Presentation on theme: "The First Liberated City. December 16, 1941 during an offensive operation of Kalinin city was liberated by the 29th and 31st Armies of the Kalinin Front."— Presentation transcript:
December 16, 1941 during an offensive operation of Kalinin city was liberated by the 29th and 31st Armies of the Kalinin Front. The total duration of the occupation was 64 days. During the liberation of the Red Army lost 20 000 people, the Wehrmacht - 10 000. During the fighting had destroyed much of the industrial and housing census of the city and killed about 2,500 people among the civilian population. The total damage to the national economy of the city exceeded 1.5 billion rubles.
On the morning of October 2, 1941 near the village of Hill-Zhirkovsky, located 215 km from Kalinin, 3rd Panzer Group and infantry divisions of the 9th Army Wehrmacht launched an offensive against the forces of the Western and Reserve fronts. Night from 5 to October 6 of the Western Front troops were withdrawn to the line Ostashkov, Selizharovo, Rzhev and Rzhev-Vyazma defensive line. October 7th Motorized Corps of the enemy approached Vyazma, to October 9 troops 22th, 29th and 31st armies on the Western Front battles moved to the line Selizharovo, Yelets, Olenino, Sychevka. Defensive operation has a major defeat of the Red Army. Greatly superior forces of Army Group "Center" managed to break through the Soviet defenses, creating favorable conditions for the attack on Moscow. October 11 of the 41 th Motorized Corps took Pogorelov Settlement and Teeth (110 km from Kalinin), October 12 - Lotoshino and Stariza lakes (65 km from Kalinin), advance elements moved to Kalinin.
From Rzhev to Kalinin were prepared defenses, but Soviet troops in this direction was not, so the Germans almost freely come to Kalinin. Even before the arrival of German troops in Kalinin situation was very tense. In the city there was panic, and tried to flee neuspevshie stock up on everything they can for fear of starvation. There were the cases of looting. Because of the battles is a fire, that there was no one to put out.
The situation around the city of Kalinin developed on already tested during the summer campaign scenary: German troops, capturing a "shverpunkt", forcing the Red Army to fight off. Formed a new "pot" in which, in a small area around the city, were fighting. Due to the importance of rapid deployment, October 19, 1941 the High Command of the Red Army was formed Kalinin Front. The formation of the Kalinin Front was crucial strategic importance: linking the Army of the West and North-Western Front, he threatened the flank of a group of German troops advancing on Moscow from the north, the Germans blocked the way north and east, and gave an offensive against Leningrad, would create critical conditions for the Soviet troops, helping the defense of Moscow and Leningrad in the fall and winter of 1941. Given the importance of the Soviet Command had to retaliate, but to organize a full-fledged counter-offensive did not have enough power. In this situation, a crucial role for the Kalinin Front, and Moscow played a defensive operation, the measures taken by the Soviet command in the first days of occupation: the raid of the 21st Armored Brigade and Task Force of Vatutin. October 10, 1941 in order to prevent enemy advance to Kalinin was created task force of troops under the command of Chief of Staff of the North-Western Front, Lieutenant-General Vatutin. It was composed of two infantry and two cavalry divisions, the 46th motorcycle regiment and the 8th Armored Brigade. October 13 order of the commander of the North-Western Front, Lieutenant-General PA Kurochkin 8th Tank Brigade and 46 th motorcycle regiment by the end of October 14th was ordered to concentrate in the area south of the Most High Volochok and be prepared to act in the direction of Torzhok - Kalinin. Having made a night march of 200 km, the 8th Armored Brigade and the 46th motorcycle regiment were concentrated near the village of Dumanovo (south-west of Torzhok), and the best part, having a day about 250 miles, came to the village Kalikino (six kilometers north- west of Kalinin, now - the village Zavolzhskiy) and immediately went into battle. Day of October 15 to Kalinin began to approach the main forces of Task Force, while on the road to Torzhok made by forces of the German army. In the north-western edge of the Kalinin got into a meeting engagement, which lasted about 4 hours. By 14 o'clock 934 th Infantry Regiment in conjunction with the 8th Brigade tank regiment of the enemy counter-attacked and took possession of crooked bridge. At 16 o'clock the enemy with large forces of infantry with 30 tanks went on the attack. As a result, the Germans lost the battle 3 tanks, 5 armored vehicles, over 600 officers and men, and went back to the city. By the end of the day was fixed on a group of north-western outskirts of Kalinin. Actions of the Soviet troops. The formation of the Kalinin Front
