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KEEP IT CLEAN PARTNERSHIP Low Impact Development (LID) Checklist & Barriers Analysis Andrew Earles, Jane Clary, and Derek Rapp Wright Water Engineers,

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Presentation on theme: "KEEP IT CLEAN PARTNERSHIP Low Impact Development (LID) Checklist & Barriers Analysis Andrew Earles, Jane Clary, and Derek Rapp Wright Water Engineers,"— Presentation transcript:

1 KEEP IT CLEAN PARTNERSHIP Low Impact Development (LID) Checklist & Barriers Analysis Andrew Earles, Jane Clary, and Derek Rapp Wright Water Engineers, Inc. & Janice Lopitz, Keep it Clean Partnership

2 Scope of Work Questionnaire/ barrier identification Develop Review Checklist Development Plan Review Report/White Paper Timeframe: March – December 2008

3 Types of LID Barriers Physical Institutional Barriers for municipalities Barriers for engineers Barriers for the public

4 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers Fear of liability (engineers, owners, reviewers approving design) Reluctance to try something new/lack of demonstration projects Lack of education and training Lack of common nomenclature (rain garden versus porous landscape detention)

5 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) Limited design examples/good technical documentation Costs—design, construction, operation and maintenance, life cycle Safety concerns Public perception

6 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) LID not integrated early in planning process Guidance versus requirements Compatibility with existing developments Water rights (cisterns/rainwater harvesting)

7 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) Potential for mixed messages from government (different departments) No clear economic incentive for using LID Difficulty in measuring benefits of LID Semi-arid area hydrology

8 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) Maintenance and durability Long term ownership Standing water “nuisance” problems Fear of lengthening review process

9 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) Conflicts with municipal code requirements American Disabilities Act considerations Poorly drained soils High groundwater table

10 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) Expansive soils & construction defect lawsuits Other water quality alternatives are “easier” LID does not altogether eliminate need for other types of BMPs and drainage infrastructure HOA or covenant restrictions

11 “Laundry List” of LID Barriers (Cont.) Different guidance/criteria from different groups (CWP versus UDFCD versus others) Examples of LID failures Conflicts with landscaping requirements

12 Questionnaire Results (33 Responses)

13 Are you familiar with the term Low Impact Development (LID)?31 Y, 2 N As a reviewer, designer or constructor have you ever considered LID as an alternative or complement to traditional stormwater management practice such as storm sewers and detention ponds? 23 Y, 9 N Have you been involved in a project where LID measures were implemented? 16 Y, 17 N Have you been involved in a project where LID measures were proposed or planned but not ultimately implemented? 13 Y, 20 N Questionnaire Results (33 Responses)

14 Results (33 Responses) LID Barrier (Scale of 1 to 5, 1 least significant, 5 most significant) Average No. of 1 Responses No. of 5 Responses Perceived design, construction, maintenance costs "Mixed messages" from different governmental departments (planning versus engineering versus open space versus street maintenance) Maintenance and durability concerns No clear economic incentive for using LID LID not integrated early enough in planning process4.0012

15 Results (33 Responses) LID Barrier (Scale of 1 to 5, 1 least significant, 5 most significant) Average No. of 1 Responses No. of 5 Responses Other types of BMPs and drainage infrastructure may still be required even with LID LID "recommended" in guidance rather than "required" Lack of successful demonstration projects in area3.917 Concerns with swelling soils Specialized construction techniques may be required 3.909

16 Results (33 Responses) LID Barrier (Scale of 1 to 5, 1 least significant, 5 most significant) Average No. of 1 Responses No. of 5 Responses Other water quality alternatives are "easier" to design, construct and maintain Long term ownership (private versus publicly owned and maintained) Difficulty in measuring benefits of LID Reluctance to try something new3.816 Limited technical design guidance Poorly drained soils/low infiltration capacity3.8111

17 Results (33 Responses) LID Barrier (Scale of 1 to 5, 1 least significant, 5 most significant) Average No. of 1 Responses No. of 5 Responses Conflicts with municipal code requirements (i.e. curb and gutter required) Different or conflicting LID guidance or criteria from different groups (UDFCD versus Center for Watershed Protection versus others) Semi-arid climate (i.e. difficulty in supporting green rain gardens) Iterative coordination process with planners, designers, landscapers and others is required Confusing or unclear ordinances related to LID and/or disconnected impervious area 3.608

18 Results (33 Responses) LID Barrier (Scale of 1 to 5, 1 least significant, 5 most significant) Average No. of 1 Responses No. of 5 Responses Education and training do not provide skills to design and implement LID Potentially longer review process3.406 Fear of liability (engineers, owners, reviewers)3.414 Standing water nuisance problems3.136 Public perception (temporary ponding on lots, standing water, mosquitoes and other factors) High groundwater table3.122

19 Results (33 Responses) LID Barrier (Scale of 1 to 5, 1 least significant, 5 most significant) Average No. of 1 Responses No. of 5 Responses Water rights considerations3.034 Confusing nomenclature--lack of consistent names for practices (rain gardens versus porous landscape detention versus bioretention) Compatibility with existing developments that do not use LID practices Examples of LID failures2.933 Conflicts with landscaping requirements2.923 Safety considerations2.633 Americans with Disabilities Act considerations2.450

20 Development Reviews 3 Sites selected: – Boulder—Redevelopment Project—Boulder Manor – Longmont—”Big Box” Commercial Development—Sandstone Marketplace – Erie—Residential Development—Redtail Ranch

21 Development Reviews (Cont.) Level of Detail ° “Big Picture” ° Identify general LID measures that could potentially have been implemented ° Phone interviews with engineers, owners (if available to participate) and local reviewers ° Review focused on overall site plan (grading and drainage sheets) ° Assume hydrology/ calculations are correct ° Overall goal: Identify LID measures feasible for site and, if not incorporated in design, why not

