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Building Water Systems Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink? Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink?

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Presentation on theme: "Building Water Systems Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink? Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Building Water Systems Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink? Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink? Tom Meyer Director, Technical Programs National Environmental Balancing Bureau Tom Meyer Director, Technical Programs National Environmental Balancing Bureau

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4 We are all water creatures

5 Water makes up:

6 60% of your body

7 70% of your brain

8 80% of your blood

9 Did you know?

10 While you can go almost a month without food…

11 Your body can’t survive one week without water.

12 Did you know?

13 The same water that existed on Earth billions of years ago still exists today.

14 It covers most of the planet, but just 3% is freshwater.

15 And most of that is ice.

16 Less than 1% of all freshwater is readily accessible for human use.

17 To put it another way…

18 Less than 0.007% of all the water on Earth is available to drink. (That’s one gallon in every 70,000 gallons)

19 Did you know?

20 What’s Going on With Existing Fresh Water Supplies?

21 20–30% of clean water put into the local distribution system is lost before it gets to your building. 20–30% of clean water put into the local distribution system is lost before it gets to your building. (50% if it’s an older system.) (50% if it’s an older system.)

22 25% of the clean water that enters your home…

23 …is used to flush toilets.

24 15% of the clean water that enters your home…

25 …is used at your faucets.

26 One toilet flush uses up to 3 gallons

27 One load of laundry uses up to 40 gallons

28 One 10-minute shower uses up to 50 gallons

29 Brushing with the tap running: 4 gallons

30 Brushing with the tap off: 0.25 gallons

31 Did you know?

32 In the 20 th Century the world’s population tripled.

33 In the 20 th Century the water use grew 6 times

34 Did you know?

35 Millions of people in the world live on less than 3 gallons each day

36 The average American uses about 160 gallons

37 Conventional Wisdom: We are going to run out of water before we run out of oil.

38 Due to over-pumping, the groundwater in several countries is almost gone.

39 Depleted aquifers lead to cutbacks in grain harvests…

40 …which lead to more food shortages and higher prices.

41 Our water problem could fast become our hunger problem

42 Did you know?

43 Industry is thirsty…

44 Agriculture is thirsty…

45 Humanity is thirsty…

46 When the well is dry, we know the worth of water. - Benjamin Franklin, Poor Richard’s Almanac, 1746

47 Why should we worry? Now you know why.

48 This is not a future generation’s problem

49 This is a now generation’s problem

50 300-Year Drought Was Downfall of Ancient Greece PLOS ONE - Study published in PLOS ONE Major U.S. Cities Are at Risk for Climate-Related Water Shortage - Bloomberg In the last five years, nearly every region of the country has experienced water shortages. - US EPA World Water Day: A forceful reminder that the U.S. is running out of fresh water - The Washington Post Freshwater Crisis - National Geographic

51 How do we make a finite resource meet our needs?

52 Reduce Freshwater Consumption Eliminate waste Eliminate waste More efficient systems More efficient systems Use non-potable water where possible Use non-potable water where possible

53 Waste Eliminating Waste 1.Leaks/drips 2.Running water until it heats up ( g/month) 3.Oversized toilet tanks (oversized → 1.6 → g/flush) 4.No flow restrictors (500 g/year) 5.Landscape irrigation (overwatering) 6.Other ideas?

54 More Efficient Systems 1.Toilets/Urinals 2.Flow restrictors – lavs, showers, etc. 3.Machines – Washers, dishwashers, etc. 4.Other ideas? WaterSense

55 Overview of Water Systems

56 Used to be: 2-pipe system 1.Pressurized potable water - IN 2.Unpressurized wastewater - OUT

57 Now: 1.Potable water 2.Rainwater 3.Greywater 4.Black water 5.Reclaimed water

58 What are these different kinds of water?

59 Potable water

60 Sources Ground Sources – groundwater, hyporheic zones and aquifers Ground Sources – groundwater, hyporheic zones and aquifers Precipitation Precipitation Fresh Surface Water Fresh Surface Water Biological Sources Biological Sources Seawater Desalination Seawater Desalination Atmosphere Atmosphere

61 Non-potable water

62 1.Rainwater 2.Greywater 3.Blackwater 4.Reclaimed water

63 Purpose of non-potable water systems To reduce the use of potable water.

64 Potential uses for non-potable water systems

65 Rainwater

66 Rainwater Harvesting Catching and holding rain where it falls and using it. Catching and holding rain where it falls and using it.

67 Rainwater Uses Reduces flooding, erosion and contamination of surface water with sediments, fertilizers, and pesticides in rainfall runoff.

68 Rainwater Uses Rainwater is good for plants because it is free of salts and other minerals that harm root growth. As rainwater percolates into the soil, it forces salts down and away from the roots zones, allowing roots to grow better and making plants more drought tolerant.

