Presentation on theme: "Modes of Argument The mode of an argument is the way in which the argument is developed – it’s organizational pattern. Some arguments use several modes,"— Presentation transcript:
Modes of Argument The mode of an argument is the way in which the argument is developed – it’s organizational pattern. Some arguments use several modes, just as they do blends of rhetorical strategies.
Some Modes of Argument Exemplification: Provides specific examples to support an assertion Analogy: Makes direct comparison between the subject and similar circumstances. Cause and Effect: Presents the source that led to a problem or problem and then what caused it. Process analysis: Explains process in step-by-step order. Comparison/Contrast: Illustrates similarities and differences in subjects.
Some Modes of Argument Narration: Provides details of something that happened; like a list of events in the order that they happened, except that it is written in paragraph form. Description: Describes a person or thing in great illustrative detail. Definition: Defines a subject in a fuller or more extended--more thorough--way than does a dictionary.
Some Modes of Argument Classification: A subject – person, place, event, object – is identified and broken into parts and sub-parts. Argument: Presents a debatable opinion and then offers supports in favor of it, or discusses both sides of an issue and then give good reasons for choosing one side over the other.
Examples of Illustration Using specific examples to explain an idea. Examples help communicate ideas. Examples add clarity. There are many superstitions regarding food. Dropping a fork meant that company would be coming. If we were to take a second helping of potatoes while we still had some left on our plate, someone always predicted that a person more hungry would drop in during the day. Every housewife believed that the food from a tin can had to be removed immediately after opening, or it would become deadly poison within a few seconds. My mother always ran across the room to dump the contents immediately.
Laundry List for Examples Use examples that your reader will identify with and understand (don’t assume reader has seen the latest teen cult-film or knows any pop culture icons younger than Britney Spears). Draw examples from real-life, real culture (literature, art, classical music, well-known folklore). Make sure the example illustrates your point (avoid using fancy example to show off knowledge; find ones that really work). Quality is more important than quantity.
Laundry List (cont.) Ideal approach is to construct a well- developed, representative example supported by several shorter examples. Introduce examples using transitions.
Types of Examples Real-life examples (yours or those of others) Extended examples/anecdotes Allusions (historical events/people, literature, Biblical stories/characters, cultural situations or features) Descriptive examples (brief statement of explanation followed by few lines of description) Lists (large numbers of relevant examples; better if include vivid details)