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Groundwater Contaminants in Virginia and Treatment Technologies for Household Wells Virginia Master Well Owner Network  October 30, 2008 Presented by:Mike.

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Presentation on theme: "Groundwater Contaminants in Virginia and Treatment Technologies for Household Wells Virginia Master Well Owner Network  October 30, 2008 Presented by:Mike."— Presentation transcript:

1 Groundwater Contaminants in Virginia and Treatment Technologies for Household Wells Virginia Master Well Owner Network  October 30, 2008 Presented by:Mike Heatwole, CWS VI Sales Manager May Supply Company Harrisonburg, VA

2 Well Testing If you own a well or private water supply, it is your responsibility to have it tested Testing is only mandatory at the time of property exchange

3 Well Testing Water changes color Water develops a taste Water develops a smell A natural disaster or heavy flooding No known results Someone in the household is pregnant or nursing Unexplained illness occurs Known contaminants are in the area A spill occurs in the area Test the well immediately if the following occurs:

4 Well Testing Test the well once a year for: Coliform bacteria Nitrate/Nitrite Lead (if an older home) Iron Manganese Hardness pH Sulfate TDS Alkalinity

5 Well Testing Test for the following if: Well is near gas stations VOCs Well is in bedrock Arsenic Radon Flouride

6 Where Do I Get My Water Tested? Check with a local testing laboratory Purchase your own test kit Check with your well driller or pump installer Check with local water treatment dealers, who may offer free testing – be prepared for a sales pitch! Local wholesaler or supplier who has testing capabilities

7 Water Testing Considerations Some tests require special containers and collection procedures Some labs offer sample collection services Keep a record of all test results Some tests are best performed on-site Have the results explained clearly

8 What Does the Test Measure? Common measurements: MCL = Maximum Contaminant Level measured in: mg/L (milligrams per liter) or PPM (part per million) MCLG = maximum contaminant goal 1 part per billion (PPB)= 1¢ in $10,000,000 1 second in 30 years

9 What Does the Test Measure? 1 part per million (PPM) = 1¢ in $10,000 1 second in 11 days Conversion factors: PPM = GPG x 17.1 mg/L = GPG x 17.1 GPG = PPM/17.1 GPG = Mg/L/17.1

10 Common Water Problems May or may not be pathogenic Indicator Gastrointestinal disorders such as cramps, diarrhea and nausea Source Contaminated source water with human or animal waste Bacteria

11 Common Water Problems Treatments Disinfection by chlorine (most common) Reverse Osmosis not approved Bacteria

12 Common Water Problems Treatments Ozone Bacteria

13 Common Water Problems Treatments UV Light Bacteria

14 Common Water Problems Treatments Distillation Bacteria

15 What Is UV Light? Electromagnetic Spectrum

16 How Does UV Light Destroy Microorganisms? UV Light does not kill microorganisms UV Light is absorbed by microorganisms, shifting electrons and breaking bonds in their deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This keeps the organism from reproducing, minimizing the risk and spread of disease.

17 How Does UV Light Destroy Microorganisms? Mode of Action of Ultraviolet Light

18 Are There Other Ways To Disinfect the Water? 1. Find the source of contamination and eliminate it. 2. Find the source of contamination and correct it. 3. Find a new source of water. 4. Boil the water. 5. Use chemical disinfection in the water. 6. Use Ultraviolet Light to treat the water.

19 A Disinfectant Should… 1. Destroy all types of pathogens. 2. Destroy all types of pathogens in the time available. 3. Function properly at all times. 4. Function within the temperature range. 5. Not cause water to become toxic or unpalatable. 6. Be safe and easy to handle. 7. Have a determinable concentration. 8. Provide residual protection.

20 Construction of UVs Typical UV System

21 Advantages of UV Light 1. Automatic 2. No taste or odor 3. Low contact time 4. Practical 5. Does not create THMs 6. Low cost to operate 7. More effective than chlorine 8. Compact and easy to maintain 9. EPA-endorsed technology

22 Disadvantages of a UV Light 1. Shielding by turbidity 2. Tube coating may occur 3. No residual 4. The bulb gradually loses power 5. No way to test residual or dosage

23 Options to Consider UV monitor Measures UV output Flow control Prevents overrun of water Hour meter Alerts to bulb change Solenoid valve Shuts off flow is a failure occurs Wiper

24 Final Installation Always disinfect water lines after system is installed. Always do a final test for customer to ensure safety.

