem Solving Circles Restorative Conversation Restitution Hallway conferences Peer Mediation Peacemaking Written Agreements Meaningful detentions School Wide Activities

58 Managing Difficulties
Disruptions and fledgling conflicts should not require intensive intervention, yet without response, they can develop into top-tier crises. A restorative approach represents a shift in thinking for the school community: behavior issues provide youth with teachable moments.

59 Managing Difficulties
Problem-Solving Circles: making space in the classroom to resolve conflict and solve problems. Restorative Conversation: having informal conversations using restorative dialogue to repair or prevent harm. Hallway Conferences: using quick conversations to understand how people were affected and take steps to prevent harm. Restorative Conference: meeting formally to prevent harm, enable people to resolve differences, and build social-emotional capacity through empathy. Peer Mediation: using a peer mediator to help resolve conflict before it becomes harmful.

60 A Peacemaking process (look at handout)

61

62 Restitution Student makes amends for the result of his/her inappropriate behavior Fix, repair or clean up ‘problem’ situation Approval/agreement from the person(s) that were offended is obtained that the restitution will suffice Certification of completion from the person(s) that were offended is obtained Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

63 New and Improved: Detentions, Saturday School
Incorporate a social skills component Behavioral lessons embedded- Detention more meaningful Saturday School Parent training component Early-release days may be another option Hands off academy PBIS academies based on behavior Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

64 Reflective Activities
Student: Reflects on what happened Determines what could be done differently next time Develops a plan Teacher follows up with student at regular intervals Can be combined with other alternatives PBIS worksheets PBIS homework assignments Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

65 Trained peers hear and review both sides of the situation
Peer Mediation Trained peers hear and review both sides of the situation Peers decide the outcomes Both parties must agree to abide by the outcomes Kids come up with very creative ideas! Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

66 Analysis of Common Assumptions and
Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

67 Cool-Off Passes Ideal for students who have difficulty managing frustration Student receives “X” number of passes for the week Pass allows student to go a pre-determined area to cool down and reflect If student has passes left at the end of the week, and additional reward is earned Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

68 Behavior Contracts Focus on only one behavior per contract
Guidelines: Focus on only one behavior per contract Develop contract collaboratively with student Set realistic time frame and requirements Identify reward if contract is met Identify negative consequence if contract is broken Sample templates: Tough Kid Toolbox Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

69 Sample Behavior Contract

70 PBIS Teir 1 Tier 3 TIER 3 (GOLD) Function-based support * ISIS-SWIS
Wraparound/PCP Specialized interventions Tier 2 Teir 1

71 Restorative Justice Pyramid
Intensive Intervention Intervention Circles Peer Juries/Youth Court Restorative Conferencing Mediation (Trained Adult) Formal Contracts Managing Difficulties School Wide Activities

72 Intense Intervention Intense intervention focuses on rebuilding relationships and repairing harm. Practices at this level involve facilitated dialogue with those affected to determine what the harm was, what needs have arisen in its wake, and who has responsibility to address those needs. Discipline concerns at this level often involve people who were directly harmed. However, in just about all cases, the school as a whole or in part is also directly impacted. In some cases the neighborhood is affected as well.

73 Intense Intervention/PBIS Tier 3
Intervention Circles: making space in the classroom to resolve conflict and solve problems at the intense intervention level. Peer Juries: designating youth judge, jury, prosecutor, and defense attorneys. Youth Court Restorative Conferencing: meeting formally with those involved to repair harm, enable resolution of differences, and build social emotional capacity through empathy. Trained Mediators: Conflicts are significant and require the use of trained adult mediators. Formal Restorative Plan Formally established what will be done with signatures from all parties.

