What is response to intervention? Response to intervention is... Response to intervention is not... RtI RTI Three-tier model Problem solving model The Triangle model Special education eligibility Pre-referral model Tier 2 pull-out Just for reading Just for learning disabilities DIBELS
RtI is......the practice of providing high-quality instruction and interventions matched to student need, monitoring progress frequently to make decisions about changes in instruction or goals and applying child response data to important educational decisions. NASDSE, RtI: Policy Considerations and Implementation, 2005 (emphasis added).
Core Principles of an RtI Framework 1. We can effectively teach all children. 2. Intervene early. 3. Use a multi-tier model of support. 4. Use a problem-solving method for decision making. 5. Research-based interventions/instruction to the extent available. 6. Monitor student progress to inform instruction. 7. Use data to make decisions. 8. Use assessment for different purposes. NASDSE, RtI: Policy Considerations and Implementation, 2005
Converging evidence shows that most children can be taught to read at grade level 201 randomly selected children from five elementary schools serving children from mixed SES and ethnic backgrounds were followed from the beginning of first grade to the end of fourth grade. Children who scored low on phonemic awareness and letter knowledge at the beginning of first grade Started with lower skills Made less progress Fell further and further below grade level as they progressed from first through fourth grade.
Grade level corresponding to age 1 2 3 4 Reading grade level 4 3 2 1 5 2.5 5.2 Low score (high risk) on Early Screening Early Screening Identified Children At Risk High Score (low risk) on Screening
Instruction is What Matters! Four years later, the researchers went back to the same school. Two major changes were implemented: First, a research-based comprehensive reading program was implemented for all students, and Second, children at risk for reading difficulty were randomly assigned to a control group (no special intervention) or to a group receiving substantial instructional intervention.
Reading grade level Grade level corresponding to age 1 2 3 4 4 3 2 1 5 2.5 5.2 Four years At Risk on Early Screening Low Risk on Early Screening 3.2 Control With research- based core but without extra instructional intervention 4.9 Intervention With substantial instructional intervention
Reauthorization of Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA) Became effective October 13, 2006 Incorporated new requirements for identifying students with learning disabilities Allow districts to consider a child’s “ response to scientific, research-based intervention ” as part of evaluation process §300.309(a)(2)(i) Shortened to response to intervention or RtI
RtI is a Well-Child Program for Education Health Care Infant screenings Annual check-ups Comparison to developmental standards Immunizations Use of research-based standard protocol treatments for common problems Hypothesis testing as part of evaluation Referral for specialist care if needed Education Standardized screening Three yearly “check- ups” Comparison to local and national benchmarks Use of research-based instruction for general education instruction Hypothesis testing as part of curriculum and assessment practices Referral to special education only if progress in other instruction is not made
Where did this come from??? We have been using components of RtI for a long time: e.g. progress monitoring measures, differentiated instruction, etc. Flipping systems from “everyone is assumed to be ok until they aren’t” to screening and intervening right away
Multi-Tiered Support Universal Prevention Core Instruction, all students, preventive, proactive 80% Targeted Intervention Supplemental, some students, reduce risk 15-20% Intensive Intervention Individualized, functional assessment, highly specific 5-10% All Students in School
What has been the national impact of RtI and schools? 32% of districts expect full implementation of RtI by 2010 47% of districts have a “defined RtI process” – 53% do not 71% of districts report that implementation is led by general education or a joint general ed/special ed effort 84% of districts report implementation for reading, 53% for math and 44% for behavior CASE Survey, 2008
ELEVATOR TEST: What is RtI? Write a brief (30-60 second) description of RtI Share with a partner
Relationship between behavior and reading Children of the Code: A Social Education Project http://www.childrenofthecode.org/
Big Ideas to Improve Behavior Specify appropriate behavior Teach appropriate behavior Monitor behavior Encourage appropriate behavior Correct inappropriate behavior Use data to problem solve
Big Ideas… People need to know what is expected of them Identify small number of expectations that are comprehensive that reflect the school’s values Make the expectations observable Identifying Behavior Expectations
