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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gender Inequality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gender Inequality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gender Inequality This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; any rental, lease or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Chapter 4 Outline Sex Gender Basic Definitions Parents Peers Education Sports Media Gender Role Socialization Division of labor Wage gap Sexual Harassment Glass ceiling and escalator Double Shift Contemporary Gender Inequality Symbolic Interactionist Functionalist Conflict Perspectives on Gender Inequality

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sex vs. Gender Sex: Biological distinction Defined as male or female Gender: Social and cultural constructed differences Defined as masculine or feminine Varies by group or society defining it.

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gender Belief System Ideas of masculinity and femininity that are held to be true in a society. This is reflected in the gendered division of labor (tasks divided on the basis of gender, i.e. “men’s work vs. women’s work”) Cross cultural research finds social factors determine division of labor not biological factors. Women’s domain is private and domestic while Men’s is public, economic and political.

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gender Role Socialization Gender-role approach: focus on how socialization contributes to inequality. 5 major agents of socialization Parents Peers Media Sports Education

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Parents Primary means of socialization Reinforce gender distinction through: Clothes pink for girls, softer colors with hearts and flowers blue for boys, bolder colors with superheroes and sports Toys Dolls and homemaking items for girls Balls and trucks for boys Chores Domestic chores assigned to girls (dishes, laundry) Maintenance chores assigned to boys (take out garbage, mowing)

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Peers Peer groups have common interests and are usually similar in age. Boy peer groups stress masculinity more than girls stress femininity. Gender appropriate emotions are taught and stressed.

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Education Studies indicate gender bias in schools. Teachers show favoritism toward boys in subtle ways. Some gender segregated activities are encouraged. Boys not reprimanded for behaviors because “boys will be boys” Female gender roles conflict less with school norms.

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Sports Title IX passed in 1972 resulted in increase in females in sports. Boys still 1.5 times more likely to participate in sports. Most sports seen as masculine. Helps individuals learn teamwork and leadership

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Media Includes: newspapers, magazines, television, movies, books, and others. Display significant gender stereotyping Very big influence on what we perceive to be appropriate gendered behavior Advertising significantly reinforces notion of women being physically attractive and thin. This believed to contribute to eating disorders

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Contemporary Gender Inequality Patriarchy: a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men. 5 Structural forms contributing to gender inequality Gendered division of laborThe wage gapSexual harassmentThe glass ceiling and glass escalatorThe double shift

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Gendered division of labor: More women in workforce than ever before. Women on average have lower salaries, status, and opportunities compared to working men. High concentration of women pink collar occupations: low-paying, non manual, semiskilled positions (clerical work, child care). Also concentrated in contingent work: Part time, temporary, subcontracted Good for employers but not great for employees

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Wage Gap Wage gap: disparity in earnings between men and women. Women make 81¢ for every $1.00 men make. (full time) Wage gap increases by age. Comparable worth has been proposed to even things out. Wages reflect worth of job not gender or race of worker Figure out worth of job by breaking job down into smaller components.

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010

15 Sexual Harassment Intentional gender discrimination Violates Title VII of Civil Rights Act of 1964 Most often women are victims, but occurs with male victims as well. Usually abuse of power more than about attraction. Costs companies millions of dollars each year due to low productivity, absenteeism, and employee turnover.

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Glass ceiling and escalator Glass Ceiling: invisible barrier preventing women from reaching top ranking positions. Male executives afraid employees won’t work under women. In 2005, only 15% of corporate officers in largest 500 U.S. companies were women. Worse in male dominated occupations. Glass escalator: men whisked to top quickly in female dominated occupations. Registered nurses, librarians, social workers.

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Double Shift Hochschild (1989) calls it “second shift” Women doing majority of housework while also working for a wage outside of home. Men and women do different housework: Women do daily tasks (caring for children, cooking, making beds, cleaning up dinner mess.) Men do sporadic chores (mowing lawn, car repair) Women also a part of the “sandwich generation” Caring for dependent children and aging parents

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives on Gender Inequality Symbolic Interactionist: Linguistic Sexism: words and patterns of communication that ignore, devalue, or make sex objects of one sex (usually women). Ex: chairman, mailman, mankind Words can reinforce perceived position of women in society. Non verbal communication Men control more space than women Reinforces male domination according to interactionists.

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives on Gender Inequality Functionalist: Parsons and Bales (1955): gender inequality is inevitable due to biological division of labor Instrumental vs. expressive tasks. Continuation of gender segregation in workforce with women in support positions requiring expressive work. Human capital analysts state that women diminish their human capital when they leave workforce to bear children.

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Perspectives on Gender Inequality Conflict: Gender inequality comes from capitalism and private ownership of means of production by men. Capitalism exploits women in workplace and at home patriarchy leads to women in unequal position. Feminist views: Socialist: men gain control over property and women Radical: patriarchy cause of inequality Liberal: gender role socialization spurs inequality Black: women of color face complex effect of race and gender

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Global Gender Inequality Women and girls victims of sexual abuse. Female genital mutilation Some nations use sex-selective abortion to keep boys High rates of illiteracy for girls worldwide High rate of maternal mortality(pregnancy related death)

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2010 Solving gender inequality Functionalists: Better education and strengthen social institutions Conflict: Eliminate gender based discrimination Abolish capitalism and patriarchy Symbolic Interactionists: Redefine social realities via socialization Get rid of linguistic sexism

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