Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

INDOOR AIR QUALITY JUDY MURPHY Industrial Hygienist Montana Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Bureau.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "INDOOR AIR QUALITY JUDY MURPHY Industrial Hygienist Montana Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Bureau."— Presentation transcript:


2 INDOOR AIR QUALITY JUDY MURPHY Industrial Hygienist Montana Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Bureau

3 Introducing…………… Please tell us o Your name o Where you work o What you do o Your indoor air quality experience & concerns

4 Is IAQ Important? 30% of newly constructed or remodeled facilities have IAQ problems Indoor contaminants are responsible for half of all illnesses Liability issues

5 Liability Owners and managers Architects, builders and developers Product manufacturers Insurers Unions Real estate agents, bankers and sellers

6 Why is There an Increase in IAQ problems? More time indoors More chemical pollutants in buildings Tighter buildings and reduced ventilation Deferred maintenance

7 Common Health Effects of Indoor Contaminants Eye, nose and throat irritation Coughing and sneezing Headaches Fatigue Irritability Allergies, sinus congestion Dizziness Difficulty in concentrating

8 Health Effects Depend on Several Factors The contaminant The amount of the contaminant present The length of time a person is exposed to the contaminant The vulnerability of the person

9 Sick Building Syndrome Symptoms include eye, nose and throat irritation, headache, allergies, fatigue 20% or more of occupants experience same symptoms No medically diagnosable symptoms Complaints persist for more than two weeks Symptoms often lessen after person leaves building

10 Building-Related Illness Clinically defined illness or disease o E.g. Asthma, Legionaires’ Disease, Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Symptoms depend on the disease

11 QUIZ What are some of the most common IAQ health effects? What four factors determine the health effects of an exposure to hazardous compounds?

12 Regulations and Standards Outdoor airborne contaminant levels o Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) o National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Indoor airborne contaminant levels in the workplace o Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) ASHRAE Standards 62-1989, 62-2001, 62- 2004, 62.1-2007

13 ASHRAE Ventilation Standards ASHRAE 62-1989 – Objective of ventilation is satisfaction of 80% of inhabitants

14 OSHA Permissible Exposure Levels (PELs) “Time-weighted average concentrations that must not be exceeded during any 8-hour workshift of a 40-hour workweek” Legally enforceable Measured in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m 3 )

15 Threshold Limit Values (TLVs) “Time-weighted average concentration for a conventional 8-hour workday and a 40-hour workweek, to which it is believed that nearly all workers can be repeatedly exposed, day after day, without adverse effect” Guidelines Generally more conservative than PELs

16 Problem - Causing Compounds Chemicals Combustion products Respirable particles and gases Biological aerosols


18 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Carbon-containing compounds that evaporate rapidly Examples o Benzene o Toluene o Styrene o Perchloroethylene o Pesticides

19 Volatile Organic Compounds (Sources) Paints, stains, varnishes Waxes Polishes Solvents Pesticides Adhesives Wood preservatives Cleansers Lubricants Air fresheners Fuels Plastics Copy machines, printers Tobacco products Perfumes Dry cleaned clothing

20 PESTICIDES - Symptoms Headache Dizziness Lack of coordination Nervousness Irritability Insomnia Confusion Loss of concentration Speech difficulties Depression Impaired judgment Memory deficits Visual disturbances ECG changes Weakness Fatigue Paralysis

21 Integrated Pest Management IPM Steps o Set action thresholds o Monitor and identify pests o Prevention o Control

22 Formaldehyde Used in plywood, paneling, particleboard, wallboard, fiberglass, adhesives Sometimes in ceiling tiles, wallpaper, furniture, draperies, clothing Even low levels can cause difficulties in breathing, burning of eyes nose and throat, coughing; a human carcinogen PEL 0.75 ppm; TLV ceiling limit 0.3 ppm

23 Perchloroethylene Solvent used in dry cleaning, metal cleaning and degreasing Can cause irritation of eyes, nose, throat and skin, liver and kidney damage, CNS depression Considered an animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen PEL 100 ppm; TLV 25 ppm

