Presentation on theme: "RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS. RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS THE TREATIES The Numbered Treaties 1871-1929 addressed education: “…maintain schools on reserves, as advisable,"— Presentation transcript:
RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS THE TREATIES The Numbered Treaties 1871-1929 addressed education: “…maintain schools on reserves, as advisable, at peoples’ request.” This ‘right’ supposedly guaranteed the FN to an ‘education’
The INDIAN ACT 1876 It defined who could be an ‘Indian’ It ‘outlined what Indians could and could not do’ This legislation is NOT a part of Treaty. It is an arbitrary piece of legislation that greatly affected First Nations! It was a clear statement of the federal government’s policy to act as guardians over Aboriginal peoples, giving them “protection” but with the ultimate goal of assimilation!!
Duncan Campbell Scott, Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs from 1913-1932 stated: “The happiest future for the Indian race is absorption into the general population, and this is the object of the policy of our government. The great forces of intermarriage and education will finally overcome the lingering traces of native custom and tradition.”
Education: Assimilation Indian act gave the agents of the Dept. of Indian affairs almost dictatorial control over Aboriginal peoples’ lives, including education Education became one of the ‘tools’ to ASSIMILATION!
Funding Schools were funded by the federal government but were operated by the Catholic, Anglican, Presbyterian and United Churches. Most Christian nuns and priests were not qualified to run their congregations as educational institutions.
Residential Schools in Canada By 1931 these organizations operated 80+ residential schools across the country, as well as day schools on some reserves Image from www.mhs.mb.ca/.../38/nationalcrime.shtml www.mhs.mb.ca/.../38/nationalcrime.shtml
Sask. Residential Schools 11 Catholic 7 Anglican 2 other 1996 - The last federally run residential school, the Gordon Residential School, closed in Saskatchewan. Image from www.afn.ca/residentialschools/history.html www.afn.ca/residentialschools/history.html
Saskatchewan Saskatchewan Residential Schools Denominations: (AN)Anglican Church (BP)Baptist(MD)Methodist(OO)Other(PB)Presbyterian Church (RC)Roman Catholic Church (UC)United Church of Canada SK-1 Battleford Industrial School (RC) Battleford opened 1883; closed 1943 SK-2 Beauval Indian Residential School (RC) Beauval; opened 1895; closed 1983; now Meadow Lake Tribal Council’s Beauval Indian Education Centre SK-3 Cowesses Indian Residential School (Marieval Indian Residential School) (RC) Marieval; opened 1936; closed 1975 SK-4 Crowstand Indian Residential School (PB) Kamsack; opened 1888; closed 1913 SK-5 St. Michael’s Indian Residential School (Duck Lake Indian Residential School) (RC) Duck Lake; opened 1892; closed 1964 SK-6 Emmanuel College (AN) Prince Albert; opened 1865; closed 1923 SK-7 File Hills Indian Residential School (File Hills Colony School) (MD) Okanese Reserve; opened 1889; closed 1949 SK-8 Gordon Indian Residential School (AN) Punnichy; opened 1889; new school built in 1911, burned down in 1929; closed 1975 SK-9 Guy Indian Residential School (RC) Sturgeon Landing; opened 1926; closed 1964 SK-10 Ile-à-la-Crosse Indian Residential School (RC) Ile-à-la- Crosse; opened 1878; closing date unknown SK-11 Lake La Ronge Mission Indian Residential School (AN) La Ronge; opened 1914; new school built in 1920; closed 1947 SK-7 File Hills Indian Residential SchoolSK-8 Gordon Indian Residential SchoolSK-11 Lake La Ronge Mission Indian Residential SchoolSK-7 File Hills Indian Residential SchoolSK-8 Gordon Indian Residential SchoolSK-11 Lake La Ronge Mission Indian Residential School
SK-12 Muscowequan Indian Residential School (RC) Lestock; opened 1932; closed 1981 SK-13a Prince Albert Indian Residential School (St. Albans Indian Residential School) (AN) Prince Albert; opening date unknown; closed 1951 SK-13b Prince Albert Indian Residential School (All Saints Indian Residential School) (AN) Prince Albert; opened in 1865; amalgamated with St. Albans in 1951 to become Prince Albert Indian Residential School in 1951 SK-13c Prince Albert Indian Residential School (AN) Prince Albert; opened in 1951; closed 1964 SK-14 Qu’Appelle Indian Residential School (Fort Qu’Appelle Indian Residential School; Lebret Indian Residential School) (RC) Lebret; opened 1884; school burned down in 1908; closed 1969 SK-15 Regina Indian Residential School (PB) Regina; opened 1890; closing date unknown SK-16 Round Lake Indian Residential School (MD) Whitewood; opened 1886; closed 1950 SK-17 St. Anthony’s Indian Residential School (Onion Lake Catholic Indian Residential School) (RC) Onion Lake; opened 1891; closed 1968 SK-18 St. Barnabas Indian Residential School (Onion Lake Indian Residential School) (AN) Onion Lake; opened 1893; school burned down in 1943; closed 1951 SK-19 St. Phillips Indian Residential School (Keeseekoose Day School) (RC) Kamsack; opened 1899; closed 1965 SK-20 Thunderchild Indian Residential School (Delmas Indian Residential School) (RC) Delmas; opened 1933; school was burned down by students in 1948 SK-13a Prince Albert Indian Residential SchoolSK-14 Qu’Appelle Indian Residential SchoolSK-16 Round Lake Indian Residential School SK-18 St. Barnabas Indian Residential School SK-13a Prince Albert Indian Residential SchoolSK-14 Qu’Appelle Indian Residential SchoolSK-16 Round Lake Indian Residential School SK-18 St. Barnabas Indian Residential School
