ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES The City of Arlington occupies 98.77 square miles. In 1998 the population was 297,848 and there were 181,264 rounds of golf played. In the fiscal year 1997-1998 the Arlington Fire Department responded to 21,458 calls for fire, rescue and emergency medical service, from 16 fire districts.
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES SINCE 1991, THROUGHOUT THE COUNTRY, ELEVEN FIREFIGHTERS HAVE LOST THEIR LIVES IN VARIOUS HIGH-RISE FIRES. WE MUST PREPARE FOR HIGH-RISE OPERATIONS BECAUSE IT MAY OCCUR ANYTIME, AND ANYWHERE. THESE OPERATIONS REQUIRE A HIGHER LEVEL OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT THAN OUR TYPICAL OPERATIONS
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES This program has been developed to review the Department’s High-Rise procedures. It provides information regarding building IAP, initial company assignments, tactics, Incident Command, hose lays, standpipe systems, accountability, safety, and the applicable building and fire codes.
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES Since the high-rise PITP and Drill in October, 1992, personnel changes have occurred due to promotions, reassignments, and the hiring of 53 new personnel. Changes have occurred in equipment,apparatus and buildings. We will address these issues in this program.
HIGH RISE PROCEDURES INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Be able to identify and define high-rise structures as it relates to the City of Arlington ( A total of fifty eight ) Be able to explain the Regulations applicable to high-rise structures
HIGH RISE PROCEDURES INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Be able to describe the Standard Operating Procedures to be used in above-ground fire operations Be able to identify and discuss common above-ground construction techniques and their effects on the fire behavior factors
HIGH RISE PROCEDURES INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Be able to identify and explain the difficulties experienced in above-ground fire operations Be able to explain the Initial Assignments of the first five companies on a high-rise incident
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES REGULATIONS OR STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO HIGH RISE STRUCTURES 1997 Uniform Building Code ( current ) 1997 Uniform Fire Code ( current ) The Arlington Fire Department Standard Operating Procedures
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES DEFINITION OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS Uniform Building Code A building having floors used for human occupancy located more than (75) seventy five feet above the lowest level of Fire Department access.
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS The following structures meet the definition and height requirement as defined in the Building Code for high- rise buildings: ( A total of eleven structures ) BUILDINGS ADDRESS FLOORS YEAR BLDG CONST CODE First City Tower 201 E. Abram 8+P 1980 1976 Chase Bank Tower 500 E. Border 12+P 1982 1979 Arlington Wyndham 1500 Convention 19 1984 1982 Skymark Tower 1521 N. Cooper 8+P 1984 1982
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGS ADDRESS FLOORS YEAR BLDG CONST CODE Copeland Tower 1250 E. Copeland 12 1986 1982 Raddison Suites Hotel 700 Avenue H 8 1985 1982 Bank of America 2000 E. Lamar 7+P 1984 1982 Brookhollow II 2221 E. Lamar 9 1983 1982 Hilton Hotel 2401 E. Lamar 15 1983 1982 Reflection Bay Condos 2120 Reflection Bay 8 1985 1982 Harris Methodist Tower 611 Ryan Plaza Dr. 14 1968 N/A
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE PROCEDURES DEFINITION OF HIGH RISE BUILDINGS Arlington Fire Department A building having floors used for human occupancy located four stories or more above the lowest level of Fire Department access.
