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School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut July 26, 2006

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Presentation on theme: "School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut July 26, 2006"— Presentation transcript:

1 School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Overview George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS University of Connecticut July 26,

2 PURPOSE Provide overview of rationale, features, & outcomes of school- wide approach to positive behavior supports

3 Do you want to…. Improve general classroom & school climate & community relations Decrease dependence on reactive disciplinary practices Maximize impact of instruction to affect academic achievement Improve behavioral supports for students with emotional & behavioral challenges Improve efficiency of behavior related initiatives

4 OUTCOME OBJECTIVES Rationale for adopting proactive systems approach to improving school climate Features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support Examples of SWPBS implementation Understanding of prerequisites for participation in training & support activities

5 Challenge #1

6 Challenge #2

7 Competing, Inter-related National Goals Improve literacy, math, geography, science, etc. Make schools safe, caring, & focused on teaching & learning Improve student character & citizenship Eliminate bullying Prevent drug use Prepare for postsecondary education Provide a free & appropriate education for all Prepare viable workforce Affect rates of high risk, antisocial behavior Leave no child behind Etc….

8 Challenge #3

9 Challenge #4

10 SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable (Zins & Ponti, 1990)

11 Context Matters: Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide

12 “Reiko” Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?

13 “Kiyoshi” Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?

14 “Mitch” Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly. What would you do?

15 “Rachel” Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it. What would you do?

16 Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… Assess these situations Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003

17 However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?

18 “141 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!

19 5,100 referrals = 76,500 min = 1,275 hrs = hrs

20 “Da place ta be” During 4 th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Kiyoshi is in this school!

21 “Cliques” During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups. Mitch is in this classroom!

22 “a, b, c, h, b, o, m, t, v….” Principal indicates that 40% of kindergarteners are at serious risk for reading failure because they lack knowledge of alphabet & unable to produce individual sounds that make up words.

23 “Four corners” Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners. Rachel is in this school!

24 “FTD” On 1 st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card You are in this School!

25 Questions! What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!

26 Messages Repeated! 1.Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable 2.Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success

27 2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior Get Tough (practices) Train-&-Hope (systems)

28 Worry #1 “Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “ That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”

29 Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” Clamp down & increase monitoring Re-re-re-review rules Extend continuum & consistency of consequences Establish “bottom line”... Predictable individual response

30 Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief –Remove student –Remove ourselves –Modify physical environment –Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others

31 When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” Zero tolerance policies Increased surveillance Increased suspension & expulsion In-service training by expert Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response !

32 Erroneous assumption that student… Is inherently “bad” Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” Will be better tomorrow…….

33 But….false sense of safety/security! Fosters environments of control Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior Shifts accountability away from school Devalues child-adult relationship Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming

34 Science of behavior has taught us that students…. Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences …….. Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback….consider function

35 Non-examples of Function- Based approach “Function” = outcome, result, purpose, consequence “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”

36 2001 Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence: Recommendations Establish “intolerant attitude toward deviance” –Break up antisocial networks…change social context –Improve parent effectiveness Increase “commitment to school” –Increase academic success –Create positive school climates Teach & encourage individual skills & competence

37 Worry #2: “Train & Hope” REACT to Problem Behavior Select & ADD Practice Hire EXPERT to Train Practice Expect, But HOPE for Implementation WAIT for New Problem

38 SYSTEMS PRACTICES DATA Supporting Staff Behavior Supporting Student Behavior OUTCOMES Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement Supporting Decision Making 4 PBS Elements

39 Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

40 Academic SystemsBehavioral Systems 1-5% 5-10% 80-90% Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based High Intensity Intensive, Individual Interventions Individual Students Assessment-based Intense, durable procedures Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Targeted Group Interventions Some students (at-risk) High efficiency Rapid response Universal Interventions All students Preventive, proactive Universal Interventions All settings, all students Preventive, proactive Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

41 Agreements Team Data-based Action Plan ImplementationEvaluation GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” CO PBS FCPS

42 Behavioral Capacity Priority & Status Data-based Decision Making Communications Administrator Team Administrator Specialized Support Student Community Non-Teaching Teaching Family Representation Start with Team that “Works.” Team-led Process

43 Initiative, Project, Committee PurposeOutcomeTarget Group Staff Involved SIP/SID/e tc Attendance Committee Character Education Safety Committee School Spirit Committee Discipline Committee DARE Committee EBS Work Group Working Smarter

44 Initiative, Committee PurposeOutcomeTarget Group Staff Involved SIP/SID Attendance Committee Increase attendance Increase % of students attending daily All studentsEric, Ellen, Marlee Goal #2 Character Education Improve character All studentsMarlee, J.S., Ellen Goal #3 Safety Committee Improve safetyPredictable response to threat/crisis Dangerous students Has not metGoal #3 School Spirit Committee Enhance school spirit Improve moraleAll studentsHas not met Discipline Committee Improve behaviorDecrease office referrals Bullies, antisocial students, repeat offenders Ellen, Eric, Marlee, Otis Goal #3 DARE Committee Prevent drug useHigh/at-risk drug users Don EBS Work GroupImplement 3-tier model Decrease office referrals, increase attendance, enhance academic engagement, improve grades All studentsEric, Ellen, Marlee, Otis, Emma Goal #2 Goal #3 Sample Teaming Matrix

