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Multiple choice – Verbal nouns in Baïnounk Gubëeher 1.

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1 Multiple choice – Verbal nouns in Baïnounk Gubëeher 1

2 The language Verbal nouns at a glance – Classification of verbs with gender morphology – NC prefixes in Baïnounk Theoretical questions – NV-distinction – Transitivity Syntactic Properties and Distribution of VNs Parameters of verb classification (Syntactic, Semantic) Further research: areal aspects Talk structure 2

3 The language 3

4 Detailed map, Bainouk 4

5 Bainouk Gubëeher DJIBONKER/JIBËEHER (+Diaspora: Dakar Ziguinchor) Speakers: ca Genetic affiliation: Niger Congo -Atlantic -Northern branch -East Senegal Guinea -Nyun Baïnounk languages Dakar homelanddiaspora 5

6 The Ñun & Baïnounk languages Ñun Baïnounk West Gutobor (Tobor) Guñaamolo (Niamone) South Gubëeher (Djibonker) Gufangor (Djifangor) Gubelor (Djibelor) Northeast ? (Gambia, Sedhiou,) East Gujaher (Kaasa,Jegui ) Guinea Branch Kobiana (Kabuy [GB]) Kasanga (sedenghal [GB]) 6

7 Verbal Nouns (VN) in Gubëeher at a glance 7

8 NC prefixes and VN formation SingularPluralCollectiveOther u-in- fu- bi-fa- bu-i-di-pi- gu-ha-ja-hu- si(n)-mu(n)-ba-ku- ra(n)-ña(n)-bi-ji- ka-ta- a- ko-ño- hɔ-hɔ- dadin Excluded: Vocalic (a-,i-, u-) Diminutive (ko-, ño-, ho- ) and Augmentative (da-, din-) extremely rare (pi-, hu-) bu- a- attested as verbal noun formants (VNF) not attested as VNF 8 can combine with all but 13/328 underived stems.

9 derived verbs, stative verbs and recognisable loans have not been taken into account! 9 214/328 underived verb stems have been recorded so far only with VNF bu-, 114/328 with any of the other VNFs.

10 Overview VNs and research questions Different stems, different NC markers: Same stem, different markers: Verbal nouninflected ha- rox NC-cry ‘cry’ i-rox-i 1Sg-cry-Asp ‘I have cried’ ja- naaf NC-cultivate ‘cultivate’ i-naaf-i 1Sg-cultivate-Asp ‘I have cultivated’ Verbal nouninflected gu- bëex NC-pull ‘pull’ i-bëex-i 1Sg-pull-Asp ‘I have pulled (it)’ jëm- bëex NC-pull ‘pull (a boat)’ bu- bëex NC-pull ‘pull’ What triggers the choice of a specific VNF? 10

11 Previous Research VNs VN derivation with multiple NC-markers is an areal feature observable in all Joola (Bayot, Fogny, Banjal, Jirer cf. Sagna 2008) all Bainounk (incl. Kobiana/Kasanga cf. Doneux 1990) and all Manjaku (incl. Mancagne, Pepel) languages In many Casamance languages two NC marker are dominant, while many others can also occur: LanguageDominant VNF Baïnounkbu-, gu- KobianabV-, gu- (action nouns) Joola Fognye-, ka- Joola Bandiale-, ga- Joola Kwaatayka-, bV- Manjakupë-, ka (action nouns) no analysis so far tendency to distinguish more verbal VNs (infinitives) and more nominal VNs (action nouns) consensus that there is no neat distinction between variants/types of VNs 11

12 Problem Variation inter and intra-speaker – Some speakers make more and subtler distinctions than others – No standardisation VNs hard to elicit and low frequency in corpus – sophisticated methodology required because of context sensitive parameters – list-effect – ideas about “correctness” interfere Limited data about argument structure, verb classes and syntax available For some verbs there seem to be no hard and fast rules that are valid for all speakers and all contexts, but clearly tendencies. 12

