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National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Anticoagulation- Nursing Education.

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Presentation on theme: "National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Anticoagulation- Nursing Education."— Presentation transcript:

1 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Anticoagulation- Nursing Education

2 Objectives List requirements for meeting standards for the National Patient Safety Goal 3E- Anticoagulation Identify risk factors for VTE development in hospitalized patients List 3 symptoms of DVT/PE development List the 3 patient risk groups for VTE development and 2 appropriate interventions for each risk group

3 Purpose of National Patient Safety Goals (NPSG): Promote specific improvements in patient safety Highlight problem areas in health care Describe evidence-based solutions Focus on system-wide solutions

4 National Patient Safety Goals Goals and Requirements are developed by experts from various fields Approved by the Joint Commission's Board in June 2007 New Goals may be added each year or goals may be continued for more than one year (ex. Med-Rec)

5 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Anticoagulation Reduce the likelihood of patient harm with the use of anticoagulation (AC) therapy Rationale: Anticoagulation therapy is a high risk treatment (due to complexity with dosing, patient compliance with treatment, & monitoring)

6 Risks with Anticoagulant Therapy Anticoagulation medications are listed as one of the top 5 drug classes for patient safety incidents ¹ Reported meds involved in harmful events ² include : Heparin, Warfarin, Enoxaparin Heparin errors are usually attributed to the non-use of programmable infusion pumps and non-standardized IV concentration of Heparin drips ³ 1.Cousins D et al USP MedMarx data, Fanikos J. et al. 2004

7 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Nuts & Bolts Goal applies to the use of heparin, low molecular weight heparins, warfarin and other anticoagulants One year phase-in period for all hospitals with full implementation by January 1, 2009

8 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Nuts & Bolts Requirement for all JCAHO accredited institutions: –Implement a defined anticoagulation program –Use ONLY oral Unit Dose products & pre-mixed IV’s –Warfarin is dispensed for each individual patient with established monitoring –Use approved protocols for the initiation & maintenance of AC therapy

9 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Nuts & Bolts Requirement for all JCAHO accredited institutions: –With the use of Warfarin – baseline/current INR is available for all patients for therapy adjustment –Dietary services is notified of all pt’s receiving warfarin- food/drug interaction education –Heparin IV is delivered by a programmable IV pump (MedNet safety pump- in drug library) –Policy addresses baseline & ongoing lab tests for Heparin/LMWH

10 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Nuts & Bolts Requirement for all JCAHO accredited institutions: –Provide education on anticoagulation therapy for all providers, staff, patients, and families –Pt./family education covers specific areas: follow-up, dietary restrictions, monitoring, complications, and food & drug interactions –Evaluation of Anticoagulation safety practices

11 National Patient Safety Goal 3E: Surveying and Scoring Joint Commission will evaluate actual performance with standards of the “Goal” All requirements must be implemented Facility will be found either “Compliant or Not Compliant” Failure to comply will result in a “Requirement for Improvement (RFI)”

12 Venous Thromboembolism (VTE): Prevention and Anticoagulation Management

13 The Problem….. 2 million Americans will be afflicted with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) each year As many as 600,000 will subsequently develop a pulmonary embolism (PE) In about 300,000 people the PE may prove to be fatal Third most common cause of hospital-related deaths in the U.S. The most common preventable cause of hospital death

14 Post-Test Questions

15 $$$ Economic burden of VTE $$$ Cost of care related to VTE (cases of DVT and PE together) in the U.S. each year is estimated at 1.5 billion Post-op thromboembolic complications add an average of $18,300 to the total hospital costs for each patient in which they happen

16 Risk Factors for VTE development –Decreased mobility –Age (especially >75) –Personal history of DVT/PE or clotting disorder –Surgery- LE joint replacement open abdominal, urologic, or gynecologic procedure –Inflammatory conditions –Current malignancy –Estrogen therapy or pregnancy –History of MI, CHF, COPD, or other respiratory failure –Stroke < 1 month –Admission to the ICU –Sepsis Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis, June 2007, ICSI

17 Causes for VTE development Venous stasis- immobility Vein injury- surgery, IV therapy, phlebotomy Increased coagulation- cancer, inflammatory conditions or infectious process Virchow’s Triad

