# Contaminate Plume in an Office

## Presentation on theme: "Contaminate Plume in an Office"— Presentation transcript:

Contaminate Plume in an Office
John Dunec, Ph.D. COMSOL 4.2a

Welcome to the Lunch-Time Tutorials!
Solve One Problem Using COMSOL Multiphysics This Tutorial: Contamination Plume in an Office About minutes duration Short Q&A at end Upcoming Tutorials: Gate Valve Positive Displacement Pump One-Way Flapper Valve

Multiphysics: Multiple Interacting Phenomena
Could be simple: Heat convected by Flow Could be complex: Local temperature sets reaction rates Multiple exothermic reactions Convected by flow in pipes and porous media Viscosity strongly temperature dependent

COMSOL Multiphysics Multiphysics – Everything can link to everything.
Flexible – You can model just about anything. Usable – You can keep your sanity doing it. Extensible – If its not specifically there…add it! Trusted by 80,000+ Users Worldwide

Contaminate Plume in an Office
Convection Dominated diffusion lead to numerical instabilities Use Particle Tracing Module instead Particle Release in Hallway How much gets into office? 10 micron Particles Air Velocity

COMSOL Products Used – This Tutorial
Navier-Stokes from COMSOL Multiphysics (Turbulence would require CFD or Heat Xfer or Chem Rx Engrg) Particle Tracing Module

Tutorial Roadmap First: Setup and Solve AirFlow Choose Physics
Air Velocity First: Setup and Solve AirFlow Choose Physics Import Geometry Sequence Choose Materials (Air) Set Inlet & Outlet B.C.’s Mesh Solve Next: Add Particle Tracing Finally: Results Statistics 10 micron Particles

Flow Boundary Conditions
10’ x 10’ Office Office Door Wide Open Both Office Windows Open Light Breeze Down Hallway. V = 0.15 m/s P=0 P=0 Office Door Hallway Hallway P = 0 V=0.15

Disclaimer! This Flow is Actually Turbulent
Checking the Reynolds number – This should be turbulent flow The Problem Size gets much bigger Turbulence requires a much denser mesh Turbulence introduces more variables to calculate For this example we will ignore this (It’s a classroom example!) Want a quick solution Want small memory requirements Will show at conclusion of problem how to solve with turbulence

A Few COMSOL GUI Pointers
Everything you do is recorded in the Model Builder When in doubt … Right Click!

Step by Steps in COMSOL …

While it’s Solving … What about Turbulence?
Requires either the CFD or Heat Transfer or Chem Rx Engr’g Module k-epsilon Low Re k-epsilon k-omega Spalart-Allmaras

Simulation Should be Done Now!
Takes ~ 60 seconds on my desktop

Tutorial Roadmap DONE: Setup and Solve AirFlow
Air Velocity DONE: Setup and Solve AirFlow Next: Add Particle Tracing Add 2nd Physics Set Particle Properties Add Particle Forces (Drag) Define Inlets & Outlets Set What to do at Walls Add Transient Study 2-Step Solution Finally: Results Statistics 10 micron Particles

Step by Steps Using COMSOL …

While it’s Solving … What about Turbulence?
Requires either the CFD or Heat Transfer or Chem Rx Eng’g Module k-epsilon Select Turbulent Disp. in Force Window Link to Turbulence Model in Flow Generates random-normal forces on particle to include forces from turbulent eddies

Particle Release Options
Release on Boundary Mesh based Boundary Area based Boundary Grid based Release in Volume Coordinate-based

Mesh Based Particle Release (Inlet Node)
Refinement factor = 1 Refinement factor = 2

Density Based Particle Release (Inlet Node)
Expression = 1 Expression = 1/(x2+y2)