24 Perchloroethylene MSDS Exercise

25 QUIZ What are VOCs? What are some sources of VOCs What are some alternatives to pesticides?


27 Combustion Products Carbon monoxide (CO) Oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) Oxides of sulfur (SO x ) Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Tobacco Smoke components

28 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Colorless, odorless, tasteless poisonous gas Produced as a by-product of combustion Deprives the body of oxygen by binding to blood hemoglobin and displacing oxygen molecules

29 Carbon Monoxide Symptoms are headache, dizziness, drowsiness and nausea Severe exposure results in vomiting, collapse, coma and death PEL 50 ppm; TLV 25 ppm Body systems most affected are the brain, the heart, and the developing fetus

30 Carbon Monoxide Low levels of exposure - more frequent attacks of angina, reduced athletic performance, heart attacks Moderate exposures - loss of attentiveness, decreased visual perception, manual dexterity, learning ability and driving ability Smoking – cause of the greatest human exposure

31 Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) Colorless, odorless, tasteless gas at room temperature Present in exhaled human breath Combustion by-product Naturally present in an unpolluted environment at about 300 ppm

32 Carbon Dioxide CO 2 levels above 800 ppm may indicate inadequate ventilation ASHRAE recommended indoor air quality limit for CO 2 is 1000 ppm PEL 5000 ppm; TLV 5000 ppm

33 Tobacco Smoke Respirable particles and gases, including benzene, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, ammonia and VOCs Sidestream smoke from cigarette contains higher concentrations of some toxic and carcinogenic substances than mainstream smoke inhaled by smoker

34 Tobacco Smoke Causes lung cancer in nonsmokers as well as smokers Increased respiratory infections in children Irritation of upper respiratory tract, coughing, wheezing, sneezing, headache, sinus problems, asthma, increased cardiovascular risk

35 QUIZ Which combustion by-products would you expect to see in smog? Which compound is sometimes used as a measure of ventilation efficiency?


37 Respirable Particles & Gases Asbestos Fiberglass Silica Metal dust Tobacco smoke components Organic dust o Pollen o Mold spores o Paper dust Radon

38 Asbestos Group of indestructable highly fibrous minerals Separated fibers are long, thin, flexible, heat resistant, able to be spun and woven Health effects: lung cancer, mesothelioma, asbestosis, pleural plaques Airborne concentration in homes and schools 30 to 6,000 fibers/m3 PEL 0.1 fiber/cc; TLV 0.1 fiber/cc

39 Lead Indestructable, non-biodegradable, adaptable metal Romans used lead to line aqueducts, as mortar, in plumbing and to sweeten wine Was used in gasoline, batteries, paints, ceramic glazes, ammunition, fishing sinkers, metal toys

40 Lead Three quarters of the nation’s housing contains lead-based paint Children are at greater risk for lead poisoning than adults o Hand to mouth activity o Developing body systems more easily affected o Action level is 10 micrograms per deciliter (μg/dl)

41 Lead – Chronic Exposure Health Effects Loss of appetite Metallic taste in mouth Anxiety Constipation Nausea Palor Excessive tiredness Weakness Insomnia Headache Nervous irritability Muscle and joint pain or soreness Fine tremors Numbness Dizziness Hyperactivity Colic, with severe abdominal pain

42 Chronic Effects of Lead Poisoning in Children Fetal development abnormalities Decreased intelligence Slowed neurological development Reading and learning problems Reduced attention span

43 Chronic Effects of Lead Poisoning in Children (cont.) Hearing loss Behavioral problems such as hyperactivity Stunted growth Permanent damage to the brain, nervous system and kidneys

44 Sources of Potential Exposure to Lead Lead-based paint Lead-contaminated dust Lead-contaminated soil Candle wicks Pewter and silver products Lead crystal Some lead-glazed pottery and porcelain Some imported mini-blinds