18 Bed Rest!! … a DVT/ PE Red Flag!!! BEDREST

19 Signs and symptoms of DVT or PE Pain, cramps or heaviness in affected extremity Parathesias- unexplained numbness or tingling Redness and edema of affected extremity Tenderness and pain in calf upon palpation Shortness of breath Chest heaviness (without cardiac explanation) Sense of “impending doom”

20 DVT Prophylaxis: 3 Patient Groups Low risk Highest risk Moderate/High risk

21 Patient Group: –Age <60 –Minor surgical procedure –Medical patient on bedrest –Pregnant patient or patient on oral contraceptives or hormone replacement Recommendations for prophylaxis: –Early ambulation- this means up walking in hallway 2- 3 times per day –SCD’s while in bed Low risk

22 Patient Group: –Age >60 –Central venous access –History of previous malignancy –History of medical risk factors CHF, COPD, inflammatory bowel disease –Medical patient with additional risk factors (CHF, COPD, Sepsis, MI) –Major surgery planned with additional risk factors Recommendations: –Early ambulation- this means up walking in hallway 2-3 times per day –SCD’s while in bed –Enoxaparin 40mg subQ every day start hrs. after surgery –If orthopedic patient- follow orthopedic anticoagulation protocol Moderate/High risk

23 Patient Group: –Age >75 –Elective hip or knee surgery –Active cancer –Hip, pelvis or leg fracture (<1 month) –Stroke (<1 month) –Admission to ICU –Personal hx. of DVT, PE or clotting disorder Recommendations: –Early ambulation- this means up walking in hallway 2-3 times per day –SCD’s while in bed –Enoxaparin 40mg subQ every day start hrs. after surgery –If orthopedic patient- follow orthopedic anticoagulation protocol Very High Risk

24 Medical Condition Risk DVT ConditionRisk of DVT General Medical10%-26% MI17%-34% Stroke11%-75% CHF20%-40% Medical ICU35%-42% Chest 2005; 128;

25 Prevention techniques Risk assessment tools- –Providers to risk stratify patients into risk categories based on current diagnosis and previous medical history (VTE Order Set PO 1190) Early ambulation Medication prophylaxis if indicated based on patient’s VTE risk level Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis, June 2007, ICSI

26 Contraindications to drug therapy Active, significant bleeding Extreme thrombocytopenia (<50,000 ) History of heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) Uncontrolled hypertension (SBP >200, DBP >120) Patient with bacterial endocarditis Patient with active hepatitis or hepatic insufficiency Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis, June 2007, ICSI

27 New HCD DVT/PE Assessment screens New DVT/PE assessment screens have been built in HCD- will replace “Homan’s assessment” under muskuloskeletal body system This assessment is under the “FLOWSHEET” tab in HCD The DVT/PE assessment will be completed with all nursing assessments

28 New HCD DVT/PE Assessment screens The DVT/PE assessment includes: –Calf assessment for pain, redness, warmth, tenderness or swelling –Respiratory signs & symptoms of SOB or difficulty breathing –Includes area for documentation of “MD NOTIFICATION” if patient has any of the above present

29 New HCD DVT/PE Assessment Screens

30 New HCD DVT/PE Assessment screens

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32 New HCD DVT/PE Education screens New DVT/PE Education screens have been built in HCD (requirement to meet NPSG 3E standards) Documentation is under the “EDUCATION” tab in HCD The DVT/PE education will be completed and documented at least once during the hospitalization (requirement to meet NPSG 3E standards) Discharge RN must verify that DVT/PE education has been documented on the patient Enoxaparin and Coumadin Patient Education Written materials have been updated and will no longer require for nursing to document on these

33 New HCD DVT/PE Education screens For Bethesda only- Nursing will continue to document on the brown border education flowsheet The DVT/PE education includes: –Patient education on diagnosis of DVT/PE or preventative information –Documentation of consult to Dietician for additional drug/food interaction education (checking this tab will not automatically place order for consult- the consult must be manually entered) –Patient/family education on Sx. of PE/DVT, medications, medication purpose, food/drug interactions, drug monitoring, and Lovenox demo –Written or video education on coumadin and/or Lovenox

34 New HCD DVT/PE Education screens

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39 HealthEast’s work on VTE Prevention & Anticoagulant Management Aims (What are we trying to accomplish?) –Reduce the incidence of DVT and PE in hospitalized patients by 50% in one year. –Reduce readmissions within 31 days for DVT and PE by 50% in one year. –Reduce patient harm associated with the use of anticoagulant therapy by 50% in one year.

