Fact: Without GHGs, ave. surface temp of the earth would be 33°C colder. Fact: GHGs at levels unprecedented in last 650 000 years. Fact: CO 2 @ 280 ppm in pre-industrial times, now 383 ppm, and rising. Fact: Methane (CH4) levels increased 150% since pre-industrial times. N 2 O increased 18%. (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) Greenhouse Gases
What is a carbon footprint? Operational boundary Organisational boundary Indirect emissions Direct emissions Scope 1, 2 &3 Emissions factors Global warming potentials CO 2 e Uplift factors Myriad concepts
Purpose of a carbon footprint What is a Greenhouse Gas? Not just Carbon dioxide - 6 main GHGs, incl: CO 2, SF 6, CH 4, N 2 O, HFCs, PFCs To capture as many DIRECT GHG emissions and INDIRECT GHG emissions as possible from an organisation/product/individual.
Direct & indirect emissions Direct emissions Emissions from equipment that an organisation owns or has control of. Indirect emissions Emissions that an organisation’s activities are responsible for, but for which they do not own the equipment. -Vehicle fleet - Air conditioning & refrigeration - Generators - Electricity - Air travel - Office paper - Commuting - Logisitics Organisational level
Emission scopes Purposefully confusing, but does prevent double-counting! Compulsory vs. voluntary
So how do you do it? Emission factors & Global Warming Potentials Turns activity into actual GHG emissions. Multiply the volume of activity by an emission factor E.g. South African electricity = 1.03kgCO 2 e/kWh Petrol = 2.322kgCO 2 e/litre Diesel = 2.672kgCO 2 e/litre LNG = 1.4920kgCO 2 e/litre Methane (CH4) = 21 Freon (HCFC22) = 1 500 SF6 - 22 800
The World’s Top Ten Scope 1&2 Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) 2010 - publicly listed companies CompanymtCO 2 e Arcelor Mittal166 E.ON AG165 RWE149 Exxon Mobil143 American Electric Power137 ENEL122 Tepco108 Lafarge107 Holcim103 GDF Suez101
South Africa’s Top Ten Scope 1&2 Total 2010 Emissions = 500mtCO 2 e CompanymtCO 2 e Eskom (non-listed)225 Sasol71 BHP Billiton49 Anglo American19 Anglo Gold Ashant15 Arcelor Mittal SA15 Afrox14 Sappi7 Gold Fields6 Mondi6
Your personal footprint Key elements 1. Main source of household energy - electricity, wood, gas, renewable? 2. Main heating source - electricity, coal, wood, natural gas? 3. Vehicles usage - litres of fuel OR Kms, fuel type and size of engine? 5. Air travel - journey and class? 4. Waste - type and weight? 6. Car rental - litres of fuel OR Kms, fuel type and size of engine? 7. Hotel accommodation - bednights?
Typical SA carbon footprints Electricity: Medium South African houshold = 1 000kWh/month = 1 030kg CO2e/month Commuting: 60km/day in a 1.6 litre petrol car = 12.96kg/day = 259.2kg/month Commuting: 60km/day in a bus = 8.11kg/day = 162.2kg/month Return flight Cnt/Jnb/Cnt Economy = 236kgCO2 Return flight Cnt/Jnb/Cnt Business = 354kgCO2e
Non-typical carbon footprint -World’s largest individual carbon footprint in 2007 163t. (UK ave. 9.4t) -Numerous houses -15 gas guzzlers -250 000 miles air travel Non-typical footballer!
Hot tips to reduce a footprint 1. Efficient/renewable energy Solar geysers Geysers on timers & set at 55°C Insulate geysers Solar cooker/hot box (50% saving on electricity) Heat pump (67% saving on electricity for A/C) Kettle usage Turn-off standby modes (electricity to 2 million homes pa in SA) CFL bulbs instead of incandescent (5 x longer & 20% less electricity) In the household
Hot tips to reduce a footprint 2. Meat-less Animal protein is 11 times more fossil fuel intensive than plant protein Livestock contribute 5.1% of total GHGs 3. Water Shower instead of bath Install water-saving shower head (reduce hot water consumption by 80%) 4. Laundry Sun dry: not tumble dry (save 1.3kg CO2 per tumble dry). In the household
Hot tips to reduce a footprint 1. Paper Default to double-sided printing Use recycled paper & purchase local (especially for marketing material) Extend use of emails In the office 3. Products & clients Sell online Incentivise a carbon-friendly supply chain 2. Meetings Meet remotely
Hot tips to reduce a footprint 1. Getting to work Fuel efficient or hybrid car Car pooling (taxi) Motor cycle Bus Train Bicycle On the road
Hot tips to reduce a footprint 2. Your vehicle Diesel v petrol Maintenance (check tyre pressure, air filter) On the road
Thank you Alex Hetherington Tel: 021-685-7155 firstname.lastname@example.org www.carboncalculated.co.za