The Process Children were removed from their homes, often under threat of ‘law’ The parents would be arrested if their refused the Indian Agent access to their homes
Separation ‘Assimilation’ worked best through separation from families, communities and culture Separation from a traditional support system was a key strategy
Volunteer Some families did see ‘education’ as progress and voluntarily sent their children Most parents understood the implications of residential schools www.nationalpost.com/scripts/story.html?id=577934 www.nationalpost.com/scripts/story.html?id=577934
The Schools They were also meant to promote economic self-sufficiency by teaching First Nations children to become farmers and labourers
Christianity The goal of the missionaries was to ‘convert the children to Christianity’. First Nations culture was seen as savagery with no connections to spiritual things Image www.nytimes.com
Medicine Wheel Schools basically took healthy children with a well-rounded wheel and proceeded to destroy or alter each part of what makes us human: SPIRITUALITYEMOTIONALPHYSICALMENTAL Essentially, Identity issues resulted
Life Children were often severely punished for practicing traditional beliefs Children were punished for speaking their languages Life was harsh and rules were strict Food was of questionable quality and quantity Much of the day was spent in Christian religious instruction, learning English or French, doing chores such as laundry, kitchen work, field work and other practical skills (boys/girls)
Lasting Impacts Education for the most part was poor (1945 very few students passed grade 9 and over 40% of teaching staff had no professional training) Many children died from illnesses, fires, murder Many children caught disease such as tuberculosis which destroyed their health Physical and sexual abuse had long term effects on students Children learned isolation, abuse, anti-aboriginal education, were unable to express love and unable to receive love for much of the year! The schools broke the connection between the children and their family and culture. It destroyed the central aspect of ‘relationship’
Inter-generational Effects Residential School Survivors have long lasting Inter-generational negative effects: - Identity crisis - Unable to connect to family, culture - Long term effects of physical, sexual and psychological abuse - RCAP (Royal Commission Report on Aboriginal Peoples) pointed directly at the residential schools as a major factor in the high rates of: substance abuse, suicide and family problems Schools destroyed one of the most important values of the First Nations: Kinship and Family Relationships
Discipline vs Abuse? To accomplish this goal of assimilation, discipline was the answer in many missions. "Historians suggest that discipline was more harsh at residential schools than at other schools and would not have been accepted in Euro-Canadian institutions at the time... These methods included isolation cells, flogging and whipping, and humiliation."** **From Residential School Update, AFN March 1998.
Medicine Wheel The Medicine Wheel is not in balance for most the children of Residential Schools! They are truly ‘Survivors’
Inter-generational effects How it works Unloved Child Unable to ‘love’ their children Unable to express love Relationship Problems
The inter-generational problems could include any one or more of many dysfunctional behaviors: –Anger –Lack of identity –Language loss –Substance abuse –Family –Community
Summary MENTAL ‘Learning’ less important SPIRITUAL The ‘Spirit’ is hurt, damaged, injured EMOTIONAL Management of feelings is difficult; mixed up PHYSICAL Long term effects of disease; malnutrition
Essentially, the child became isolated and was forced to function in a societal structure not of his own construction, and not within his scope of understanding!!!! With the child’s wheel out of balance, adjustment to society became one of survival versus meaningful integration into society Children stayed stuck in the cycles of dysfunction and became dysfunctional parents. And it goes on in an ever expanding circle of influence…
Other Residential schools worked for some children. Metis children were excluded from this process as they didn’t fall under the Indian Act, however, one residential school for Metis was run by the Catholic Church in Ile a la Crosse, Sask. This school also included FN children It is estimated that 100,000 to 150,000 children attended these schools (Windspeaker Magazine)
Questions to Ponder List ways in which residential schools encouraged/forced students to lose their Aboriginal identity. Explain in a paragraph how residential schools caused social problems in Aboriginal communities. What might be the effects of offering money as compensation, for pain and suffering, to the survivors? Is the term ‘Residential School Survivor’ appropriate? Explain your stand. How should the abusers be dealt with? How might we deal with this issue as Catholics? How important should this shameful history be to Canadians? Explain. Residential Schools: What is the perspective by First Nations? The Metis? Euro-Canadians? If the Canadian government had not imposed residential schools on First Nations, what different outcomes might have been possible for ‘treaty’ people (First Nations and Euro-Canadians)?