40 HealthEast’s work on VTE Prevention & Anticoagulant Management Measures (How will we know that a change is an improvement?) –Hospital Acquired DVT per 1000 Discharges –Hospital Acquired PE per 1000 Discharges –Readmissions within 31 Days with DVT per 1000 Discharges –Readmissions within 31 Days with PE per 1000 Discharges –Patient harm associated with anticoagulant therapy as measured by the IHI Adverse Drug Event Trigger Tool

41 DVT Prevention Clinical Goals: –Adult patients (18 & older) are assessed for VTE (DVT & PE) risk within 24 hours of admission –Appropriate pharmacological and/or mechanical prophylaxis begins within 24 hrs of admission –All patients receive education regarding VTE signs & symptoms, preventive methods –All patients begin early and frequent ambulation Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis, June 2007, ICSI

42 DVT Prevention Clinical Goals: –All adult medical/surgical patients with moderate-high or very high VTE risk receive anticoagulation prophylaxis unless contraindicated –Reduce the risk of complications from pharmacologic prophylaxis. Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis, June 2007, ICSI

43 DVT Prevention Clinical Goals: –Appropriate pharmacological and/or mechanical prophylaxis begins within 24 hrs of admission –Mechanical prophylaxis is used when pharmacologic prophylaxis is contraindicated –Appropriate precautions for patients receiving spinal or epidural anesthesia are implemented Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis, June 2007, ICSI

44 Future steps…… Development of a VTE Dashboard with all system measures for each site Creation of a VTE Collaborative Practice Committee with participation by all site leads Continue assessing progress with VTE work at each site Yearly nursing, pharmacy and provider education ( requirement for NPSG 3E )

45 NPSG 3E: Anticoagulation- References For more information, see the Joint Commission Website: 1.Cousins D et al Risk assessment of anticoagulation therapy. National Patient Safety Agency. United Kingdom 2.USP MedMarx data, Fanikos J. et al. Medication errors associated with anticoagulant therapy in the hospital. Am J Cardiol. 2004; 94: ICSI Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis Fourth Edition-June Chest 2005; 128; Santell JP, Hicks RW, Cousins DD. MEDMARX Data Report: A Chart- book of Findings from Intensive Care Units and Radiological Services. Rockville, MD: USP Center for the Advancement of Patient Safety; 2005

46 Post-Test Questions 1.Which of the following are requirements for meeting the NPSG 3E standards? a.Yearly nursing, pharmacy and provider education b.Warfarin dosing for all patients will only be managed by pharmacy c.Defined hospital anticoagulation management program d.Dietary notification of all patient’s receiving warfarin e.Answers A, C, D

47 2. Which are risk factors for VTE development? a. decreased mobility, obesity, and sepsis b. Decreased mobility, joint, surgery, and history of DVT/PE c. decreased mobility, age >40, and history of CHF d. Cancer, age >40, and pregnancy

48 3. Which are symptoms of DVT/PE development? a. SOB and anxiety b. Chest heaviness (without cardiac explanation) and bruising of extremity c. Tenderness/pain upon palpation of calf and SOB d. Redness/edema of extremity and high INR

49 4. What are the risk factors for the “Very High” Patient group? a. age >60, active cancer, and history of CHF b. age >60, central venous access, and major abdominal surgery c. age >75, bedrest, and minor surgical procedure d. age >75, active cancer and admission to ICU

50 5. What must be documented on discharge for DVT/PE patient education? a. diagnosis or preventative information, sx. Of DVT/PE, medications, and food/drug interactions b. diagnosis or preventative education, activity, diet, and food/drug interactions c. Home monitoring, food/drug interactions and follow-up appointments d. Food/drug interactions, outpatient therapy, and medications


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