Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10: Perceiving Depth and Size. Oculomotor Cues Oculomotor cues are based on sensing the position of the eyes and muscle tension –Convergence -"— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 10: Perceiving Depth and Size
Oculomotor Cues Oculomotor cues are based on sensing the position of the eyes and muscle tension –Convergence - inward movement of the eyes when we focus on nearby objects –Accommodation - change in the shape of the lens when we focus on objects at different distances
Monocular Cues Monocular cues come from one eye –Pictorial cues - sources of depth information that come from 2-D images, such as pictures Occlusion - when one object partially covers another Relative height - objects below the horizon that are higher in the field of vision are more distant –Objects above the horizon lower in the visual field are more distant
Monocular Cues - continued Relative size - when objects are equal size, the closer one will take up more of your visual field Perspective convergence - parallel lines appear to come together in the distance Familiar size - distance information based on our knowledge of object size
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Monocular Cues - continued Atmospheric perspective - distance objects are fuzzy and have a blue tint Texture gradient - equally spaced elements are more closely packed as distance increases Shadows - indicate where objects are located –Enhance 3-D of objects
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Motion-Produced Cues Motion parallax - close objects in direction of movement glide rapidly past but objects in the distance appear to move slowly Deletion and accretion - objects are covered or uncovered as we move relative to them –Covering an object is deletion –Uncovering an object is accretion
Binocular Depth Information Stereoscopic depth perception Differences between 2D and 3D movies –“Stereo Sue” –Strabismus
Binocular Disparity Binocular disparity - difference in images from two eyes –Difference can be described by examining corresponding points on the two retinas
Disparity (Geometrical) Created Stereopsis (Perceptual) Stereopsis - depth information provided by binocular disparity –Stereoscope uses two pictures from slightly different viewpoints. –Random-dot stereogram has two identical patterns with one shifted in position.
Disparity (Geometrical) Created Stereopsis (Perceptual) - continued Three types of 3D TV –Passive – polarized glasses –Active – electronic shutter glasses –Lenticular – mini lenses on screen, no glasses needed
The Correspondence Problem How does the visual system match images from the two eyes? –Matches may be made by specific features of objects. –This may not work for objects like random- dot stereograms. –A satisfactory answer has not yet been proposed.
The Physiology of Binocular Depth Perception Neurons have been found that respond best to binocular disparity. –These are called binocular depth cells or disparity selective cells. These cells respond best to a specific degree of absolute disparity between images on the right and left retinas. –Disparity tuning curve
The Physiology of Binocular Depth Perception - continued Experiment by Blake and Hirsch –Cats were reared by alternating vision between two eyes. –Results showed that they: had few binocular neurons. were unable to use binocular disparity to perceive depth.
The Physiology of Binocular Depth Perception - continued Experiment by DeAngelis et al. –Monkey trained to indicate depth from disparate images. –Disparity-selective neurons were activated by this process. –Experimenter used microstimulation to activate different disparity-selective neurons. –Monkey shifted judgment to the artificially stimulated disparity.
Perceiving Size Distance and size perception are interrelated Experiment by Holway and Boring –Observer was at the intersection of two hallways. –A luminous test circle was in the right hallway placed from 10 to 120 feet away. –A luminous comparison circle was in the left hallway at 10 feet away.
Perceiving Size - continued Experiment by Holway and Boring On each trial the observer was to adjust the diameter of the test circle to match the comparison. Test stimuli all had same visual angle (angle of object relative to the observer’s eye). –Visual angle depends on both the size of the object and the distance from the observer.
Perceiving Size - continued Part 1 of the experiment provided observers with depth cues. –Judgments of size were based on physical size. Part 2 of the experiment provided no depth information. –Judgments of size were based on size of the retinal images.
Size Constancy Perception of an object’s size remains relatively constant. This effect remains even if the size of the retinal image changes. –The changes in distance and retinal size balance each other
Visual Illusions Nonveridical perception occurs during visual illusions. Müller-Lyer illusion: –Straight lines with inward fins appear shorter than straight lines with outward fins. –Lines are actually the same length.
Müller-Lyer Illusion Why does this illusion occur? –Misapplied size-constancy scaling: Size constancy scaling that works in 3-D is misapplied for 2-D objects. Observers unconsciously perceive the fins as belonging to outside and inside corners. Outside corners would be closer and inside corners would be further away.
Müller-Lyer Illusion - continued –Since the retinal images are the same, the lines must be different sizes. Problems with this explanation: –The “dumbbell” version shows the same perception even though there are no “corners.” –The illusion also occurs for some 3-D displays.
Ponzo Illusion Horizontal rectangular objects are placed over railroad tracks in a picture. The far rectangle appears larger than the closer rectangle but both are the same size. One possible explanation is misapplied size- constancy scaling.
The Ames Room Two people of equal size appear very different in size in this room. The room is constructed so that: –The shape looks like a normal room when viewed with one eye. –The actual shape has the left corner twice as far away as the right corner.
The Ames Room - continued One possible explanation - size-distance scaling –Observer thinks the room is normal. –Women would be at same distance. –Woman on the left has smaller visual angle (R). –Due to the perceived distance (D) being the same her perceived size (S) is smaller
The Ames Room - continued Another possible explanation - relative size –Perception of size depends on size relative to other objects. –One woman fills the distance between the top and bottom of the room. –The other woman only fills part of the distance –Thus, the woman on the right appears taller
Moon Illusion The moon appears larger on the horizon than when it is higher in the sky. One possible explanation: –Apparent-distance theory - horizon moon is surrounded by depth cues while moon higher in the sky has none. –Horizon is perceived as further away than the sky - called “flattened heavens”.
Moon Illusion - continued –Since the moon in both cases has the same visual angle, it must appear larger at the horizon. Another possible explanation: –Angular size-contrast theory - the moon appears smaller when surrounded by larger objects –Thus, the large expanse of the sky makes it appear smaller Actual explanation may be a combination of a number of cues.