45 Radon Naturally occurring radioactive gas Colorless, odorless, tasteless Causes no symptoms of irritation or discomfort No early signs of exposure Testing a building is the only way to evaluate exposure Action level is 4 picocuries per liter (pCi/L)

46 Radon Health Effects Damage by alpha radiation to tissue of lungs and respiratory tract 20,000 lung cancer deaths per year Non-smokers risk of lung cancer at 4 pCi/L is 2 in 1000 Smokers risk of lung cancer at 4 pCi/L is 20 in 1000

47 Testing for Radon Test in lowest livable area in building Close all doors and windows 12 hours before testing Do not test in kitchen or bathroom Place monitor at least 20 inches above floor Test during coldest months of the year

48 Radon Control Measures Increasing the ventilation in the building Sealing the foundation Sub-slab depressurization

49 Sub-Slab Depressurization

50 QUIZ What are some of the health effects of lead exposure? How can you tell if a building has elevated radon levels?


52 Bioaerosols Substances that are living or were released from a living organism Examples o Bacteria o Fungi o Pollen o Viruses o Dust mites

53 Dust Mites

54 Microscopic relatives of spiders Feed on dead skin scales and other organic debris 2,000,000 in an average bed Dust mite feces - a common allergen Prefer relative humidity level above 55%

55 Viruses Smallest and simplest of all life forms Depend completely on their hosts for reproduction Continually undergo evolutionary change Examples o Influenza o HIV o Rhinovirus

56 Hanta Virus Carried in wild rodents, especially deer mice Can cause respiratory failure and death Approximately 43 % of diagnosed cases have been fatal Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne particles of infected urine, droppings or saliva from infected animals

57 Hanta Virus Precautions Seal any holes larger than a dime Air out unused buildings before entering Wear a NIOSH-approved mask when cleaning Spray surfaces with disinfectant, leave for 15 minutes, then sweep Wash hard surfaces with disinfectant

58 Bacteria Single-celled prokaryotic organisms Most are very small spheres, rods or filaments Reproduce by simple cell division Some produce endospores, which are extremely resistant to harsh conditions A few require living hosts

59 Bacteria in Indoor Environments Higher concentrations indoors than outdoors Majority of bacteria in air are shed from human skin and respiratory tracts Examples of infectious bacteria o Legionella spp. o Staphlococcus aureus o Mycobacterium tuberculosis

60 Bacterial Toxins Exotoxins o Excreted o Clostridium botulinum exotoxin - one of the most powerful poisons known Endotoxins o Part of cell wall of gram negative bacteria o Highly toxic – fever, malaise, changes in white blood cell counts, respiratory distress, shock, even death

61 Mold

62 Mold? Where??

63 Mold on ceiling and walls

64 Mold in a closet

65 Mold in air duct

66 Fungi as Food Mushrooms Soy sauce Yeast Bread Cheese Wine Beer

67 Mucor species

68 Penicillium species

69 Aspergillus niger

70 Aspergillus fumigatus

71 Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans

72 Growing Conditions Optimum water activity o Above 0.90 in substrate, for most species Optimum temperature range o 56°F to 86°F, for most species Light o Inhibits growth of some types of molds o Stimulates spore production in many species

73 Fungal Metabolism Enzymes secreted to digest external food sources, which are then absorbed Must have adequate moisture available

74 Metabolic Products Carbon dioxide, water, ethanol Microbial Volatile Organic Compounds (MVOCs) Mycotoxins and antibiotics

75 MVOCs VOCs with distinctive offensive odors Possibly responsible for some illnesses Different compounds emitted on different media Type and quantity change with phases of growth Highest MVOC production is prior to and during spore production and mycotoxin production

76 Mycotoxins Produced to inhibit or kill competitors May cause serious short term and long term health effects Over 200 recognized mycotoxins, and many more not yet discovered Toxins production varies with the species, the conditions and the substrate

77 General Health Effects Sinus congestion Sneezing Coughing, Eye irritation Asthma Bronchitis Hypersensitivity pneumonitis Infectious diseases, e.g. ringworm, athletes foot, nail infections, Histoplasmosis, Valley Fever

