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1 How can we fix this mess? Hospital Overcrowding.

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Presentation on theme: "1 How can we fix this mess? Hospital Overcrowding."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 How can we fix this mess? Hospital Overcrowding

2 2 Answer Simple Costs nothing Makes money Increases safety Improves nurse/patient staffing ratios No ambulance diversion

3 3 The “undramatic” problems Unreported bed Uncleaned room MD failure to discharge Silos with full and empty beds Weekend vs. weekday

4 4 Institutional perspective Have one! We must do the best thing for ALL of the patients, not the ED ED is necessary Inpatients don’t belong in the ED ED provides LOUSY care of inpatients The problem and the solution should be in the hands of the “right” people

5 5 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x Everything is filled to the brim Itsy-bitsy ED HUGE inpatient areas

6 6 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx x x x Current model

7 7 Current solution to HOSPITAL overcrowding Crowd the ED Space Staff Structure Expertise

8 8 Current model Core measure: Timely administration of antibiotics Core measure: Door to balloon time Timely treatment of strokes Patient satisfaction Inadequate staff Inadequate space Lots of meetings

9 9 x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx x x x Is this your ED model?

10 10 What are your SYSTEM incentives?

11 11 Our ED Pre (25,000) Incentives? One Day Change Bedside registration NO patients wait in waiting room Incentives?

12 12 90 ………… 12

13 13 Xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxxxxxx xxxxx xxxxxx x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x xx x x x +/- Radically new model – 1970’s nice nasty

14 14 WHY can’t we make it happen? “Against the rules” –“DOH won’t allow” – OB OB OB “That’s the way things are done” Keep the chaos IN the ED ED vs. rest of hospital The problem is not admissions

15 15 Defining the real problem Too Many Admitted Patients In the wrong space, in the wrong place, with the wrong staff

16 16 A fateful day … in isolation

17 17 DOH April 2002 “continuing issue of hospital overcrowding” “Emergency Departments must remain open” “Maintaining admitted patients within the ED is not acceptable” “the use of beds in solariums and hallways near nursing stations should be considered” “Regardless of location within the facility, staffing, services, privacy, infection control and confidentiality protections must be consistently in place”

18 18 What about ambulance diversion? Simply Diverts to other overcrowded ED’s Not good business Can’t divert walk- ins Works?

19 19 Our CQI Efforts Meetings Measures Graphs Memos Repeat the above

20 20 Behavior is driven by incentives What are the incentives?

21 21 Predict incentives …. NO move to inpatient unit ED does admission paperwork ED gives treatment Day can be better organized Less total work Move to inpatient unit Decrease the number of patients to decrease the amount of work Discharges Clean beds

22 22 The Administrative Decision Focus on what is best for the patient How is being in the hallway better for the patient?

23 23 Four questions Space, load, expertise, and necessity

24 24 Question 1 - Space Good space Bad space Action plan??

25 25 Question 2 - Load Unit A No space 15 additional patients beyond “good” space capacity Interferes with prime function Units B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J No space No additional patients beyond “good” space Action plan??

26 26 Question 3 - Expertise Unit A 6 nurses Needs 11 Wrong expertise Wrong environment Units B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J 6 nurses Needs 6 Right expertise Right environment Action plan??

27 27 Question 4 - Necessity Is your emergency department necessary?

28 28 Answer to questions 1-4 Move the patient upstairs.

29 29 Where leadership meets the road…. Implementation of full capacity protocol A hallway -> a hallway? Leadership Concerns Nobody does this Not safe Nurses will quit YOU are a leader EITHER WAY.

30 30  Inpatient Units are: less crowded, less noisy, less chaotic  Inpatient Units provide appropriate clinical expertise (MD’s, RN’s)  Staging in an inpatient hallway will result in closer, therefore faster access to a room  The ED can continue to fulfill its mission Why? ….

31 31 Guess what!? Nurses are professionals. They can SEE what the best thing is for the patients. Where do you make them look?

32 32 Hospital overcrowding Implementation of full capacity protocol First three months

33 33 What to do during difficult times... Ask what’s best for the patient, and all the patients.

34 34 Full capacity Protocol: How it Works Step 1 : ED attending and ED charge nurse Step 2: Bed coordinator - NEUTRAL Step 2a: Medical Director - NEUTRAL Step 3: Bed coordinator notifies Clinical Associate Directors Step 4: Units assigned hallway patients. No unit will receive more than 2 hallway patients.