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS The following structures are considered high-rise buildings by general consensus of the fire department and the physical configuration of the structure ( four or more stories ): ( A total of forty seven structures ) BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS Bank One Center1301 S. Bowen Rd. 4 One Arlington Center1112 E. Copeland Rd. 5
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS Stadium Place1200 E. Copeland 5 R Way Inn2001 E. Copeland 5 Graywood Development700 Highlander 5 National Security Building701 Highlander 5 AMPI Building1600 E. Lamar 4 Brookhollow I2301 E. Lamar 6 Medical Center of Arlington3301 Matlock 4 Enterprize Center690 E. Lamar 5
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS Arlington Towers1600 E. Pioneer 5 Arlington Downs Tower2225 E. Randol Mill 5 Centerpoint IV2401 E. Randol Mill 6 Arlington Memorial Hospital800 W. Randol Mill 4 Centerpoint III600 Six Flags Drive 6 Woodmont Building100 E. South Street 5+P Holiday Inn1507 N. Watson Rd. 5 Howard Johnson’s117 S. Watson Rd. 6
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS Park Springs Place4025 Woodland Park 6 Days Inn Motel930 N. Collins St. 4 Baymont Inn2401 Diplomacy Dr. 4 Amerisuites2380 E. Rd. to Six Flags 6 The Ballpark1000 Ball Park 5 First Place Office Building301 S. Center 5 Texas Cancer Center515 W. Mayfield Rd. 4 Centerpoint II616 Six Flags Drive 4
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS Sleep Inn750 Six Flags Drive 4 Vandergriff Prof.. Bldg.1001 N. Waldrop 8 LaQuinta4001 Scots Legacy Dr. 5 Wingate Inn1050 Brookhollow Plaza 4 Candlewood Suites2221 Brookhollow Plaza 4 UTA Davis Hall701 S. Nedderman 4 UTA University Hall601 S. Nedderman 6 UTA Life Science501 S. Nedderman 6
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS UTA Pickard Hall411 S. Nedderman 6 UTA College of Business701 S. West Street 6 UTA Thermal Energy301 W. Third Street 4 UTA Carlisle Hall503 W. Third Street 7 UTA Needermen Hall416 Yates Street 6 UTA Hammond Hall701 S. College Street 5 UTA Library702 S. College Street 6 UTA Brazos Hall601 S. West Street 4
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT HIGH RISE BUILDINGS BUILDINGSADDRESSFLOORS UTA Science Hall502 Yates Street 4 UTA Wolf Hall500 W. First Street 4 UTA Fine Arts700 W. Second Street 4 UTA Stadium1307 W. Mitchell Street 6 UTA Engineering Building417 S. Cooper Street 6
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE When a high-rise building is constructed, it must comply with the adopted codes at the time of construction. Most of the UBC defined high-rise buildings in Arlington comply with the 1982 UBC. The Uniform Building Code prescribes the Fire and Life Safety features required for high-rise buildings. The 1982 Edition, Section 1807 show those features as :
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE Automatic Sprinkler System Smoke Detection System Alarm and Communication System Central Control Station (Fire Control Room) Smoke Control Elevators Standby Power, Light and Emergency Systems Exits
UNIFORM BUILDING CODE FIRE CONTROL ROOM The following controls, panels or items of equipment are required to be in the Central Control Station (Fire Control Room) in buildings above seventy five (75) feet in height : Voice alarm and public address system panels Fire Department communication panel
FIRE CONTROL ROOM PANELS AND CONTROLS HVAC System indicators and controls
FIRE CONTROL ROOM PANELS AND CONTROLS Elevator annunciator and recall panel
FIRE CONTROL ROOM PANELS AND CONTROLS Controls for unlocking stairway doors Sprinkler / Water flow detector display panels Emergency / Standby power controls
FIRE CONTROL ROOM PANELS AND CONTROLS Fire Pump status Indicator
FIRE CONTROL ROOM PANELS AND CONTROLS Work table for Fire Department use Telephone system for Fire department use
FIRE CONTROL ROOM PANELS AND CONTROLS Set of building plans indicating typical floor plan, building core, exits / access, fire protection systems and equipment Minimum dimensions of 96 Square feet in control room to allow workspace for up to six people.
UNIFORM FIRE CODE The Uniform Fire Code prescribes the specific installation and maintenance requirements for the Fire and Life Safety features for high-rise buildings. The 1997 requirements are as follows :
1997 UNIFORM FIRE CODE Automatic Sprinkler System Corridor doors Corridor Openings Exit Stairways Exit Stairway Doors Exit Illumination Fire Drills Elevator Lobby Separation Elevator Recall Fire Alarm System Fire Alarm Supervision Emergency Plan Posting of Emergency Plan and Exit Plan
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES The following Standard Operating Procedures are applicable to High Rise Operations and every fire fighter should be very familiar with each procedure or guideline. 201.10Incident Command System 201.20Size-Up 203.10 Incident Safety 203.11Accountability (Passport System) 203.12Rapid Intervention Crew
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES 203.13Rescue - Missing, Lost or Trapped Firefighters 203.30Protective Clothing 203.31Protective Hoods 203.40 Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus and Personnel Distress Device 204.10Communications - Terminology 204.30Communications - General Procedures
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES 251.10Tactical Priorities 251.21Emergency Incident Rehabilitation 251.40Additional Resources 252.05Fire Control 252.10High-Rise Fires 252.90Evacuation 254.10EMS Responsibilities
ARLINGTON FIRE DEPARTMENT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES Throughout this program the procedures and guidelines previously mentioned will be addressed, however, the main emphasis will be placed on : INITIAL ACTION PLAN ( IAP ) INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS ( Tactics ) SAFETY ( Accountability, RIC Crews, Rescue )
DIFFICULTIES IN ABOVE-GROUND FIRE FIGHTING OPERATIONS Normally a high life hazard exists and may be impractical to evacuate the entire building Increased set-up time for attacking the fire may allow fire to impose onto structural members of building Immediate smoke problems due to common hallway which may become severe Fires in center hallway occupancies create extreme heat conditions and in center core occupancies the fire can travel over, around or behind the attack team
HIGH RISE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FEATURES In discussing high-rise fire fighting tactics, there are two main methods of construction which fire fighters should be aware of. This type of construction has been used for hundreds of years and is still cost effective today. It is used in apartment houses, hotels and office buildings.