13 Syntactic Properties of VNs 13

14 Transitivity 14 Inanimate objects cannot be suffixed to the verb as pronouns. only nominally or it is not mentioned. pronominal itr. (Subject) S pro -Vtr. (Subject) S pro -Verb-O pro/anim (Object) (Alex) a-ceem-i 3S-sleep-Asp ‘(Alex) slept’ a-wuul-em 3S-see-3SO anim ‘S/he saw him/her Alex a-wuul-i koloŋ Alex 3S-see-Asp well ‘Alex saw the well.’ Alex a-wuul-i Asaña Alex 3S-see-Asp O ‘Alex saw Asaña’ animate object inanimate object a-wuul-i 3S-see-Asp ‘S/he saw it.’ NP Rich morphology to increase or decrease valency: jaax ‘eat’ 2-place underived jaax-um ‘eat with’ 3-place Applicative jaax-ëla ‘have a meal’ 1-place obect deletion

15 Nominal and verbal properties Nominal properties NC marker, sg.pl. bu-saat NC-pass ‘to pass/passing’’ modifiers bu-nobun bumbu NC-tie Dem:NC ‘This tieing up’ S and O position bu-ruk ka ku-no bun-doŋ NC-drink Con NC-wine good-3SNeg ‘Drinking palmwine is not good.’ possessive Suffixes bu-lodin-kenem NC-greet-3SPoss ‘greeting her’ Verbal properties derivation sin-wuul-ay NC-see-Rec ‘to see each other’ head of predication keeps part of the argument structure (objects) 15 min hë-dëek 1Plex NC-go ‘We are going.’

16 Encoding of participants in Nominalisations finitenonfinite a-lodin-i Asaña 3S-greet-Asp Asaña ‘S/he greeted Asaña’ bu-lodin ka Asaña NC-greet Con Asaña ‘greeting Asaña’ a-lodin- em 3S-greet-3SO ‘He greeted her’ bu-lodin- kenem NC-greet-3SPoss ‘greeting her’ a-maŋ-i bu-lodin- kenem 3S-want-Asp NC-greet-3SPoss ‘He wants to greet her a-maŋ- em bu-lodin 3S-want-3SO NC-greet ‘He wants to greet her’ ku-waxa ha aŋga di-raax NC-play Con with NC-sand ‘playing with sand’ bu-ceem ka *a fuŋku NC-sleep Con Prep room ‘sleeping in a room’ a-ceem-i *(a) fuŋku 3S-sleep-Asp *Prep room ‘s/he slept in a room’ Obliques 16 ha/ka not only encodes core participants but all kind of complements: locative, adverbial, comitative etc.

17 Predicative use of VN (me) bu-rux ka ba-rux 1S NC-drink Con NC-water ‘I am drinking water. (Answer to the question: What are you doing?)’ 17 a-bun bu-noox 3S-good NC-sit ‘It is good for sitting’ a-leer-i bu-dom 3S-difficult-Asp NC-swallow ‘It is difficult to swallow’ In raising constructions haŋgu-ri sin-cem can-Neg1S NC-sleep ‘I cannot sleep’ *haŋgu-ri bu-cem can-Neg1S NC- sleep ‘I cannot sleep’ Complement of verb tëpur tëpur, gaŋ-kan-t-i hë-dëek morning morning 3Pl:Foc-Aux-Dir-Asp NC-go ‘It’s early in the morning that they come.’ Periphrastic contructions Use of verbal nouns in Gubëeher

18 Syntactic Parameters of VNF assignment 18

19 Verbal derivation and VNF I: Derived transitives with bu- VNFDerivative Suffix Example bu--un/-lin/-um Causative/Transitive/Appl icative a) bu-ro-lin ‘make cry’ (< ha-rox ‘cry’) b) bu-sel-un ‘pee on’ (< mu-sel ‘pee’) c) bu-yaax-un ‘make eat’ (< bu-yaax ‘eat’) Some derivations increasing valency always take VNF bu- even though the underived stem takes an other VNF! 19