45 3-4 Year Commitment Top 3 School- Wide Initiatives Coaching & Facilitation Dedicated Resources & Time Administrative Participation 3-Tiered Prevention Logic Agreements & Supports

46 Self-Assessment Efficient Systems of Data Management Team-based Decision Making Evidence- Based Practices Multiple Systems Existing Discipline Data Data-based Action Plan SWIS


48 Office Discipline Referrals Definition –Kid-Teacher-Administrator interaction –Underestimation of actual behavior Improving usefulness & value –Clear, mutually exclusive, exhaustive definitions –Distinction between office v. classroom managed –Continuum of behavior support –Positive school-wide foundations –W/in school comparisons


50 Referrals by Problem Behavior

51 Referrals per Location

52 Referrals per Student

53 Referrals by Time of Day

54 Do we need to tweak our action plan? How often? Who? What? Where? When? How much? If problem, Which students/staff? What system? What intervention? What outcome? + If many students are making same mistake, consider changing system….not students + Start by teaching, monitoring & rewarding…before increasing punishment

55 Nonclassroom Setting Systems Classroom Setting Systems Individual Student Systems School-wide Systems School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems

56 SCHOOLWIDE 1Common purpose & approach to discipline 2.Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4.Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation CLASSROOM-WIDE Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged Teaching classroom routines & cues taught & encouraged Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction Active supervision Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors Frequent precorrections for chronic errors Effective academic instruction & curriculum NONCLASSROOM SETTINGS Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged Active supervision by all staff –Scan, move, interact Precorrections & reminders Positive reinforcement SECONDARY/TERTIARY INDIVIDUAL Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- & data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes Targeted social skills & self-management instruction Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations SW PBS Practices

57 Few positive SW expectations defined, taught, & encouraged

58 Expectations & behavioral skills are taught & recognized in natural context

59 Teaching Academics & Behaviors DEFINE Simply MODEL PRACTICE In Setting MONITOR & ACKNOWLEDG E Continuously ADJUST for Efficiency

60 SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Computer Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations

61 SETTING All Settings HallwaysPlaygroundsCafeteria Library/ Compute r Lab AssemblyBus Respect Ourselves Be on task. Give your best effort. Be prepared. Walk.Have a plan. Eat all your food. Select healthy foods. Study, read, compute. Sit in one spot. Watch for your stop. Respect Others Be kind. Hands/feet to self. Help/share with others. Use normal voice volume. Walk to right. Play safe. Include others. Share equipment. Practice good table manners Whisper. Return books. Listen/watch. Use appropriate applause. Use a quiet voice. Stay in your seat. Respect Property Recycle. Clean up after self. Pick up litter. Maintain physical space. Use equipment properly. Put litter in garbage can. Replace trays & utensils. Clean up eating area. Push in chairs. Treat books carefully. Pick up. Treat chairs appropriately. Wipe your feet. Sit appropriately. TEACHING MATRIX Expectations

62 RAH – at Adams City High School (Respect – Achievement – Honor) RAHClassroomHallway/ Commons CafeteriaBathrooms Respect Be on time; attend regularly; follow class rules Keep location neat, keep to the right, use appropriate lang., monitor noise level, allow others to pass Put trash in cans, push in your chair, be courteous to all staff and students Keep area clean, put trash in cans, be mindful of others’ personal space, flush toilet Achievement Do your best on all assignments and assessments, take notes, ask questions Keep track of your belongings, monitor time to get to class Check space before you leave, keep track of personal belongings Be a good example to other students, leave the room better than you found it Honor Do your own work; tell the truth Be considerate of yours and others’ personal space Keep your own place in line, maintain personal boundaries Report any graffiti or vandalism

63 RAH – Athletics RAHPracticeCompetitionsEligibilityLetteringTeam Travel Respect Listen to coaches directions; push yourself and encourage teammates to excel. Show positive sportsmanship; Solve problems in mature manner; Positive inter- actions with refs, umps, etc. Show up on time for every practice and competition. Show up on time for every practice and competition; Compete x%. Take care of your own possessions and litter; be where you are directed to be. Achievement Set example in the classroom and in the playing field as a true achiever. Set and reach for both individual and team goals; encourage your teammates. Earn passing grades; Attend school regularly; only excused absences Demonstrate academic excellence. Complete your assignments missed for team travel. Honor Demonstrate good sportsmanship and team spirit. Suit up in clean uniforms; Win with honor and integrity; Represent your school with good conduct. Show team pride in and out of the school. Stay out of trouble – set a good example for others. Suit up for any competitions you are not playing. Show team honor. Cheer for teammates. Remember you are acting on behalf of the school at all times and demonstrate team honor/pride.