69 Rainwater Concerns Water Quality Impurities in the air in industrialized/urban areas such as arsenic and mercury. Impurities in the air in industrialized/urban areas such as arsenic and mercury. Bird droppings, dust and other impurities. Bird droppings, dust and other impurities. Generally, not considered potable in the US Generally, not considered potable in the US

70 Rainwater Concerns What’s wrong in this photo?

71 Rainwater Uses Lawn and Garden Irrigation Lawn and Garden Irrigation Toilet Flushing Toilet Flushing Washing Livestock Washing Livestock Car Washing Car Washing Indoor Plant Watering Indoor Plant Watering Pet and Livestock Watering Pet and Livestock Watering Evaporative Coolers Evaporative Coolers

72 Rainwater Systems Simple as any container capable of holding rain from a roof or a patio with a bucket or tap Simple as any container capable of holding rain from a roof or a patio with a bucket or tap Complex as a designed underground complex of specially designed containers with pumps Complex as a designed underground complex of specially designed containers with pumps

73 Rainwater Systems

74

75

76 Did you know?

77 Rainwater systems have been around for a long, long time.

78 Greywater

79 Greywater Defined “Wastewater collected separately from a sewage flow that does not contain industrial chemicals, hazardous wastes, or wastewater from toilets.”

80 Greywater Sources Shower/tub Shower/tub Laundry * Laundry * Kitchen Sink * Kitchen Sink * Dishwasher * Dishwasher * Lavatory Sink Lavatory Sink Utility Sink Utility Sink Swimming Pool # Swimming Pool # Evaporative Cooler # Evaporative Cooler #

81 NOT Greywater Sources Toilets Toilets Hazardous Waste Hazardous Waste Biohazard Waste Biohazard Waste Hazardous Chemicals Hazardous Chemicals Laundry water from Infectious garments Laundry water from Infectious garments Laundry water from greasy or oily rags Laundry water from greasy or oily rags Antifreeze Antifreeze Mothballs Mothballs Solvents Solvents Oils Oils Petroleum based fluids Petroleum based fluids

82 Greywater Advantages Reduction of potable water use Reduction of potable water use Reduction of sewer Reduction of sewer Available irrigation water Available irrigation water Less load on septic systems Less load on septic systems

83 Greywater Concerns Avoid human contact with greywater Avoid human contact with greywater Avoid contact with greywater irrigated soil Avoid contact with greywater irrigated soil Do not irrigate food plants except citrus/nut trees Do not irrigate food plants except citrus/nut trees Minimize standing greywater (no ponding) Minimize standing greywater (no ponding) Do not use spray/misting irrigation – go for roots Do not use spray/misting irrigation – go for roots

84 Greywater Concerns Plants which thrive on acidic soil should not be watered with typically alkaline greywater Plants which thrive on acidic soil should not be watered with typically alkaline greywater Use greywater on well-established plants, not seedlings or young plants Use greywater on well-established plants, not seedlings or young plants Less effluent = less reclaimed water available Less effluent = less reclaimed water available Do not store greywater unless treated first Do not store greywater unless treated first

85 Greywater Concerns Accidental greywater-related illness Accidental greywater-related illness Number of people struck by lightning in the US per year: 400 Number of people drowned in bath tubs in the US per year: 344 Number of people with greywater transmitted illness: 0

86 Greywater Uses Irrigation, toilet flushing and other non-contact uses.

87 Greywater Systems Early greywater systems consisted of nothing more than a pipe going from the bottom of the sink through the exterior wall to drain out back pointed down a nearby slope. Early greywater systems consisted of nothing more than a pipe going from the bottom of the sink through the exterior wall to drain out back pointed down a nearby slope.

88 Greywater Systems

89 1.Gravity-fed Manual Systems 2.Package Systems

90 Greywater Systems 1.Gravity-fed Manual Systems 2.Package Systems

91 Greywater Systems 1.Gravity-fed Manual Systems 2.Package Systems

92 Greywater Systems Settling Tank Solids and large particles settle to the bottom Solids and large particles settle to the bottom Grease, oils and small particles float Grease, oils and small particles float Allows hot water to cool Allows hot water to cool Should be sized to hold twice the expected daily flow plus 40%. (65% of domestic water used is greywater) Should be sized to hold twice the expected daily flow plus 40%. (65% of domestic water used is greywater) Septic tanks are well suited for settling tanks Septic tanks are well suited for settling tanks Aerobic type tanks provide more oxygen than septic Aerobic type tanks provide more oxygen than septic Pump out every 3 – 5 years Pump out every 3 – 5 years

93 Greywater Systems Disinfection Chlorine Chlorine Iodine Iodine

94 Greywater Systems Filters Simple as a cloth bag Simple as a cloth bag Complex as a multi-media filter Complex as a multi-media filterDeterminants Amount of greywater Amount of greywater Pressurized/non-pressurized Pressurized/non-pressurized Contaminants to be filtered Contaminants to be filtered

95 Greywater System Considerations How much greywater will have to be treated? How much greywater will have to be treated? How much area available to use greywater? How much area available to use greywater? What contaminants are present? What contaminants are present? What are the possible uses after treatment? What are the possible uses after treatment? What is the depth to water table? What is the depth to water table?