At 15 o'clock October 16 units of the 1st Armored Division and 900th Motorized Brigade attacked from the area of the station Doroshiha in the direction of Nicholo-Maliza. They managed to quickly break through the defenses 934 th Infantry Regiment, 256th Infantry Division and by the end of the day out in the area of the Mednoye. Here, German troops attack the flank were cut in half, and their vanguards almost completely destroyed. In the battles of Bronze October 22-23, German losses amounted to 1,000, 200 motorbikes, 30 tanks, 15 guns, lots of cars and other vehicles, the retreating German tanks were pressed in the Dmitrovsky marsh (between the villages of Cherkasy and Scherbov), with their losses amounted to 70 tanks. Thus, the German High Command attempted to use the Kalinin to further attack was foiled. 16 december 1941
Fighting in the city In the city the scene of fighting in the second half began in October and part Zatvereche Zavolzhskaya hand on the left bank of the Volga. A key element in establishing control over those parts of the city served as a bridge Tveretsky. The Germans set out to break through it to learn and advance Zatverechem in the north-east on Highway Bezhetsk. Fearing a Soviet counterattack, the Germans staged every night, "Illumination" by lighting a few houses to illuminate the space in front of the captured streets. In the north-west of the Wehrmacht in the task was to strike at Torzhok and Vishny Volochek pose a threat to the environment of the Soviet troops stationed west of the railway line Moscow - Leningrad. To perform this task German troops repeatedly, starting from October 15, attempted to break through the Soviet defense Hunchback Bridge, providing access to Torzhok. Fighting these early days were in the nature of small skirmishes, then all the more intense. Red Army forces have been numerous attempts to free Kalinin. The first such attempt was made October 19, 1941. It was not a success. The troops of the Kalinin Front were preparing to attack. One of the stages of this training was extensive reconnaissance, conducted October 27, 1941, and established that the German defense has weaknesses.
Go to the Soviet offensive For an attack on Kalinin 31th Army was reinforced infantry divisions and regiments of heavy artillery and December 1, 1941 was ordered to regroup at the front left wing. December 5 began a counteroffensive of the Red Army of Moscow. According to the plan operation, troops of the Kalinin Front had to not only defeat the opposing group of Germans and take Kalinin, and exit to the rear of enemy units in effect on the north-west of Moscow. On the first day of the battle the troops of the 31st Army broke through the front line of defense the Germans had advanced 4-5 km and the area east of Kalinin cut the highway Moscow-Leningrad, freeing the 15 localities (including the village of Old Konstantinovka, State Farm Vlasevo ) and threatening communications German 9th Army. The 29th Army should cut the main communications of the enemy - Staritskaya highway, which would create a threat of complete encirclement of the Kalinin group of Germans. The German command, in turn, to prevent the environment, throw in a combat area 129 th and 110 th Infantry Division, which did not allow the troops of the 29th Army to complete its task. In this regard, Konev turned part of the forces of the 31st Army - 256, 247 th Infantry and 54 th Cavalry Division - in the north-west to encircle the enemy grouping in Kalinin and in conjunction with the 29th army capture the city. December 13 937 Fifth Regiment 256th Infantry Division stormed the village of Koltsovo, and then settlements, large and small Peremerki, Bobachevo, Bychkovo, and by the end of 15 December was released on the eastern outskirts of Kalinin. Intelligence has learned that the Germans, under cover of groups of obstacles, ready to sail. December 14 compounds of the 31st Army Kalinin walked from the southeast and cut Volokolamskoe and Turginovskoe highway. In the occupants in Kalinin was only one road linking them with their own forces - Staritskaya highway. By the end of 15 December ring of Soviet troops at Kalinin almost closed. The German garrison was invited to surrender, but this proposal was rejected. The enemy began to retreat hastily to prepare and December 16, led the main force of the city.