20 Verbal derivation and VNF II: Derived intransitives with gu-, (bi-, ba-) Derivative Suffix FunctionExamples -a Middle/Refle xive, Object deletion a) bi-ñooc-a ‘wash one’s body’ (< bu-ñooc ‘wash tr.’) b) gu-ñoop-a ‘hide refl.’ (< bu-ñoop ‘hide tr.’) c) gu-naax-ëla ‘spy on people’ (< bu-naax ‘tell’) d) bë-fës-ëla ‘eradicate weeds’ (< bu-fës-ul ‘eradicate tr.) e) gu-jaax-ëla ‘eat a meal’ (< bu-jaax ‘eat tr.’) -ëlaDistributive, Object deletion The majority of derivations in -a (middle, reflexive) –ula/ëla (Distributive) and other valency reducing derivations trigger the use of VNF gu-, some bi- or ba- 20

21 Verbal derivation and VNF III: Derived reciprokes with sin- Derivative Suffix FunctionExamples -ajReciproke, Comitative a) sin-wul-aj ‘meet’ (> bu-wul ‘see’) b) siŋ-kook-aj ‘accompany e.o.’ (>bu-hook ‘follow’) c) sin-raan-aj ‘meet’ There seems to be a semantic connection between reciproke derivation, reciproke relationships (be siblings, friends, cowifes etc.) and threadlike objects (thread, cotton thread, iron thread) which are allderived with sin- 21

22 Verbs which exclude bu- gu-dolia ‘fish with a rod’ gu-mamaxun‘stutter’ gu-mantant‘crosseyed’ hë-dil‘fart’ gu-hosox‘cough’ gu-saw‘hunt’ gu-rëej‘defecate’ gu-ŋuñ‘return’ gu-cigia‘dream’ gu-jëdda‘lie’ ku-waan ‘lie’ ku-waxa‘play’ ka-lim‘rain’ For these verbs all four informants agree that they are not compatible with bu-. All of these are intransitive. 22

23 Transitivity variations I 23 The bu-form is only admitted when a complement attached with ka bu-ñëej ha hajah NC-do:laundry Con clothes ‘wash clothes’ *bu-ñëej gi-rad-i NC-do:laundry 1SFoc-Aux-Asp bë-ñëej gi-rad-i NC-do:laundry 1SFoc-Aux-Asp ‘I am doing laundry’ BUT: The common form is bë- ñëej. bu-ñëej is accepted by two of four speakers only.

24 Transitivity variations II bu-cɛn ka bu-dep gu-maŋ-i NC-sleep Con NC-bed FOC:2S-want-Asp ‘You want to sleep in a/the bed’ The common form is sin- cem. bu-cem is accepted by one of four speakers only i-dë sin-cem 1S-go NC-sleep ‘I go to sleep’ i-cem-i a bu-dep 1Sg-sleep-Asp Prep ‘I slept in a/the bed’ *i-dë bu-cem 1S-go NC-sleep ‘I go to sleep’ 24 BUT: COMPARE: The bu-form is only admitted when a complement attached with ka

25 ‘Non-bu-’ VN as full Noun as Nonfinite VN bu- VN Nonfinite VN sin-cem‘sleep’‘to sleep’bu-cem‘to sleep’ bi-ciir‘death’‘to die’bu-ciir‘to die’ ba-loob‘words’‘to speak’bu-loob‘to speak’ ba-caam‘money’‘to pay’bu-caam‘to pay’ bi-naax‘tribunal’‘to tell’bu-naax‘to tell’ ba-ñaŋ‘dance’‘to dance’bu-ñaŋ‘to dance’ 25 If there is a choice between more than one VNF it is always the “non-bu- VN” which is ambiguous between full noun interpretation and a Nonfinite VN reading Non-bu VN less productive less predictable derivation more nounlike less transitive bu- VNs more productive more predictable inflection? less nounlike more transitive