78 Mycotoxin Health Effects Mucous membrane irritation Cold and flu symptoms Sore throat Headache Fatigue Diarrhea Skin rashes Dizziness Nausea Immunosuppression Birth defects Tremors Hemorrhaging Cytotoxicity Hepatotoxicity Nephrotoxicity Cancer

79 Aflatoxin One of the most potent carcinogens known to man Linked to a variety of health problems FDA maximum allowable level is 20 ppb Produced by some species of Aspergillus

80 T-2 Toxin A tricothecene toxin Produced by species of Fusarium mold One of the more deadly toxins Ingestion in sufficient quantity can cause rapid death due to internal hemorrhage Implicated in alimentary toxic aleukia and pulmonary hemosiderosis Damage is often permanent

81 Fumonisin Associated with some species of Fusarium mold Commonly found in corn Has resulted in dozens of deaths of horses and swine Causes “crazy horse disease” or leukoencephalomalcia, a liquifaction of the brain Chronic low-level exposure in humans has been linked to esophageal cancer

82 Satratoxin H Produced by Stachybotrys, Trichoderma and other molds High doses or chronic low doses are lethal Abortogenic in animals Believed to alter the immune system function

83 Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) Grows on building material with high cellulose content and low nitrogen content Optimum water activity is 0.94 Areas with relative humidity above 55% and subject to temperature fluctuations are ideal for toxin production Changing humidity may induce heavy sporulation Spores are covered with slime; not easily airborne

84 Stachybotrys Effects Chronic exposure effects: cold and flu symptoms, sore throats, diarrhea, headaches, fatigue, dermatitis, intermittent local hair loss, generalized malaise Toxins suppress the immune system, affecting lymphoid tissue and bone marrow

85 Stachybotrys Effects (cont.) Animals injected with Stachybotrys exhibited necrosis and hemorrhage within the brain, thymus, spleen, intestine, lung, heart, lymph node, liver and kidney Toxin is reported to be a liver and kidney carcinogen

86 Stachybotrys - contaminated straw and normal straw

87 Stachybotrys and other mold on sheetrock

88 Stachybotrys in ventilation tunnel

89 Stachybotrys on fiberglass insulation backing

90 Water-Damaged Ceiling

91 Flooded Room After Remediation

92 Water-Damaged Wallpaper

93 Stachybotrys, Aspergillus and Penicillium in Basement


95 Difficulties in Mold Sampling No TLVs or PELs Fungus might not be producing spores at the time of sampling Spores might be adhering to surfaces rather than airborne Spores might not survive impaction Spores might not grow on the media used Colonies might be overgrown by others and not detected Organism might be very slow growing

96 Types of Mold Sampling Bulk samples Surface samples - tape Surface samples - swab Air samples using impaction onto agar Air samples using spore trap methods

97 When Sampling Results Indicate Serious Mold Problem Total indoor levels are higher than total outdoor levels Fungi indoors are different from outdoors or non-complaint areas Fungi are allergenic or toxigenic Area is likely to be disturbed Present or past water or high humidity

98 Key Remediation Steps Correct the moisture problem that led to the mold growth Remove all contaminated porous materials o Use proper PPE o Containment and negative pressure to prevent spread of spores o Minimize dust production o Decontamination

99 Key Remediation Steps (cont.) Clean all contaminated non-porous materials o HEPA vacuum o Disinfectant or soap and water

100 Personal Protective Equipment for Remediation Work For minimal mold growth o N-95 respirator o Gloves For moderate to extensive mold growth o N-95 respirator o Gloves o Eye protection o Full-body covering

101 Remediation Resources NY City Department of Health Guidelines on Assessment and Remediation of Fungi in Indoor Environments moldrpt1.html moldrpt1.html Mold Remediation in School and Commercial Buildings (EPA)

102 Remediation and General Information Resources Mold in My Home: What Do I Do? Mold in My School: What Do I do? Mold in Indoor Workplaces

103 QUIZ What is the first thing you should look for when there is a suspected mold problem? What kind of personal protective equipment should you wear if you are removing moldy sheetrock?