22 BOULDER MOBILE MANOR

23 SANSDTONE MARKETPLACE

24 REDTAIL RANCH

25 White Paper Present LID checklist Provide summary of each development review case Identify most common LID barriers Develop conceptual strategies for addressing/overcoming most common barriers to LID implementation How will white paper be used by KICP? ° Public education for developers, municipal staff ° Basis to seek additional funding for further study of strategies to overcome barriers ° Publication in scientific/engineering literature

26 Current Opportunities

27 CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO BARRIERS Identified BarriersConceptual Strategies Perceived design, construction, maintenance costs Examples of successful LID pilot studies in the Rocky Mountain Region including economic analysis and long-term performance monitoring and documentation of maintenance. "Mixed messages" from different governmental departments (planning versus engineering versus open space versus street maintenance) Development of improved regional guidance (Volume 3), model ordinances and criteria, better coordination between engineering, planning, parks and recreation, etc. Maintenance and durability concerns Long-term performance monitoring and documentation of maintenance activities for existing LID installations. No clear economic incentive for using LID Develop incentives for LID implementation (reduced storage requirements for water quality event and potentially larger events) to provide credit. Consider expedited variances to shorten review process for proven methods. Documentation of savings on LID projects in region.

28 CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO BARRIERS Identified BarriersConceptual Strategies Conflicts with municipal code requirements (i.e. curb and gutter required) Consider expedited variance requirements where LID features are desired and conflict with standard code requirements. Different or conflicting LID guidance or criteria from different groups (UDFCD versus Center for Watershed Protection versus others) Develop LID criteria specific to semi-arid region and incorporate into regional guidance (UDFCD Manual). Semi-arid climate (i.e. difficulty in supporting green rain gardens) Use drought tolerant species. Do not expect "green" rain gardens. More emphasis on xeriscaping coupled with infiltration. Iterative coordination process with planners, designers, landscapers and others is required Early coordination between developers, engineer and municipal staff from multiple departments to define LID approach for project and identify specific barriers. Confusing or unclear ordinances related to LID and/or disconnected impervious area Improved model ordinances and criteria.

29 CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO BARRIERS Identified BarriersConceptual Strategies Education and training do not provide skills to design and implement LID Expanded training courses through municipalities and professional organizations. Consider webinars, field tours, symposia. Potentially longer review process Integrate LID concepts as early as feasible in planning process (concept of sketch plan). Improved familiarity of municipal reviewers with LID concepts and methods. Fear of liability (engineers, owners, reviewers) More local examples of successful LID implementation, Consider in municipal projects to set example for private development community. Standing water nuisance problems Include underdrains in designs. Clearly define maintenance requirements. Avoid grading plans that specify very mild (unconstructable slopes). Public perception (temporary ponding on lots, standing water, mosquitoes and other factors) Public education on benefits of LID. Better LID design can reduce nuisance water.

30 CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO BARRIERS Identified BarriersConceptual Strategies High groundwater table Require submittal of geotechnical information including groundwater levels early in review process. Recognize that LID may not be feasible in all situations. Water rights considerations Avoid storage/harvesting of runoff for beneficial use. Directing downspouts from roof to pervious areas is not a problem for water rights (incidental use), but collecting runoff from downspouts, storing it (i.e. rain barrels, then beneficially applying the collected water is not legal. Confusing nomenclature--lack of consistent names for practices (rain gardens versus porous landscape detention versus bioretention) Develop glossary of LID terminology as a part of regional guidance. Compatibility with existing developments that do not use LID practices Involvement of Landscape Architects and Planners to better define "community identity and character." Examples of LID failures Forensic investigation of LID failures. Identify specific factors leading to unsuccessful applications and learn from mistakes.

31 CONCEPTUAL APPROACHES TO BARRIERS Identified BarriersConceptual Strategies Conflicts with landscaping requirementsBetter coordination with Landscape Architects. Safety considerations Generally not considered a major barrier, but evaluate safety, especially in areas where the general public will be in close physical proximity to LID BMPs (e.g. Drop off into infiltration swale between sidewalk and street in areas where street parking is likely). Americans with Disabilities Act considerations Provide alternate surfaces for disabled access if there is potential for pervious surface to impede mobility.

32 Regional Opportunities Related to LID UDFCD Volume 3 BMP Manual Update – Model LID chapter – Emphasis on managing stormwater at the source and volume reduction – Expanded BMPs – Comment meeting Sept 25 at UDFCD

33 Other Local Resources: Denver Water Quality Management Plan BMP Implementation Guidelines

34 National LID Opportunities International Stormwater BMP Database Expansion (www.bmpdatabase.org) – Reclassification of LID studies (fall 2008) – Better inclusion of LID – Update of Monitoring Manual to include LID (fall 2008)

35 Representative LID studies already included: Urban Drainage and Flood Control District (Urbonas) University of New Hampshire Studies (Ballestero/Roseen/Leonard/Houle) Villanova Urban Stormwater Partnership (Traver) North Carolina State (Hunt) Portland, OR (Liptan)

36 New GreenCO BMP Manual Contains 39 BMPs to: – reduce landscape water use – protect water quality – promote sustainable landscaping New additions include “Role of Landscaping in Low Impact Development” Now available on CD/hard copy (by download in the near future) Contacts: Jane Clary, WWE Brenda O’Brien, GreenCO

37 Questions? On KICP project: – Andrew Earles, WWE – Janice Lopitz, City of Boulder BMP Database project: – Jane Clary, WWE UDFCD Volume 3 Update: – Michelle Delaria or Ken Mackenzie, UDFCD – or


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