26 Semantic Parameters of VNF assignment 26

27 Changes in ontological domain VNF1 bu- glossVNF2 gu- glossVNF3 other- gloss bu-loot‘to spit’gu-loot‘to vomit’ bu-bëex‘to pull’gu-bëex‘to pull (e.g. cigarette)’ jëm-bëex‘to pull (fishernet)’ bu-faanin‘sniff’gu-faanin‘smoke’ bu-kubëla‘turn around’ gukubëlaturn around’ ‘misbehave’ si-kubëla‘misbehave’ bu-liin‘braid, weave’ ra-liin‘weave (cloth)’ bu-ŋan‘enter’gu-ŋan‘go to sleep’ 27

28 Semantic fields GubëeherGloss ja-naaf‘work in the field’ ja-rifunrepiquer ja-mul‘harvest’ jë-gób cf. bu-gób ‘harvest palmwine’ ‘to scratch’ jë-góbul‘harvest palmwine’ ja-rug cf. bu-rug cf. si-rug-ula ‘plant rice’ ‘plant (a tree)’ plantation ja-ŋis‘cut grass’ ja-ŋaf‘ascend’ (often connected to harvesting fruit or palmwine) jam-bok‘climb’ 9 out of 11 ja- VNs are directly related to agricultural activities. 28 GubëeherGloss ba-farl-a‘untangle peanuts’ bë-fësël-a‘weed’ ba- -a‘re-harvest’ ba-xac‘clear land’ ba-mat‘clear land’ GubëeherGloss të-bir cf. bu-bir ‘fish with trap’ ‘close’ ta-jah cf. bu-jah ‘fish with arrows’ ‘hit’ ta-jin-a cf. bu-jin ‘grill fish’ ‘grill’

29 Pluractionality: Multiplicity of Participants or Action. ja- and ba-, two collective plural NC prefixes on nouns seem to keep convey pluractionality wen used in VN formation. Both host many agricultural activities, which are often done collectively and involve plurality of actions, ba- also some other collectively performed activities: bë-yin ‘sing’ ba-ñaŋ ‘dance’ bë-dëeka ‘play (game)’ ba-toot ‘sort rice’ cf. bu-toot ‘pick up’ ba-doox ‘transport (goods, rice) cf. bu-doox ‘carry’ 29 Speakers have commented on the ba- forms of some verbs, such as ‘to sing’ as “the plural” of the alternative formin bu- and claimed that it is used when many peope sing, as opposed to just one.

30 Qualities and Properties Qualities with VNF bapredicative useQualities with VNF si predicative use ba-li ‘goodness/be good’a-li 3S-good ‘It is good’ si-riin ‘laziness’a-riin-a ‘he is lazy’ ji-riin ‘lazybone’ bë-jólo ‘largeness’a-jólo-i 3S-large-Asp ‘it is large’ si-piim ‘blindness’a-piim-i/a ‘he is blind’ ji-piim ‘blind person’ 30 In the Comparative construction with the verb lum ‘surpass’ all verbs require the VNF ba-: a-lum-em ba-jaax (bu-jaax ‘eat’) 3S-surpass-3SO NC-eat ‘SHe eats more than him/her.’ a-lumi-em ba- jir (hë-jir ‘run’) 3S-surpass-3SO NC-run ‘SHe runs faster than him/her’ a-lum-i ba- li 3S-surpass-Asp NC-good ‘It is better’

31 Hypothesis: object deletion vs suppresion 31

32 Further research areal aspects of verb classification and VNs 32

33 Summary Transitivity Pluractionality Cultural relevant semantic fields (fish, agriculture) Future/present? 1. vs. other ? 33