25 Maintenance of UVs Change bulbs once a year Clean quartz sleeve regularly Inspect unit Change O-rings

26 Common Water Problems No federal limit Soft = less than 17.1 PPM Slightly Hard = PPM Moderately Hard = 60 – 120 PPM Hard = 120 – 180 PPM Very Hard = 180+ PPM Hardness

27 Common Water Problems Indicators White scale and deposits Soap curd and lime scum residue Consumes soap and makes cleaning more difficult Source Calcium (limestone) and magnesium salts in rain water Treatment Water softener Hardness

28 Softener Advantages Saves on: Soaps and cleaning supplies Plumbing energy Disadvantages Sends water to drain Watch use in alternative septics

29 Common Water Problems MCL =.3 mg/L total iron Indicators Rusty color Sediment like mud Reddish or orange stains Metallic taste Source Natural deposits Iron

30 Common Water Problems 3 Forms Ferris – clear water Ferric – red water Organic slymes Iron Iron bacteria Ferric water

31 Common Water Problems Treatments Oxidizing filters Cation exchange Disinfection Oxidation/precipitation/filtration Iron

32 Common Water Problems MCL =.05 mg/L Indicators Dark brown stains Black stains Bitter metallic taste Sickness after inhalation Source Natural deposits Manganese

33 Common Water Problems Treatments Oxidizing filters Cation exchange Disinfection/filtration Oxidation/precipitation/filtration Manganese

34 Common Water Problems MCL = 3 (threshold odor number) Indicators Rotten egg smell Musty Garlic Chemical Odor

35 Common Water Problems Sources Chlorine – hydrogen sulfide Organic matter – gasoline contamination Methane gas – septic contamination Odor

36 Common Water Problems Treatments Activated carbon Air stripping Oxidation/filtration Disinfection/filtration Odor

37 Common Water Problems MCL = 6.5 – 8.8 Indicators Low pH: sour and metallic taste, corrosion High pH: slippery feel, bitter and soda taste, deposits Not to be confused with Alkalinity pH

38 Common Water Problems Source Particular balance of acids and alkalinity existing in all natural waters Treatments Increase by feeding soda ash or neutralizing filter (calcite or calcite/magnesium) Decrease by feeding white vinegar or citric acid pH

39 Common Water Problems MCL = 250 mg/L Indicators Medicinal taste Laxative effect Source Natural Deposits Sulfate

40 Common Water Problems Treatment Reverse Osmosis Distillation Anion exchange Sulfate

41 Common Water Problems MCL = 500 mg/L Indicators Hard water Deposits on glasses and fixtures Colored water Staining Salty taste TDS

42 Common Water Problems Source Natural deposits Brackish water intrusion Salt water intrusion Treatment Reverse osmosis Distillation Deionization by ion exchange Taste

43 Common Water Problems MCL = 10 mg/L Indicator Methemoglobinemia Sources Animal waste Fertilizer Natural deposits Septic tanks Sewage Nitrate

44 Common Water Problems Treatment Chemical oxidation Anion exchange Reverse osmosis (preferred) Nitrate

45 Common Water Problems MCL = 50 PPB As of January 2006, it will be 10 PPB 2 Types Organic and inorganic (most dangerous) Sources Naturally Occurring Builds up in the body Arsenic

46 Common Water Problems Treatment Reverse Osmosis Distillation Cartridge-type filters New medias (pre-oxidize to convert Arsenic III to Arsenic V) Ion Exchange Arsenic

47 Common Water Problems No federal limit Is a gas, and must be tested on-site Indicators Can be poisonous Can burn Causes corrosion Treatment Chlorine/filtration Air stripping Sulphur

48 Common Water Problems MCL = (MCLG = 0.0) Indicators Causes delay in physical and mental development High blood pressure or kidney problems in adults Sources Old solder Corrosion of plumbing systems Erosion of natural deposits Lead

49 Common Water Problems Treatments Raise pH of water Special lead filters Cation exchange softening Distillation Reverse Osmosis Lead Lead Removal Cartridge

50 Common Water Problems MCL = 5 pCi/L (picocuries per liter) (MCLG = 0) Indicators Causes increased risk of cancer Sources Erosion of natural deposits Treatment Granular activated carbon Aeration Radon

51 Common Water Problems MCLG = 4.0 MCL – 4.0 Indicators Mottled teeth (Fluoride is added to strengthen teeth) Bone disease, pain and tenderness Fluoride

52 Sources Aluminum factories fertilizer Treatment Activated Alumina filters Distillation Reverse Osmosis Common Water Problems Fluoride

53 Common Water Problems No federal limit Indicators Red or clear film in back of toilets – oily residue Rotten egg smell Can plug pumps and water systems Organic Slimes

54 Common Water Problems Sources Iron related bacteria Sulfur bacteria Treatments Chlorine feed followed by carbon filtration Ozonation followed by carbon filtration Organic Slimes

55 Common Water Problems No federal limit Indicators Staining of laundry and fixtures Odors Unpleasant solids in water Sediment

56 Common Water Problems Sources Poor well construction Surface water influx Treatment Cartridge or automatic filters Alum feed/retention/filtration Sediment

57 For Additional Information Water Quality Association 4151 Naperville Road Lisle, IL ph: fax: Water Systems Council th Street NW, Suite 500 Washington DC ph: fax: Local Health Departments -in the phone book under Government National Groundwater Association South Atlantic Well Drillers Association PO Box 1290 New Market, VA American Ground Water Trust 16 Centre Street, PO Box 1796 Concord, NH ph: fax: USEPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline: Virginia Department of Health Office of Drinking Water


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