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Impact of Sprinklers on the Fire Hazard in Dormitories: Sleeping Room Experiments Daniel Madrzykowski National Institute of Standards & Technology

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Presentation on theme: "Impact of Sprinklers on the Fire Hazard in Dormitories: Sleeping Room Experiments Daniel Madrzykowski National Institute of Standards & Technology"— Presentation transcript:

1 Impact of Sprinklers on the Fire Hazard in Dormitories: Sleeping Room Experiments Daniel Madrzykowski National Institute of Standards & Technology

2 Overview Fires in Dormitories Objectives Experimental Arrangement –Dormitory Building –Fuel Load –Instrumentation Results Summary

3 Fires in Dormitories On average 3,370 structure fires per year 5 civilian deaths 50 civilian injuries $27.8 million direct property damage 75% of fires involved cooking equipment 5% of fires starting in bedrooms –This 5% of the fires resulted in 62% of the fatalities and 26% of the injuries Ref: Flynn, J.D., “Structure Fires in Dormitories, Fraternities, Sororities and Barracks,” National Fire Protection Association, August 2009.

4 Objectives Measure the level of fire hazard development in a real dorm building. Examine the impact of a “closed door” Examine the impact of automatic fire sprinklers Develop educational video –“College Fire Survival 101”

5 Experimental Arrangement University of Arkansas Built in the 1950s Concrete Ceilings Concrete Slab Block Walls Sponsor: USFA

6 Plan View of Dormitory

7 Hallway 63 ft long 8.3 ft wide 7.8 ft high Smoke door at one end Smoke curtain at opposite end

8 Dorm Rooms 11.3 ft wide 14.7 ft long 7.8 ft high Wood closet

9 Fuel Load Carpet & Padding Beds, Desks & Chairs Computers Clothing Books & Paper Essential Accessories

10 Fuel Load Total load per room approx lbs Loading 8.1lbs/sq.ft. Plastics and Wood

11 Instrumentation Thermocouples Smoke Alarms Sprinklers Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide & Carbon Monoxide meters Heat Flux Video

12

13

14 Results

15 TEST 1, DOOR CLOSED, NO SPRINKLER

16

17 Test 1, Door Closed, No Sprinkler Dorm Room

18 Test 1, Door Closed, No Sprinkler Corridor

19 Test 1, Door Closed, No Sprinkler Dorm Room – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

20 Test 1, Door Closed, No Sprinkler Corridor – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

21 TEST 2, DOOR CLOSED, SPRINKLERED

22

23 Test 2, Door Closed, Sprinklered Dorm Room

24 Test 2, Door Closed, Sprinklered Corridor

25 Test 2, Door Closed, Sprinklered Dorm Room – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

26 Test 2, Door Closed, Sprinklered Corridor – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

27 TEST 3, DOOR OPEN, SPRINKLERED

28

29 Test 3, Door Open, Sprinklered Dorm Room

30 Test 3, Door Open, Sprinklered Corridor

31 Test 3, Door Open, Sprinklered Dorm Room – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

32 Test 3, Door Open, Sprinklered Corridor – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

33 TEST 4, DOOR OPEN, NO SPRINKLER

34

35

36 Test 4, Door Open, No Sprinkler Dorm Room

37 Test 4, Door Open, No Sprinkler Corridor

38 Test 4, Door Open, No Sprinkler Dorm Room – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

39 Test 4, Door Open, No Sprinkler Corridor – Sampled 5 ft above the floor

40 TEST 5, DOOR OPEN, NO SPRINKLER

41

42

43 Test 5, Door Open, No Sprinkler Dorm Room

44 Test 5, Door Open, No Sprinkler Corridor

45 Test 5, Door Open, No Sprinkler Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

46 Test 5, Door Open, No Sprinkler Corridor – Measured 5 ft above the floor

47 Comparisons Impact of Compartmentation (Door) Impact of Window Venting Impact of Sprinklers

48 Impact of Compartmentation Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

49 Impact of Compartmentation Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

50 Impact of Compartmentation Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

51 Impact of Compartmentation Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

52 Impact of Window Venting Dorm Room

53 Impact of Window Venting Corridor

54 Impact of Window Venting Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

55 Impact of Window Venting Corridor – Measured 5 ft above the floor

56 Impact of Sprinklers Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

57 Impact of Sprinklers Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

58 Impact of Sprinklers Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

59 Impact of Sprinklers Dorm Room – Measured 5 ft above the floor

60 Impact of Sprinklers Corridor – Measured 5 ft above the floor

61 Alarm and Sprinkler Activation Summary Test No. DoorActive Sprkr. Syst. Room Smoke Alarm Activation Time/Temp West Corridor Smoke Alarm Activation Time/Temp Center Corridor Smoke Alarm Activation Time/Temp East Corridor Smoke Alarm Activation Time/Temp Room Sprinkler Activation Time/Temp Corridor Sprinkler Activation Time/Temp (s) / ( º F) 1ClosedNo24 / / / / / 244NA 2ClosedYes12 / 90NA 105 / 246NA 3OpenYes22 / / 8136 / 8262 / / 234NA 4OpenNo14 / / 8832 / 8462 / 9076 / / 210 5OpenNo26 / 8862 / 8680 / 8898 / / / 257

62 Tenability Summary Test No. Door Active Sprk. Syst. Dorm RoomCorridor Temp.O2O2 CO 2 COTemp.O2O2 CO 2 CO > 248 º F< 10 %> 8 %> 1 %> 248 º F< 10 %> 8 %> 1 % 1ClosedNo156 s 14%6%6%0%0%79 º F21%0%0%0%0% 2ClosedYes 183 º F20%1%1%0%0%81 º F21%0%0%0%0% 3OpenYes 154 º F20%1%1%0%0%81 º F21%0%0%0%0% 4OpenNo128 s310 s318 s340s 230 º F 426 s398s410s 5OpenNo182 s328 s292 s346S 214 º F 454s426s444 s Red – Time to reach untenability criteria Blue - Tenable throughout test, most significant value shown.

63 Summary Smoke alarms activated within 30 seconds of ignition The closed door on the room of origin limited the transfer of heat and smoke to the corridor In the experiments without sprinklers, the tenability criteria were exceeded In the sprinklered experiments, tenability was maintained in the room and the corridor

64 More Information NIST IR 7120 Impact of Sprinklers on the Fire Hazard in Dormitories: Day Room Fire Experiments Madrzykowski, D., Stroup, D.W., and Walton, W.D., June 2004 NIST TN 1658 Impact of Sprinklers on the Fire Hazard in Dormitories: Sleeping Room Fire Experiments Madrzykowski, D., Walton, W.D., January 2010 USFA Video “College Fire Survival 101”


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