HIGH RISE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FEATURES CENTER HALLWAY Multiple story buildings that use a central corridor to access individual sleeping rooms, apartments, or offices.
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH CENTER HALLWAY FIRES Center Hallways provide an excellent path for smoke and heat travel. Firefighters must gain and maintain control of the hallways, since this is the occupant’s primary ( at times, only) exit. A trapped occupant can: 1) Jump, 2) Barricade inside the room and wait for fire department, or 3) Depend on fire department ladder rescue.
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH CENTER HALLWAY FIRES Open fire doors can cause “Mushrooming” on floors other than the fire floor. The conditions on those floors may equal those on the fire floor.
HIGH RISE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FEATURES CENTER CORE Multiple story buildings that utilize a central core for elevators, stairwells and utility shafts.
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH CENTER CORE FIRES Elevators, stairways and utility shafts may allow the vertical spread of smoke and heat. The “open” floor plan allows horizontal spread around the core. Since the buildings have excellent thermal insulation, a fire attack can push the fire around the core back to your position.
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH CENTER CORE FIRES The safest procedure to control smoke in a sealed office building is to shut down the HVAC system, make a ventilation assessment utilizing cross ventilation and or shaft ventilation, and then bring the HVAC system (exhaust mode only) back on line if you determine it can help.
COMMON PROBLEMS WITH CENTER CORE FIRES Both exterior and interior attack methods may work, but the odds of a successful attack are better from the inside stair shafts, start attack from a safe refuge, utilize standpipes, and push the fire from uninvolved to involved area. This type occupancy may require hose lines to come from two directions in order to prevent the fire from circling around the central core. Fire attack teams must understand and communicate what they are doing, and try to push the fire against the outside wall.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FEATURES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO FIRE PROBLEM High-rise buildings’ exterior walls are usually constructed with glass or aggregate panels, called a “Curtain Wall”. This curtain wall may allow smoke and heat to travel vertically between the end of the floor and the exterior wall. Stair shafts, utility, and elevator shafts may provide channels for fire, heat and smoke to extend upward, and must be checked.
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FEATURES THAT CONTRIBUTE TO FIRE PROBLEM Ventilation assessment usually will require shutting down the HVAC system. Positive pressure, cross- ventilation, and vertical ventilation must be considered. Ventilation must be accomplished early in the incident for fire fighter safety and to assist evacuation. First truck company on should set fan at base of the stairwell.
The first five companies dispatched to a high-rise incident must accomplish their assigned tasks and in the order established in the Initial Action Plan. While these procedures are “automatic”, we must still communicate our actions within the Command System. NONE OF THE FIRST FIVE COMPANIES WILL STAGE.
INITIAL ACTION PLANS INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS FIRST COMPANY LOBBY CONTROL SECOND COMPANY PRIMARY STAIRS / FIRE ATTACK THIRD COMPANY SECONDARY STAIRS / FIRE ATTACK AND WATER SUPPLY FOURTH COMPANY STAGING FIFTH COMPANY STAGING
INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS ENGINE DISMOUNT PROCEDURES
INITIAL COMPANY ASSIGNMENTS TRUCK DISMOUNT PROCEDURES
I wish to acknowledge and show appreciation to the following Fire Fighters at Task Force 8C who assisted in the development of this program. Dennis AultTom Hixson Pat BlairSteve Eck Cory BeardenJoe McKenzie Don CokerBrent Shanklin