34 Doneux’ hypothesis Action nouns have taken place of Infinitives in Kobiana 34

35 Nominalisation in Gubeeher SemanticsNC markerExamplerelated verb root Human participant 1. u- 2. ji- u-mbal ‘fisherman’ ji-def ‘old person’ -mbal ‘fish’ -def ‘be old’ Instrument gu- -umgu-ŋiis-um ‘sickle’-ŋiis ‘cut grass’ Location 1.bu- 2.bu- -um 3.ka- 1.bu-noox ‘cabaret’ 2.bu-likina-um ‘kitchen’ 3.ka-noox ‘seat’ -noox ‘sit’ -likina ‘cook a meal’ Quality 1.ba- 2.si- 1.ba-sóog ‘ugliness/taboo’ 2.si-riin ‘laziness’ -sóog ‘be ugly’ -riin ‘be lazy’ VN (Action noun, Result, Nonfinite) variousbu-ñoŋ ‘to take/taking’ sin-cem ‘the sleep/to sleep/sleeping’ -ñoŋ ‘take’ -cem ‘sleep’ 35

36 Loan verbs VNF bu- and ka- accomodate most loans from French and Wolof: – ka-jang (< Wolof: jang) ‘read, learn’ – ka-jaay ( { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3903726/13/slides/slide_35.jpg", "name": "Loan verbs VNF bu- and ka- accomodate most loans from French and Wolof: – ka-jang (< Wolof: jang) ‘read, learn’ – ka-jaay (

37 What is in a root? Roots are very flexible in terms of NC allocation and also in terms of word classes: [ex] It is unclear whether lexical category/gender is stored in the root or if the root has to be considered underspecified and that NC/syntactic category is assigned by insertion into a syntactic frame A direction of derivation is difficult to establish, because of the lack of historical data 37

38 Nominal and verbal properties Nominal properties NC marker, sg.pl. bu-koor/i-koor NC-village/NC-village ‘village/villages’ modifiers bu-koor bu-bun bumbu NC-village Agr-good Dem:NC ‘This nice village’ S and O position possessive Suffixes bu-koo’-kum NC-village-1SPoss ‘my village’ Verbal properties derivation/Person,number i-wuul-ay-hurux-o 1Plinc-see-Rec-Fut-1Plinc ‘We will see eachother’ head of predication argument structure gëegën i-wuul-i u-ñaŋ-kum yesterday 1S-see-Asp NC-friend- 1Poss ‘Yesterday I saw my friend’ i-wuul-em gëegën 1S-see-3SO yesterday ‘I saw him yesterday’ gëegën a-wuul-a yesterday 3S-see-Pass ‘He was seen yesterday’ 38

39 Theoretical questions 39

40 Qualities I Qualities with VNF baQualities with VNF si ba-li ‘goodness/be good’a-li 3S-good ‘It is good’ si-riin ‘laziness’a-riin-a ‘he is lazy’ ji-riin ‘lazybone’ bë-jólo ‘largeness’a-jólo-i 3S-large-Asp ‘it is large’ si-piim ‘blindness’a-piim-i/a ‘he is blind’ ji-piim ‘blind person’ si-paab ‘gluttony’a-paab-a ‘he is gluttonous’ ji-paab ‘glutton’ si-gaar ’stupidity’a-gaar-a ‘he is stupid’ jan-gaar ‘idiot’ 40

41 Qualities II In the Comparative construction with the verb lum ‘surpass’ all verbs require the VNF ba-: a-lum-i ba-li 3S-surpass-Asp NC-good ‘It is better’ a-lumi-em ba-jir (hë-jir ‘run’) 3S-surpass-3SO NC-run ‘SHe runs faster than him/her’ a-lum-em ba-jaax (bu-jaax ‘eat’) 3S-surpass-3SO NC-eat ‘SHe eats more than him/her.’ 41

42 Subject Object status Subject: stands before the verb can be focused with in- is deleted in passive phrase triggers agreement Non-Subject: focused with g- ka in nominalisations encoded with suffixes on the verb [animate objects] becomes subject of passiv phrase can be relativised 42