96 Greywater System Considerations Soil type and percolation rate Soil type and percolation rate Climate suitable? Too cold? Climate suitable? Too cold? Permits required? Permits required? Low cost/benefit ratio Low cost/benefit ratio Inconvenience (high maintenance) Inconvenience (high maintenance)

97 Greywater System Concerns Provide for overflow into the sewer system Provide for overflow into the sewer system Storage tanks must be covered, sealed, secured Storage tanks must be covered, sealed, secured Stored at least 5’ above the ground water table Stored at least 5’ above the ground water table Pipes must be clearly identified Pipes must be clearly identified Greywater must not run off homeowner’s land Greywater must not run off homeowner’s land Flush out after 24 hours or filter/treat Flush out after 24 hours or filter/treat

98 Greywater System Concerns Pump greywater into toilet bowl directly, unless the tank is specifically designed for greywater use. Could cause flushing mechanism to fail Could cause flushing mechanism to fail Possibility of cross-contamination by back- siphoning. Possibility of cross-contamination by back- siphoning.

99 Blackwater

100 Blackwater Defined

101 Blackwater Uses Untreated wastewater is 99/9% water (by weight)

102 Blackwater Systems Current effluent disposal: Current effluent disposal: Ocean outfalls Ocean outfalls Other surface water discharges Other surface water discharges Deep well injection Deep well injection Separate sludge from “reclaim-able” water Separate sludge from “reclaim-able” water Other ways: Other ways: Composting Toilet Composting Toilet Incinerating Toilet Incinerating Toilet

103 Incinerating Toilet Gas or electric powered Gas or electric powered Burn cycle takes up to 60 min Burn cycle takes up to 60 min Immediate or stored disposal Immediate or stored disposal Uses no water Uses no water Produces fine sterile ash Produces fine sterile ash Requires bowl liner each use Requires bowl liner each use

104 Incinerating Toilet “I expect that properly installed, odors, noise and explosions are not an issue.” - Buyer’s Guide to Incinerating Toilets

105 Further Reading Loo and Behold! – Anurag Yadav, 2004 Poop Culture – Dave Prager, 2007 Flush!: The Scoop on Poop throughout the Ages – Charise Mericle Harper, 2007 English Heritage Dictionary – Lavatorium: A communal wash area, sometimes a dedicated outbuilding or facility, such as a basin or trough, used by monks.

106 Reclaimed Water

107 sometimes called “Recycled Water”

108 But ALL water is “recycled”

109 PURPLE PIPE

110 Did you know?

111 California pioneered water reuse for agricultural purposes in the US dating back to In 1912, landscape irrigation was used at San Francisco’s Golden Gate Park.

112 Reclaimed Water Uses Industrial Uses Industrial Uses Toilet Flushing Toilet Flushing Agricultural Irrigation Agricultural Irrigation Landscape Irrigation Landscape Irrigation Cooling Towers Cooling Towers Vehicle Washing Vehicle Washing Cleaning Streets Cleaning Streets Nurseries Nurseries Cooling Equipment Cooling Equipment Fire Protection Fire Protection Construction Dust Control Construction Dust Control Mixing of Pesticides Mixing of Pesticides Wetlands Restoration Wetlands Restoration Flushing & Testing of Sewers Flushing & Testing of Sewers Decorative Water Features Decorative Water Features Washing Livestock Washing Livestock Commercial Laundries Commercial Laundries Concrete mix Concrete mix

113 Reclaimed Water Cannot Be Used Drinking Drinking Bathing Bathing Filling swimming pools, spas, misting Filling swimming pools, spas, misting Directly on edible crops Directly on edible crops Boiler feed water (except: extremely high quality) Boiler feed water (except: extremely high quality)

114 Required warnings when used for irrigation

115 IRRIGATION WARNINGS

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118 Reclaimed Water Systems

119 PROBLEMS

120 Hazards of more than a 2-pipe system Inadvertent use Inadvertent use Cross-piping Cross-piping Contamination Contamination Labeling problems Labeling problems Equipment claims Equipment claims

121 Code Issues – Inconsistent definitions – Inconsistent allowed uses – Catching up with “Green”

122 Review of non-potable water systems Rainwater Rainwater Greywater Greywater Blackwater Blackwater Reclaimed water Reclaimed water

123 Emphasis for Success Emphasis for Success Cross-connection control Cross-connection control Public education Public education Responsible utility management Responsible utility management Responsive regulatory oversight Responsive regulatory oversight Control of pathogens Control of pathogens Control of organic and inorganic materials contained in wastewater (the so-called “emerging pollutants of concern” – EPOC) Control of organic and inorganic materials contained in wastewater (the so-called “emerging pollutants of concern” – EPOC) Acceptance of a “water is water” philosophy Acceptance of a “water is water” philosophy

124 QUESTIONS?

125 Building Water Systems Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink? Water, water everywhere, WHICH drop to drink? WHICH drop to drink? Tom Meyer Director, Technical Programs National Environmental Balancing Bureau Tom Meyer Director, Technical Programs National Environmental Balancing Bureau


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