Liberation of the city December 16, 1941 in 3 hours and 30 minutes Soviet troops, attacking from different directions, stormed the city. A few hours before 243rd Infantry Division entered the small-arms fire with the enemy on the northern outskirts of Kalinin. At 11 am after hours of fighting battalion, commanded by Stepanenko broke into the city from the lime plant, located on the eastern edge, and the gates of Moscow met with strong resistance from the enemy. Following the battalion Stepanenko on neighboring streets, with the battles, the city came under the command of Major Vtorov. At 11 o'clock on the south by storm entered the city right-flank of the 256th Infantry Division. Overcoming the resistance of the enemy, December 16 to 11 hours of the division cleared the south-eastern part of the city, and at 14 hours and 30 minutes, 934 th Infantry Regiment captured the railway station and the Soviet area. 937-th regiment continued to press the enemy, made his way to the street and the Soviet Vagzhanova alley, where he established contact with fire 243rd Infantry Division 29th Army, stormed and Zatvereche Zavolzhskiy area of the city from the north and north-west, and joined in the lane with the Soviet units 910 th Regiment 243rd Infantry Division. At this time, were ordered to begin pursuit of the enemy, and the artillery to open fire on a pre-planned targets in the city. Under cover of artillery, 243rd Division, with the battle burst into the suburbs, and at dawn reached the bank of the Volga in the Volodarsky street and Nogin boulevard. Overcoming the resistance of the German rearguard, 243rd Infantry Division at three o'clock in the morning took the northern part of the Kalinin. Day of General Polenov took Volga, river port, and then crossed the Volga, with the battle entered into the central part of the city. From the south to the city come the 250th Infantry Division. By 13 o'clock the city was liberated from German troops.
Results The victory of the Soviet troops at Kalinin played a significant role in the battle for the capital. Attempt ended in defeat for Moscow environment. Was re-established a direct link between the western and northwestern areas of strategic interaction and provided the Kalinin, Western and North-Western Fronts. With the release of Kalinin, the Germans were taken: 190 guns of various calibers, including 4 heavy twelve-inch, tanks - 31 aircraft - 9 cars - about 1,000 mortars - 160 guns - 303 machines - 292 bikes - 47 guns - 4500 shell - 21 000 min - 12 500 rounds of ammunition - more than 500 000 radios - 18, combat banners - 4. In addition, seized two ammunition depot, a warehouse with uniforms, vehicles, cables and many other military equipment. In the fighting near Kalinin Germans lost only killed more than 10 000 soldiers and officers. During the fighting and occupation of the city was badly damaged: destroyed 7714 buildings and 510.3 thousand square meters. feet of floor space, which accounted for 56 percent of the housing stock of the city, put out of commission for more than 70 companies. New houses were burnt down the avenue to them. Put out of action all the energy economy of the city: GES number 2 and 3, the CHP number 1. Destroyed or rendered unfit for use in all high-voltage and low voltage network, transformer substations. Destroyed 118 stores, 25 canteens, 50 schools, educational institution, Drama Theatre, Philharmonic Hall, Regional Museum, all hospitals, clinics, baths and laundry rooms, destroyed the water supply, sewerage, tram farm bridges across the Volga and Tmaku, disrupted telephone and radio communications. The total damage to the national economy of the city exceeded 1.5 billion rubles. But on December 18 in the city began working two bakeries, for 8 days, were recovered four bakeries and bakery № 1, December 26, turbine was launched GES-3, which gave the city power on January 1, mail began to work, January 7, restored aqueduct, February 5, resumed Tram work, in February, resumed power generation HP-1 and GES-2. In March 1942, the restored Railway Car Building Plant, the plant dies to them. May 1st, mechanical plant "Proletarka" started to produce shells and ammunition. On restoration of industrial enterprises in 1942-1943, was utilized 27 013 thousand rubles, for 11 months in 1944 - 18 171 thousand rubles. Loss of troops of the Kalinin Front in operation amounted to over 82 000 people. With the release of Kalinin left more than 20 000 people. Loss of civilians during the occupation were more than 2,500 people. After the war, fought for the names were called Kalinin Street: Konev, Rotmistrov, Agibalova, Lukin, Pichugin. October 29, 2010 Museum of the Kalinin Front was given a full copy of the Victory Banner. November 4, 2010 the city of Tver 'for courage, steadfastness and mass heroism the defenders of the city in the struggle for freedom and independence of the Motherland "by the Decree of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, was awarded the title of the Russian Federation" City of Military Glory ".