35 35 Priority of Hallway placement 1. Non-telemetry patients with little or no co- morbidity 2. Non-telemetry patients with minimal or moderate co-morbidity 3. Telemetry patients as follows:  Little or no co-morbidity  Low index of suspicion for cardiac event  ED attending approval  Telemetry box availability and central monitoring slot Get them OFF tele

36 36 Exclusions to Hallway Placement Patients requiring step-down or ICU Rule-in MI or at high risk for cardiac event Ventilator dependent patients Patients requiring negative pressure or Isolation rooms Patients requiring greater than 4 liters of O2 via nasal cannula

37 37 Changes in criteria Hallway = hallway Isolation patients ICU patients !!! Medical director not involved

38 38 Lessons Learned Identify space and equipment issues prior to implementation Sometimes “Just say No” Floor overwhelmed Include patients in recognition efforts Over time, the “issue” just ….. ….. dies.

39 39 What are the results? Press-Ganey ED Inpatient Memphis Governor’s Workforce Award LOS studies “It’s just too simple and obvious. You can’t expect us to believe this. Something must be wrong here.” Dan Sisto, NYHA

40 40 Results: Patient Satisfaction Press-Ganey

41 41 Results: Staff Satisfaction ED Staff verbalize improved satisfaction in their work environment Inpatient staff have not expressed impact on overall satisfaction related to hallway protocol Would you WANT them to like it?? What they don’t like – volume not issue

42 42 Patient opinions Take a guess

43

44 44 Results: Disposition Average patients > 1 hr= 10.3 hrs Average all patients = <5 hrs (16% of patients did not meet hallway criteria) Immediate RoomRoom < 1 hrRoom > 1hr 28%25%46%

45 45 03/04 Data 2003: 161 patients placed in the hallway 2004: 454 patients placed in the hallway 2005: 600+ so far Average ED stay prior to hallway placement: 213 minutes ( 3.5 hrs) Average stay in hallway 454 minutes (7.5 hrs) (longest 29hrs) 35% spent < 1 hr in hallway

46 46 Results: Patient Satisfaction Press Ganey

47 47 What about those other CQI efforts? Surprise surprise

48 48 Transferring the chaos to the inpatient units?

49 49 Staffing ratios and patient safety ED Needs 15 (California: 19) –12 for direct patient care Has 10 (8 for direct patient care) Added admitted load, needs 3.5 Total RN need 18.5; available 10 (8) Floors Needs 6 for 30 Has 6 for 30 Redistribution (max 2 per unit) [8 patients to floor] ED total RN needed 17; available 10 Floor total RN needed ; available 6 Question: which is safer??? Direct patient care: 8 of 15.5 RN’s SPACE

50 50 Side-by-side: 1.70 RN vs RN Patient safety? ED nurse ≠ Floor Nurse ED hold ≠ Hallway patient 10 (18.5) 10 (17)6 (6.04 – 6.33) 6 (6) ED Floor FCP No space ≠ Space

51 51 Side-by-side: NOT ED VS. FLOOR Patient safety? 10 (18.5) 10 (17)6 (6.04 – 6.33) 6 (6) UNIT A UNIT B FCP

52 52 Itsy bitsy trauma room RN:PT Ratio = 4-5:1

53 53 ICU What if?????????? 2 : 1 becomes 2.3 : 1

54 54 What about ratios & NCH in the ICU? ED Needs 3RN Has 3 Holding 2 patients: add 1 RN Total need = 4 (-1.0) Floor Needs 6 for 12 Has 6 for 12 Redistribute (1) ED total RN need 4; available 3 (-1) Inpatient ICU need 7; available 6 (-1) Impact ON HPPD per inpatient : ED missing 12 hppd/ICU hold or each TR Pt receives 6 NCHPPD ICU missing 0.9 hppd/ICU pt or each ICU Pt receives 11.07NCHPPD Which is safer????????

55 55 What if…? Something bad happens to a patient? Unique to hallway? Compare to ED? A patient complains? Something doesn’t go perfectly?

56 56 Why? Safe Patient Staff Patient not yet seen Easy Costs LOS Diversion Improve processes

57 57 Why not? Can’t vs. won’t COMB Perfect and good are enemies Leadership “belongs in the ED”

58 58 Who does it? Stony Brook Duke Wm. Beaumont EMTALA Yale St. Barnabus system NYU LOTS of places now “Inside the Joint Commission” JCAHO white paper and “Best Practices”

59 59 Key points The ED is essential Admitted patients are a hospital problem Patients need experts for their care The ED is not a replacement part for everything The ED is NOT an effective back-up unit Place the problem in the lap of the person who must fix it Stop ambulance diversion Clarify with your DOH OB OB OB


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