74 Many Different Versions
Peer Juries & Youth Court Many Different Versions Students presents their case before a community or school-based court. Panel of judges Majority opinion wins Judges trained in alternatives to suspension, provide rationale for their opinion. Community partners should be involved Non-hearing structured. Chaired by Judge. Student has already admitted guilt. Jury of peers listens to the case, asks questions of students, deliberates and renders restorative justice consequences Court’s decision is binding. Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

75 Alternative Schedule: Structured Day or Recess
Elementary Schools: One morning teacher; One afternoon teacher Secondary: Able to earn attending an elective that is highly preferred by the student Allow student to attend a preferred elective throughout the year/semester rather than rotating through electives that are non-preferred If a preferred elective is not available for the student’s grade, allow student to enroll, or combine with above Analysis of Common Assumptions and Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

76 Analysis of Common Assumptions and
Practices for Managing Antisocial Students • Assumptions: 1. Teachers need to be in control 2. Teachers need to establish authority 3. Children must not get away with behavior; otherwise what will other children think? 4. Students need to be settled down when they become agitated.

77 Sanger Unified’s Formal Plan
Formal Restorative Plan

78 Progress Check #3 Take a few minutes to write down programs that your district/school may be running that can be blended into RJ. If you already have a RJ program/philosophy working at your district/school write down how you can expand it or make it stronger.

79

80 https://www.polleverywhere.com/multiple_choice_polls/xz8FTNr7ZuTpAfQ

81

82 Developing Alternatives to Suspension Why?
Goal is to Change Behavior: Data indicate suspension is not effective in changing behavior Desire to move away from consequences as ‘punishment’ Discipline means ‘to teach’ Minority and special education students are over represented Negative Side Effects: Impedes academic success Dropout rate increases Students disengage from the learning process Developing Alternatives to Suspension Why?

83 Sanger Unified Reduction with Implementation of PBIS/RTI/RJ
Look at the CDE for your data Total Expulsion Total Suspensions Physical/Verbal Altercations Possession of Knife/DO Drug/Alcohol 76 995 353 12 118 85 1087 322 28 100 67 627 192 18 103 29 423 176 9 62 Total Expulsion Total Suspensions Physical/Verbal Altercations Possession of Knife/DO Drug/Alcohol 76 995 353 12 118 85 1087 322 28 100 67 627 192 18 103 29 423 176 9 62

84 Importance for schools. the why
Importance for schools...the why?: Time Cost of a Discipline Referral (Avg. 45 minutes per incident) 1000 Referrals/yr 2000 Referrals/yr Administrator Time 500 Hours 1000 Hours Teacher Time 250 Hours Student Time 750 Hours 1500 Hours Totals 3000 Hours

85 Sanger Unified Every Child, Every Day, Whatever it Takes
Started with focus on academic achievement and a realization that students need to be in school to learn. Yes its rocket science. As our attendance rate increased, we have basically maxed out at 96.5% for the district, our academics increased and behavioral problems began to decrease. Started to also look at other ways students miss school and reporting student suspensions and expulsions to the board. BTW we also looked at the number of times students were sent out of class. May not be recorded as suspension, but end result is the same….. Missing instructional time. Led to district wide implementation of PBIS first and RJ next.

86 Central Unified Case Study: What Is Restorative Justice in Central?
Restorative justice offers alternative school discipline processes. Rather than focusing on punishment, restorative justice seeks to repair the harm done. At its best, through face-to-face dialogue, restorative justice results in consensus-based plans that meet victim-identified needs.

87 Central Unified School District First Steps:
PBIS Champion Model System Framework Respect Agreement in every classroom aligned with PBIS framework of school and classroom behavior expectations/rules Educating administrators and staff on peacemaking process Utilization of the Restorative Justice Agreement form (follow up process) Administrators using restorative justice as an alternative discipline approach

88 Challenges Issues It takes more time!!! Yes it takes significantly more time! Some are not going to like the idea of not suspending. They want a pound of flesh! It will take time to get it into the culture of the school. It is very easy to slip back into the old way during the beginning. Small Steps are good. Be honest about where you are in the process.

89 Nuts and Bolts Restorative Justice is not a one size fits all. All schools have some aspects of RJ in place. It may not be embedded in the culture yet, but it is there! I have not met one teacher, who when asked says they went into teaching to punish kids.

90 Ending Thoughts Yup it’s hard, but its worth doing. The Power of One

91 A Compliment Sandwich compliment area of growth compliment


Download ppt "Effective & Practical Restorative Justice Practices"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google