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English 370 Thursday, June 27, 2013 Melissa Gunby
Free-Write/Warm Up Respond to the quote: “The word impossible is not in my dictionary” - Napoleon
Punctuation Review Commas, periods, and semi-colons
Commas Rule 1: Use a comma to separate two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. Coordinating conjunction = FANBOYS For And Nor But Or Yet So Independent clauses look like they could be sentences of their own; they contain a subject and a verb and a complete thought.
Examples You can bury your savings in the backyard, but don’t expect Mother Nature to pay interest. I’m going home tomorrow, and I’m never coming back.
CAUTION Do not join two sentences with a comma. This makes a comma splice. Only use a comma between two independent clauses if they are joined by a FANBOYS.
Rule 2 Set off an introductory phrase or clause with a comma After we had finished our laundry, we discovered that one sock was missing. According to the owner of the Hall Laundry House, customers have conflicting theories about missing laundry. An introductory phrase or clause will not be able to stand alone as a sentence, and that’s how you can tell if it needs to be followed by a comma to join it to the rest of the sentence.
Rule 3 Set off non-essential phrases and clauses. If the words can be taken out without changing the meaning of the sentence, put the phrase between commas. The jukebox, now reappearing in local honky-tonks, first gained popularity during the 1920s. The addition of the phrase that they’re making a comeback doesn’t change the meaning of the sentence if left out, so it goes between commas. You can kind of think about these kind of commas as elevators that life out these phrases that give extra information without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Rule 4 Put commas around conjunctive adverbs words like “however,” “therefore,” “consequently,” etc. She soon discovered, however, that he had stolen her monogrammed towels in addition to her pet avocado plant. If the conjunctive adverb is at the beginning of the sentence, the comma follows the word. Therefore, she resolved to never speak to him again.
Rule 5 Use commas to separate the items in a list or series. Julio collects coins, stamps, bottle caps, erasers, and pocket lint. A comma before the ‘and’ at the end is essential for clarity This is formally known as the Oxford Comma Strawberry, peach, coffee, vanilla and chocolate swirl Strawberry, peach, coffee, vanilla, and chocolate swirl. 4 or 5 pints?
Rule 6 Use a comma to separate adjectives of equal emphasis She finally moved out of her cold, dark apartment She finally moved out of her cold and dark apartment. These commas can replace the “and” when using multiple words to describe the same noun.
Rule 7 Follow direct address with a comma. Gentlemen, you may be seated. Students, may I have your attention please? Bitch, please.
Rule 8, 9, and 10 8: set off items in addresses and dates He found me on February 2, 1978, when I stopped in Fairbanks, Alaska, to buy sunscreen. 9: set off degrees or titles The Darwin Award went to Samuel Lyle, Ph.D. 10: set off dialogue “Eat hearty,” said Marie, “because this is the last of the food.”
Rule 11 Set off weak exclamations like “yes,” “no,” and “well.” Yes, there will be a quiz on this material next week. No, it will not be open book.
Rule 12 Set off interrupters or parenthetical phrases. Jack is, I think, still a compulsive gambler. Harvey, my brother, sometimes has breakfast with him. This works a lot like Rule 3.
Rule 13 Reduce temptation to over use commas. If you don’t need to pause, think about leaving it out.
Activity Working with a partner, make corrections as necessary to the handout provided.
Periods Rule 1: Use a period to signal the end of most sentences. Something is rotten in Denmark. They wondered whether the water was safe to drink.
Rule 2: Abbreviations When you shorten a word, use a period to signal the abbreviation: Mister Spock = Mr. Spock August = Aug. 9 o’clock in the evening = 9 p.m.
Rule 2.5 If an abbreviation ends a sentence, don’t add another period. He promised to arrive at 6 p.m. If an abbreviation ends a question, add a question mark. Did he promise to come at 6 p.m.? If an abbreviation happens in the middle of a sentence, use the correct following punctuation. He promised to be there at 6 p.m., but he forgot.
Exceptions There are some abbreviations that do not use periods: MD, RN, BC Common terms: DNA, CD-ROM, FAQ Acronyms: Hazmat, AIDS, NATO, PIN Clipped forms: Math, fax, gym, dorm Postal abbreviations: TX, CA, AK, MA, NY
Rule 3: Poetry and Drama Use periods to separate the act, scene, and line number when citing dramatic sources Hamlet 2.2.1-5 Use periods to mark divisions in poetry Paradise Lost 7.163-167 Use periods to separate the book and verse when citing biblical references Judges 4.14
Semi-colons The big rule for semi-colons is that they work like periods; each side has to be a complete sentence. ;
Rule 1 Link two closely related independent clauses. Anthropologists believe that popcorn originated in Mexico; they have found popcorn poppers that are over 1,500 years old.
Rule 2 When using words like “however,” “moreover,” and “thus.” Vincent van Gogh sold only one painting in his entire life; however, in 1987 his Sunflowers sold for almost $40 million.
Rule 3 Use a semi-colon to separate details as part of a series. Last year the Wildcats suffered enough injuries to keep them from winning the pennant, as Jake Pritchett, third baseman, broke his arm in a fight; Hugh Rosenbloom, starting pitcher, sprained his back on a trampoline; and Boris Baker, star outfielder, ate rotten clams and nearly died.
Practice Again, working with a partner, complete the handout of editing practice. There will be a quiz next week.
Let’s start with your questions, or things you guys want to talk about.
Just before she reaches sixteen, Buttercup is the envy of all the village girls. Word of her beauty reaches Count Rugen, who pays a visit to her family. What makes Buttercup discover she is in love with the farm boy she has taunted? What tone does Goldman use to describe her confession of love and Westley’s response? How does this compare with traditional episodes of fairy-tale love?
Why does Prince Humperdinck build his Zoo of Death? What is significant about the fifth level? How would you characterize the Prince’s brand of sadism—and the sadism of Count Rugen and his life-sucking Machine? How are these elements of sadism and evil necessary to the universe of a fairy tale?