Projected Plane Grid (Inlet Node)
Aligns with x – y – z coordinate axes

Grid Based (Release from Grid)
Distributed over Domain

Simulation Should be Done Now!
Takes ~ 65 seconds on my desktop

Tutorial Roadmap DONE: Setup and Solve AirFlow
Air Velocity DONE: Setup and Solve AirFlow DONE: Add Particle Tracing Finally: Results Statistics Duplicate Results Dataset (2x) Add Selections – Office Add Selections – Window Calculate Transmission Probability 10 micron Particles

Step by Steps Using COMSOL …

Review Setup and Solve AirFlow Geometry & Materials Inlets/Outlets
Air Velocity Setup and Solve AirFlow Geometry & Materials Inlets/Outlets Mesh & Solve DONE: Add Particle Tracing Particle Properties Forces on Particles Inlets / Outlets Solve with Transient Finally: Results Statistics Transmission Probability 10 micron Particles

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Capture the ConceptTM Addendum Step-by-Step Instructions

Start by Solving for Airflow
Choose File > New Select “3D” Select “Fluid Flow” > “Single Phase Flow” > “Laminar Flow” Choose “Stationary”

Disclaimer! This Flow is Actually Turbulent
Checking the Reynolds number – This should be turbulent flow The Problem Size gets much bigger Turbulence requires a much denser mesh Turbulence introduces more variables to calculate For this example we will ignore this (It’s a classroom example!) Want a quick solution Want small memory requirements Will show at conclusion of problem how to solve with turbulence

Set up Geometry – Import Sequence
Choose Geometry Change “Units” to “Feet” Right click on Geometry Choose “Import Sequence from File” Navigate to proper file location (probably on CD) Choose “ContaminationPlume_GEOM_SEQUENCE” Build All, Zoom Extents Or you can build it from scratch (instructions at end of presentation)

Material: Air Rt Click on “Materials” Choose “Material Browser”
Expand “Built-in” Choose “Air” Be sure “All Domains” are selected

Airflow: Inlet Boundary Conditions
Rt Click on “Laminar Flow” Choose “Inlet” Choose the end of the hallway near the door Set to “Velocity” Normal inflow velocity U0 set to “0.15”

Airflow: Outlet Boundary Conditions
Rt Click on “Laminar Flow” Choose “Outlet” Choose the other end of the hallway Choose both windows Set to “Pressure, no viscous stress” P0 set to “0”

Mesh: Physics-based Mesh
Highlight “Mesh” Leave as “Physics-controlled mesh” Set size as “Extra Coarse” Build Note: This is way too coarse for accurate flow

Give the Nonlinear Solver more Iterations
Rt Click on “Study 1” Select “Show default solver” Expand everything under Study 1 Highlight “Fully Coupled” Change iterations from 25 to 50 Note: This controls max number of Newton iterations before giving up.

Solve for Flow Rt Click on Study 1 Hit “Compute” Under Results:
Rt Click on “Velocity” Choose “Slice” Choose “Quick” Choose “xy-plane” Planes: “1” Plot

Choose “Fluid Flow” > “Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow” Choose the blue “Next” arrow Choose “Time Dependant” Note: You need an additional study since particle tracing is transient whereas the fluid flow was stationary.

Set Particle Properties
Open “Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow” Highlight “Particle Properties 1” Change to “Specify density & diameter” Density: 2200 Diameter: 10e-6 Charge number: 0

Add Fluid Forces Rt Click on “Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow”
Choose “Drag Force” Select “All Domains” Set “u” to “Velocity Field” Note: for Turbulent flows (typical for room dispersion) you must select “Turbulent dispersion” in the “Drag Force” section. Do not select this in this tutorial

BC: Particle Inlet Rt Click on “Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow”
Choose “Inlet” Select hall boundary near door Change “Initial position” to “Density” Set “N” to “1000” Set density to “1” Set Initial Velocity to “Velocity field”

BC: Particle Outlets Rt Click on “Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow”
Choose “Outlet” Choose the other end of the hallway Choose both windows Leave as “Freeze” Note: The other likely setting is “disappear” – but then we cannot do statistics on the particles later