105 Ventilation Purpose - Remove or dilute airborne contaminants Supply air - mixture of outside air and re-circulated air

106 HVAC Systems Components o Air intakes, dampers, filters o Heating & cooling units, coils, drain pans o Ductwork o Supply vents o Exhaust vents o Plenum

107 ASHRAE Outdoor Airflow Requirements, 62.1-2004 V bz = R p P z +R a A z o V bz = Breathing zone outdoor airflow o R p = Outdoor airflow rate required per person as determined from Table 6-1 o P z = zone population o R a = Outdoor airflow rate required per unit area as determined from Table 6-1 o A z = zone floor area

108 Acceptable Temperature Ranges, ASHRAE 62.1-2004 Dry bulb at 30% relative humidity: Winter: 68.5ºF – 76.0ºF Summer: 74.0ºF – 80.0ºF

109 When Good HVAC Systems Go Bad Poorly balanced systems o Areas with stale air o Drafty areas o Contaminant buildup o Uncomfortable temperatures o Odors from other areas of the building

110 Poorly Located Air Intakes Entrainment of vehicle exhaust from parking areas Entrainment of bioaerosols from debris on the ground Entrainment of exhaust from adjacent roof vents, e.g. HVAC system, sewer

111 Poor Filters or Poor Filter Maintenance Excessive dust and dirt in the supplied air Insects Mold spores

112 Ductwork Leaks o Energy loss o Can draw contaminants into ducts Duct liners o Can degrade; particles enter supplied air

113 Backdrafting Pressure imbalance o Air to air heat exchanger cracks o Duct leakage o Tight building Combustion contaminants are drawn into the building

114 Ventilation to Meet Occupant Needs ASHRAE Standards Temperature Relative Humidity Minimum outdoor air requirements CO2 levels below 1000 ppm Outdoor air supplied at 15 cfm/person

115 Ventilation – Engineering Controls Modify ventilation system Modify pressure relationships Filters Ion generators Humidification systems

116 IAQ Inspection DVD

117 QUIZ How often should ducts be cleaned? What level of carbon dioxide indicates adequate ventilation? Should a shop area be at positive or negative pressure relative to the rest of the building?


119 Challenges When Evaluating IAQ Problems Contaminants and their sources are not always obvious Problems may be cyclical or episodic Only a few employees may complain of a problem The situation may become emotionally charged

120 IAQ Inspection Steps Building history Brief walk-through Symptoms Inspection Air monitoring Report, with recommendations

121 Questionnaires Can identify the cause of many IAQ problems Building history questionnaires Symptoms questionnaires HVAC questionnaires

122 EPA’s I-BEAM Software Available on the Internet at: beam/index.html beam/index.html

123 Walk-Through Inspection Outside sources Building exterior HVAC system Boiler room Attic Crawlspace Occupied spaces Wall cavities Storage spaces

124 Look Into: Ceilings, walls, floors, furnishings Water damage Odors Remodeling Insulation falling into work area Plumbing leaks and mold in crawlspaces

125 Look Into: Fluorescent light fixtures Frequently damp areas Pets & aquariums Humidifiers Backdrafting possiblilities Ergonomic factors Stress & tension

126 Mold in basement

127 Vinyl wall-covering, after flooding

128 Poor Outside Drainage Design

129 Ceiling mold

130 Moldy wall

131 Ceiling Tile Stain

132 Mold on AC Ductwork

133 Mold in Laundry Room

134 IAQ Tools EPA’s “Building Air Quality” EPA’s “Tools for Schools” I-BEAM software Monitoring equipment

135 Monitoring Basic Parameters CO CO 2 Temperature Relative humidity Air flow rates

136 Formaldehyde Sampling

137 Ventilation “Dilution is the solution” “When all else fails, ventilate”


Download ppt "INDOOR AIR QUALITY JUDY MURPHY Industrial Hygienist Montana Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Bureau."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google