School Rules NO Food NO Weapons NO Backpacks NO Drugs/Smoking NO Bullying Consider your impressions of this school Consider your impressions of this school
Defining Behavior Expectations Behavior expectations must be defined in each setting Definitions should be positively stated Definitions should be observable Use simple, concrete language NEVER assume that the students will “understand what we mean”
Westwood School Portage Community High School South Range Holland Heights Elementary
Transform broad school-wide Expectations into specific, observable behaviors. Classroom LunchroomBusHallwayPlayground Respect Others Use inside voice Eat your own food Stay in your seat Stay to the right Wait your turn Respect Property Recycle paper Return trays Keep feet on the floor Put trash in cans At bell return equipment Respect Yourself Do your best Wash your hands Be at stop on time Use your words Have a plan
Big Ideas… Learning what to do socially is just like learning what to do academically Proactively teach pro-social behaviors Create opportunities for reviewing expectations throughout school year Teaching Behavior Expectations
Process for Teaching Behavioral Expectations Define the Expectation Provide a Rationale Teach the Critical Discrimination Demonstrate Appropriate Behavior Demonstrate Unacceptable Behavior Practice telling the difference with multiple examples If there is a “signal” teach the signal (when should the appropriate behavior occur?) Have everyone practice the appropriate behavior Acknowledge students for demonstrating appropriate behavior
Teaching Behavior Expectations in Hallway: East Elementary Presentation: By grade, students will file into hallway. Facilitator will announce expectation to the group, define it, and discuss the rationale. Volunteers will then demonstrate the incorrect way to act safe and respectful in the hallway (e.g., touching and pushing others, looking around and not paying attention, talking in line, and turning around looking and talking to other students.) Students that are observing will rate the performance by holding up pre-made signs that either say, “wrong way” or “right way”. A set of students will then demonstrate the expectation the right way (e.g., walking with hands at sides and feet to self, watching where class is going, no talking, looking straight ahead.) Students will then be asked to hold the signs up again. Volunteers will be acknowledged with reinforcers (pencils/erasers). Practice: Each individual class will be asked to demonstrate. The remaining class(s) will rate the demonstrating classroom with performance cards. Reinforcement: Provide specific verbal praise to students after practice session. After completion of training, each student will get a punch on the card with the school-wide settings listed 1) hallway, 2) bathroom, 3) lunchroom, 4) bus, 5) playground, 6) LMC, 7) Assembly. When all settings have been trained, the card will be worth a snow cone or free popcorn. Follow-up Plan: Daily, for the first three weeks of school, teachers provide precorrections (reminders about what the hallway expectations are as part of transition to specials, re-entry after recess, and dismissal). Weekly, next four weeks of school. Students will be reinforced with tickets. A video will be created to show students as needed for reinforcement. Materials Needed: Facilitator for lesson, Volunteers to do skit (classroom teachers for particular grade levels, Kim, Miriam, Special teachers), Performance cards, Video recorder, tickets, punch cards, and reinforcers.
Build Reward Systems Systems for Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior. Students should be acknowledged regularly (at least every 2 weeks) 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative Always build toward independence move from “other” delivered to self-delivered move from frequent reward to infrequent move from concrete to natural Build on person-to-person relationships
Many schools use a ticket system Tied into school expectations Specific feedback on student’s behavior Provides visible acknowledge of appropriate behavior for student Helps to remind staff to provide acknowledgements High School Students involved in Colorado PBS Cherokee High School
Effective Discipline System Use negative consequences to: Minimize natural rewards for problem behavior Prevent escalating interactions Allow instruction to continue Build predictable, consistent negative consequences Do not expect negative consequences alone to change behavior.
Big Ideas… Data should be easy to collect and use Evaluate and regularly act on student behavior outcome data Regularly collect process data and use this to guide and improve implementation efforts Data Tools
The School-Wide Information System Web-based information system designed to help school personnel to use office referral data to design school-wide and individual student interventions. Provides school personnel with accurate, timely and practical information for making decisions about discipline systems www.swis.org