Walls – Change Condition to “Bounce”
Under “Particle Tracing for Fluid Flow” Highlight “Wall 1” Node Change “Freeze” to “Bounce”

Assign Stationary Solver to Flow only
Expand “Study 1” Highlight “Step 1: Stationary” In the “Physics Selection”: Deselect “Particle Tracing for Fluid”

Assign Transient Solver to Particle Tracing
Expand “Study 2” Highlight “Step 1: Time Dependant” In the “Physics Selection”: Deselect “Laminar Flow” Expand the “Values of Dependent Variables” section Select “Values of variables not solve for” Method: “Solution” Study: “Study 1, Stationary” Stationary: “Automatic” Note: This uses the flow solution obtained in study 1

Set Times and Solve Highlight “Step 1: Time Dependant”
Choose the “Range” button Start: “0” Stop: “360” Step: “2” Rt Click on Study 2 Hit Compute

Under Results: Expand “Particle Trajectories” Highlight “Particle Trajectories 1” Change “Line style” from “None” to “Line”

Set up Transmission Probability
Expand “Data Sets” under “Results” Rt Click on “Particle 1” > Select “Duplicate” Rt Click on “Particle 2” > Rename as “Particle 2 – RoomOnly” Rt Click on Particle 2 > Add Selection Choose ONLY room domain Rt Click on “Derived Values” > Choose “Global Evaluation” Dataset: Particle 2 Time Selection: Last Select expression as “Transmission Probability” Hit the “=“ sign to evaluate (27%)

Capture the ConceptTM Geometry Steps

Set up Geometry – Floor plan Workplane
Choose Geometry Change “Units” to “Feet” Right click on Geometry Choose “Workplane” Select “Quick plane” “xy-plane” Choose the “Show Workplane” button

2D Floorplan Geometry: Main Room
Right click on Geometry (under Workplane 1) Choose: Rectangle Width: 15 Height: 10 Position: Corner X: 0 Y: 0 Build

2D Floorplan Geometry: Hallway
Right click on Geometry (under Workplane 1) Choose: Rectangle Width: 20 Height: 4 Position: Corner X: -5 Y: -4.5 Build

2D Floorplan Geometry: Jog in Hallway
Right click on Geometry (under Workplane 1) Choose: Rectangle Width: 3 Height: 10 Position: Corner X: 12 Y: -14.5 Build

2D Floorplan: Union Hallway Rectangles
Right click on Geometry Choose: Boolean Operations > Union Deselect “Keep Interior Boundaries” Choose the two Hallway Rectangles Build

3D Geometry: Extrude Room and Hallway
Rt Click on “Workplane 1” Choose “Extrude” Set Distance as 8 [ft] Build

3D Geometry– Doorway Workplane
Right click on Geometry Choose “Workplane” Select “Face Parallel” Choose the Room wall that is closest to the hallway Choose the “Show Workplane” button

2D Door Outline: Door Rectangle
Right click on Geometry (under Workplane 2) Choose: Rectangle Width: 3 Height: 6.5 Position: Corner X: 3 Y: -2.5 Build

3D Geometry: Extrude Doorway
Rt Click on “Workplane 2” Choose “Extrude” Set Distance as 0.5 [ft] Build

3D Geometry– Window Workplane
Right click on Geometry Choose “Workplane” Select “Face Parallel” Choose the Room wall that is farthest from hallway, but parallel to hallway Choose the “Show Workplane” button

2D Door Outline: 1st Window
Right click on Geometry (under Workplane 3) Choose: Rectangle Width: 3 Height: 4 Position: Corner X: -5 Y: -2 Build

2D Door Outline: 2nd Window
Right click on Geometry (under Workplane 3) Choose: Rectangle Width: 3 Height: 4 Position: Corner X: 2 Y: -2 Build

Build 3D Geometry to Add Windows
Highlight “Geometry 1” in model builder Choose “Build all” button