43 Periphrastic Aux rad: ba-dox ha ja-lihan gi-rad-i NC-carry Con NC-wood 1SFoc-Aux-Asp ‘I am carrying wood.’ Aux kan: tëpur tëpur, gaŋ-kan-t-i hë-dëek morning morning 3Pl:Foc-Aux-Dir-Asp NC-go ‘It’s early in the morning that they come.’ LOC: innoŋ ja-naaf LOC:3S NC-work ‘He/she is doing agriculture.’ be: gu-roŋ u-dikaan-i iŋ-gu-t-i bu-ja ka gu-gu-in be-3SNeg NC-woman-Poss FocS-be-Dir-Asp Con NC-Red-song ‘It is not his wife who starts this song.’ 43

44 Predicative use of VN (me) bu-ruk ka ba-rux 1S NC-drink Con NC-water ‘I am drinking water. (Answer to the question: What are you doing?)’ min hë-dëek 1Plex NC-go ‘We are going.’ The VNs can be used with or without a personal pronoun (if the referent is clear) to express a present progressive or an action that is about to take place

45 In raising constructions a-bun bu-noox 3S-good NC-sit ‘It is good for sitting’ a-leer-i bu-dom 3S-difficult-Asp NC-swallow ‘It is difficult to swallow’

46 Subject with Adj

47 Periphrastic Aux rad: ba-dox ha ja-lihan gi-rad-i NC-carry Con NC-wood 1SFoc-Aux-Asp ‘I am carrying wood.’ Aux kan: tëpur tëpur, gaŋ-kan-t-i hë-dëek morning morning 3Pl:Foc-Aux-Dir-Asp NC-go ‘It’s early in the morning that they come.’ LOC: innoŋ ja-naaf LOC:3S NC-work ‘He/she is doing agriculture.’ be: gu-roŋ u-dikaan-i iŋ-gu-t-i bu-ja ka gu-gu-in be-3SNeg NC-woman-Poss FocS-be-Dir-Asp Con NC-Red-song ‘It is not his wife who starts this song.’

48 Complement of verb min-di gu-way be.able-Neg:1Sg Cl-swim ‘I don’t know how to swim.’ haŋgu-ri sin-cem can-Neg1S NC-sleep ‘I cannot sleep’ *haŋgu-ri bu-cem can-Neg1S NC-sleep ‘I cannot sleep’ i-haŋgul-i ja-ŋa’ ka mu-uc 1S-can-Asp NC-mount Con NC- palmtree ‘I can climb palm trees.’ i-haŋgul-i i-cem 1S-can-Asp 1S- sleep ‘I can sleep’ i-haŋgul-i i-ŋaf ra-uc rara 1S-can-Asp 1S-mount NC- palmtree Dem:Agr ‘I can climb this palm tree

49 Purposive Without conjunction: i-dëek bi-nig ka tele 1S-go NC-watch Con television ‘I go watch television.’ With conjunction: an-nig əbən-əŋ ə-gini a-la-tː-a-nɛ mata ha bu-hɔf 3Sg-look:at animal-Pl Agr-Rel 3S-take-Dir-ne Conj Con NC-kill ‘They are looking at the animals which have been brought, for the sake of killing them.’

50 Focusing? bu-nobun bumbooŋ, jëbën NC-tie Agr:Dem NC-pagne ‘This tieing up is done with pieces of cloth’ bʊ-hupp bumbooŋ, ni a-gob-ah, u-guni ë-gu-t-i bu-dëek, a-ñoŋ-ot ho-xuno hoho ‘Concerning this pouring [of palmwine], since everybody collected wine, tose who come bring a little bit of wine.’

51 Methodology 1. trip: build a corpus, understand basic syntax and morphology, elicit verblists (in french) 2. trip: expand corpus, transitivity database/verbal extensions, reformulate first hypotheses on VNF and their distribution, check verbs in lexicon for compatibility with VNF and elicit them in syntactic contexts with 3 speakers 51


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