64 P Perseverance Holding to a course of action despite obstacles Stay positive Set goals Learn from mistakes R Respect To show consideration, appreciation, and acceptance Respect yourself Respect others Demonstrate appropriate language and behavior I Integrity Adherence to an agreed upon code of behavior Be responsible Do your own work Be trustworthy and trust others D Discipline Managing ones self to achieve goals and meet expectations Strive for consistency Attend class daily; be on time Meet deadlines; do your homework E Excellence Being of finest or highest quality Do your personal best Exceed minimum expectations Inspire excellence in others NEHS website, Oct. 26, 2004

65 “Traveling Passports” Precorrecting new kids in Tigard, Oregon Procedures –Meet with key adults –Review expectations –Go to class

66 Character Education Easy to change moral knowledge difficult to change moral conduct To change moral conduct... –Adults must model moral behavior –Students must experience academic success –Students must be taught social skills for success

67 Acknowledge & Recognize

68 Acknowledging SW Expectations: Rationale To learn, humans require regular & frequent feedback on their actions Humans experience frequent feedback from others, self, & environment –Planned/unplanned –Desirable/undesirable W/o formal feedback to encourage desired behavior, other forms of feedback shape undesired behaviors

69 Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________ Displayed the Cougar Trait of: Respect Responsibility Caring Citizenship (Circle the trait you observed) Signature _____________________________________________ If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.

70 Are “Rewards” Dangerous? “…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.” –Cameron, 2002 Cameron & Pierce, 1994, 2002 Cameron, Banko & Pierce, 2001

71 “Good morning, class!” Teachers report that when students are greeted by an adult in morning, it takes less time to complete morning routines & get first lesson started.

72 “Bus Bucks” Springfield P.S., OR Procedures –Review bus citations –On-going driver meetings –Teaching expectations –Link bus bucks w/ schools –Acknowledging bus drivers

73 “Super Sub Slips” Empowering subs in Cottage Grove, OR Procedures –Give 5 per sub in subfolder –Give 2 out immediately

74 “Positive Office Referral” Balancing positive/negative adult/student contacts in Oregon Procedures –Develop equivalent positive referral –Process like negative referral

75 Team Managed Staff Acknowledgements Continuous Monitoring Staff Training & Support Administrator Participation Effective Practices Implementation

76 “80% Rule” Apply triangle to adult behavior! Regularly acknowledge staff behavior Individualized intervention for nonresponders

77 “Golden Plunger” Involve custodian Procedure –Custodian selects one classroom/ hallway each week that is clean & orderly –Sticks gold-painted plunger with banner on wall

78 North Myrtle Beach Primary June 8, 2004 SC

79 “Staff Dinger” Reminding staff to have positive interaction Procedures –Ring timer on regular, intermittent schedule –Engage in quick positive interaction

80 “1 Free Period” Contributing to a safe, caring, effective school environment Procedures –Given by Principal –Principal takes over class for one hour –Used at any time

81 “G.O.O.S.E.” “Get Out Of School Early” –Or “arrive late” Procedures –Kids/staff nominate –Kids/staff reward, then pick

82 Relevant & Measurable Indicators Team-based Decision Making & Planning Continuous Monitoring Regular Review Effective Visual Displays Efficient Input, Storage, & Retrieval Evaluation SWISFRMS


84 Pre Post

85 “Mom, Dad, Auntie, & Jason” In a school where over 45% of 400 elem. students receive free-reduced lunch, >750 family members attended Family Fun Night.

86 I like workin’ at school After implementing SW-PBS, Principal at Jesse Bobo Elementary reports that teacher absences dropped from 414 ( ) to 263 ( ).

87 “I like it here.” Over past 3 years, 0 teacher requests for transfers

88 “She can read!” With minutes reclaimed from improvements in proactive SW discipline, elementary school invests in improving school- wide literacy. Result: >85% of students in 3 rd grade are reading at/above grade level.

89 ODR Admin. Benefit Springfield MS, MD = % improvement = 14,325 min. = hrs = 40 days Admin. time

90 ODR Instruc. Benefit Springfield MS, MD = % improvement = 42, min. = hrs = 119 days Instruc. time

91 Tools ( EBS Self-assessment TIC: Team Implementation Checklist SSS: Safe Schools Survey SET: Systems School-wide Evaluation Tool PBS Implementation & Planning Self- assessment ISSET: Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (pilot) SWIS: School-Wide Information System (

92 To Conclude Create systems-based preventive continuum of behavior support Focus on adult behavior Establish behavioral competence Utilize data based decisions Give priority to academic success Invest in evidence-based practices Teach & acknowledge behavioral expectations Work from a person-centered, function-based approach Arrange to work smarter

93 Organizational Features Common Vision Common Language Common Experience ORGANIZATION MEMBERS

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