Presentation on theme: "School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for School Counseling George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University."— Presentation transcript:
School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview for School Counseling George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut October
PURPOSE Provide brief overview of school-wide positive behavior support for all Rationale Features Examples Data
Context Matters! Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide
“Reiko” Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?
“Kiyoshi” Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?
“Mitch” Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly. What would you do?
“Rachel” Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it. What would you do?
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… Assess these situations Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003
However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?
“159 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!
“Da place ta be” During 4 th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Kiyoshi is in this school!
“Cliques” During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups. Mitch is in this classroom!
“Four corners” Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners. Rachel is in this school!
“FTD” On 1 st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card You are in this School!
Questions! What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!
SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior Get Tough (practices) Train-&-Hope (systems)
Worry #1 “Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “ That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief –Remove student –Remove ourselves –Modify physical environment –Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” Zero tolerance policies Increased surveillance Increased suspension & expulsion In-service training by expert Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response !
Erroneous assumption that student… Is inherently “bad” Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! Fosters environments of control Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior Shifts accountability away from school Devalues child-adult relationship Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences …….. Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback
VIOLENCE PREVENTION Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) White House Conference on School Violence (2006) Positive, predictable school-wide climate High rates of academic & social success Formal social skills instruction Positive active supervision & reinforcement Positive adult role models Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort
Worry #2: “Train & Hope” REACT to Problem Behavior REACT to Problem Behavior Select & ADD Practice Select & ADD Practice Hire EXPERT to Train Practice Hire EXPERT to Train Practice WAIT for New Problem WAIT for New Problem Expect, But HOPE for Implementation Expect, But HOPE for Implementation
SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making Integrated Elements
Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ALL SOME FEW
Responsiveness to Intervention
All Some Few RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Dec 7, 2007
1.Leadership team 2.Behavior purpose statement 3.Set of positive expectations & behaviors 4.Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior 5.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 6.Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations 7.Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation School-wide
Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged Active supervision by all staff –Scan, move, interact Precorrections & reminders Positive reinforcement Non-classroom
All school-wide Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum & practices Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior, including contingent & specific praise, group contingencies, behavior contracts, token economies Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior, including specific, contingent, brief corrections for academic & social behavior errors, differential reinforcement of other behavior, planned ignoring, response cost, & timeout. Classroom
Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- & data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes Targeted social skills & self-management instruction Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations Individual Student
Continuum of positive behavior support for all families Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner Access to system of integrated school & community resources Family
Agreements Team Data-based Action Plan ImplementationEvaluation GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started”
~80% of Students ~15% ~5% ESTABLISHING CONTINUUM of SWPBS SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement SECONDARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION PRIMARY PREVENTION
School Rules NO Food NO Weapons NO Backpacks NO Drugs/Smoking NO Bullying Redesign Learning & Teaching Environment
Saying & doing it “Positively!” Keep off the grass!
Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged
Employee Entrance at Tulsa Downtown Doubletree
Carmen Arace Intermediate, Bloomfield
Establish 3 to 5 Clearly Stated, Positive Expectations
Teaching Matrix SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. Expectations 1. SOCIAL SKILL 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
Teaching Matrix Activity ClassroomLunchroomBusHallwayAssembly Respect Others Use inside voice ________ Eat your own food __________ Stay in your seat _________ Stay to right _________ Arrive on time to speaker __________ Respect Environment & Property Recycle paper _________ Return trays __________ Keep feet on floor __________ Put trash in cans _________ Take litter with you __________ Respect Yourself Do your best __________ Wash your hands __________ Be at stop on time __________ Use your words __________ Listen to speaker __________ Respect Learning Have materials ready __________ Eat balanced diet __________ Go directly from bus to class __________ Go directly to class __________ Discuss topic in class w/ others __________
3-5 Positively Stated Behavioral Expectations across Texas
RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) RAHClassroomHallway/ Commons CafeteriaBathrooms Respect Be on time; attend regularly; follow class rules Keep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to pass Put trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and students Keep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toilet Achievement Do your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questions Keep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to class Check space before you leave, keep track of personal belongings Be a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found it Honor Do your own work; tell the truth Be considerate of yours and others’ personal space Keep your own place in line, maintain personal boundaries Report any graffiti or vandalism
RAH – Athletics RAHPracticeCompetitionsEligibilityLetteringTeam Travel Respect Listen to coaches directions; push yourself and encourage teammates to excel. Show positive sportsmanship; Solve problems in mature manner; Positive inter- actions with refs, umps, etc. Show up on time for every practice and competition. Show up on time for every practice and competition; Compete x%. Take care of your own possessions and litter; be where you are directed to be. Achievement Set example in the classroom and in the playing field as a true achiever. Set and reach for both individual and team goals; encourage your teammates. Earn passing grades; Attend school regularly; only excused absences Demonstrate academic excellence. Complete your assignments missed for team travel. Honor Demonstrate good sportsmanship and team spirit. Suit up in clean uniforms; Win with honor and integrity; Represent your school with good conduct. Show team pride in and out of the school. Stay out of trouble – set a good example for others. Suit up for any competitions you are not playing. Show team honor. Cheer for teammates. Remember you are acting on behalf of the school at all times and demonstrate team honor/pride.
Teaching Bobcat PRIDE at Lee Elementary
Family Teaching Matrix SETTING At home Morning Routine Homework Meal Times In CarPlayBedtime Respect Ourselves Respect Others Respect Property Expectations 1. SOCIAL SKILL 2. NATURAL CONTEXT 3. BEHAVIOR EXAMPLES
Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment –Planned/unplanned –Desirable/undesirable W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors
Reinforcement Wisdom “Student does not need extrinsic reinforcement if he(she) is successful” Skinner 1960
Acknowledge & Recognize
Acknowledging & Celebrating at Puckett Elementary
OMMS Business Partner Ticket Date: ________________ Student Name __________________________________ For Demonstrating: Safety EthicsRespect (Circle the trait you observed) Comments: ___________________________________________ Authorized Signature: ____________________________________ Business Name: ________________________________________ Colorado 5/06
Data & Outcomes
Elementary School Suspension Rate
NC Positive Behavior Support Initiative Dr. Bob Algozzine Schools w/ Low ODRs & High Academic Outcomes Office Discipline Referrals per 100 Students Proportion of Students Meeting State Academic Standard
80% students responding!
National ODR/ISS/OSS July 2008 K # Sch # Std781,546311,725161,182 # ODR423,647414,716235,279 ISS# Evnt638 avg/100# Day OSS# Evnt63024 avg/100# Day # Expl ,254,453 1,073,642
84% 58% 11% 22% 05% 20%
88%69% 08% 17% 04% 14%
July 2, 2008 ODR rates vary by level
July 2, 2008
What does SWPBS look like? >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them & give behavioral example because they have been taught, actively supervised, practiced, & acknowledged. Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed negative Function based behavior support is foundation for addressing problem behavior. Data- & team-based action planning & implementation are operating. Administrators are active participants. Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students
SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Comput er Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepare d. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, comput e. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/f eet to self. Help/sha re with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whispe r. Return books. Listen/watc h. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefull y. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriate ly. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriat ely.