IBIS20072 Introduction Facility layout design is necessary when building a new facility or renovating an existing one in order to improve process flow and minimize waste space. Facility layout largely depends on the shape and size of the building.
IBIS20073 Facility layout is important The overall layout of a facility will last for long time and only minor changes are possible after the building or renovation. Layout has enormous effect on daily operations. Layout dictate the distance a patient or staff member travels Layout influences the interations and communications of the staff members.
IBIS20074 Goals of Facility layout Functionality: Placing heavily interated departments togetherPlacing heavily interated departments together Placing apart departments that should not be closePlacing apart departments that should not be close Ensuring space and form requirementsEnsuring space and form requirements Facilitating communicationFacilitating communication Cost savings: Reduction of travel timesReduction of travel times Reduce overall space requirementReduce overall space requirement Enabling for reduced staffing by placing similar job functions togetherEnabling for reduced staffing by placing similar job functions together
IBIS20075 Three basic types of Facility layout Product Layout Process Layout Fixed position layout Can be used to either a single department or an entire facility. But also: Retail store layout Warehousing and storage layout (relation of unloading and loading areas)
IBIS20076 Types of manufacturing systems Job-Shop production Job-Shop production Process layout, functionally similar machines are grouped Process layout, functionally similar machines are grouped Flow-shop production Flow-shop production Product layout, machines are arranged along the manufacturing processes of a productProduct layout, machines are arranged along the manufacturing processes of a product Celluaire manufacturing systemsCelluaire manufacturing systems Hybrid layout, similar parts and corresponding machines are groupedHybrid layout, similar parts and corresponding machines are grouped Project shop Project shop Product is fixed, personnel and equipment brought to itProduct is fixed, personnel and equipment brought to it Continuous-flow process Continuous-flow process Chemical plants and flood industryChemical plants and flood industry
IBIS20077 Organisation dans les hôpitaux Principalement une organisation fonctionnelle en unités de soins, plateaux techniques auxquels on associés tous les ressources humaines/matérielles de chaque fonction Principalement une organisation fonctionnelle en unités de soins, plateaux techniques auxquels on associés tous les ressources humaines/matérielles de chaque fonction un patient passe d’une unité à l’autre en fonction des soins nécessaires un patient passe d’une unité à l’autre en fonction des soins nécessaires mais aussi des ressources humaines/matérielles mutualisées, et des ressources humaines détachées à d’autres unités,... mais aussi des ressources humaines/matérielles mutualisées, et des ressources humaines détachées à d’autres unités,...
IBIS20078 Layout of an emergency department Surgery Radiology E.R. triage room Emergency room admissions Laboratories E.R. beds PharmacyBilling/exit Patient A Patient B Patient A (broken leg) proceeds to ER triage, radiology, surgery, bed, pharmacy, billing. Patient B (pacemaker rpoblem): ER triage, surgery, pharmacy, lab, bed, billing.
IBIS200710 Product Layout The product layout arranges equipment (departments) in the order of production process flow. Generally used in mass production such as automobile assembly where the processes are standardized and there is little variation. Product layout is generally less flexible and requires higher initial equipment costs. But it minimizes the process cycle time and increases equipment utilisation. Examples: hospital cafeteria, standardized biological tests.
IBIS200711 Product Layout Product layout, known as assembly line balancing problem, is generally determined by the product or service itself. Most decisions concern assignment of basic operations to different workstationsassignment of basic operations to different workstations in order to balance the workloadsin order to balance the workloads such that each station has approximately the same cycle time, i.e. the time for one item to pass through that workstation (Why)such that each station has approximately the same cycle time, i.e. the time for one item to pass through that workstation (Why) Two types of problems: Using a minimum number of workstations to achieve a given cycle timeUsing a minimum number of workstations to achieve a given cycle time Minimizing the cycle time given the nb of workstationsMinimizing the cycle time given the nb of workstations
IBIS200712 Product Layout An example of 3 stations and cycle time 70. Waste time = ?, workstation cycle time = ?
IBIS200713 Product layout Since variability is inherent in health care, the product layout is rarely used in health care other than for supporting activitiesSince variability is inherent in health care, the product layout is rarely used in health care other than for supporting activities Although the health care process is similar for a patient group with similar diagnosis, the amount of time that patients spend in each process varies greatly. Line balancing is impossible.Although the health care process is similar for a patient group with similar diagnosis, the amount of time that patients spend in each process varies greatly. Line balancing is impossible.
IBIS200715 Process layout The process layout, known as layout by functionality, groups different types of process (departments, equipments) together to provide the maximum flexibility. Hospital groups together functions such as intensive care, surgery, emergency medecine, and radiology as separate departments The flexibility allows accomodate the variability of patient flows and times while preserving high utilisation of resources The downside of a process layout is the large travel time, and high material handling costs. A good layout will reduce this negative impact.
IBIS200716 Closeness-based method Identify the desireness and undesireness of closeness by closeness rating chart. Codes for desired closeness: A – absolute necessary E – very important I – important O – ordinary important U – unimportant X – undesirable.
IBIS200717 Closeness-based method Closeness rating charting A E A O U I E X I E U I U X X 1. Nurses’ station 2. Ambulance entrance 3. Patient Room Area 4. Laundry 5. Main entrance 6. Dietary Department 40*80 40*40 remaining 40*80 80*80 40*80 area in mDepartment
IBIS200718 Closeness-based method Using a heuristic rule to design layout. Step 1. Assign departments to available spaces according desired closeness relationships identified as absolutely necessary or undesirable, i.e. A and X, by starting with the most frequent department in either relationship. A graph representation of A and X closeness can be built. Step 2. Consider other departments with relationships E, I, O, U.
IBIS200719 Closeness-based method Ambulanceentrance Nurses’StationPatient room area Main entrance Laundry DietaryDepartment A A X X X A and X closeness representation
IBIS200720 Closeness-based method 2 Ambulance entrance 1 Nurses’ Station 3 Patient room area 5 Main entrance 4 Laundry 6 Dietary Department A A X X X A and X closeness representation
IBIS200721 Closeness-based method Final layout 5. main entrance Amb.entrance 4. Laundry 6. Dietary Dept. 1 nurses’ station 3. Patient Room area 400 m 200 m
IBIS200722 Distance and cost-based method This method tries to minimize the costs or repetitive distances traveled by patients and staff. Data representing such traffic are represented in a from-to chart which represents the nb of trips or flows between departments. Once the traffic information is identified, departments with most frequent traffics are assigned to adjacent locations. Informations such as department space requirement, fixed locations,... can be taken into account. The problem is highly combinatorial when the nb of department is large and software tools such as CRAFT are necessary.
IBIS200723 Distance and cost-based method Formall, the objective is to Minimize total cost TC = ij D ij W ij C ij where W =[W ij ] is the From-To traffic matrix D =[D ij ] is the distance matrix (Manhattan distance or Euclidean distance, why) C =[C ij ] is the unit traffic cost
IBIS200724 Distance and cost-based method Example: Consider a small hospital of 3 departments A, B, C. Three locations 1, 2, 3 of identical size are available. Assume that a nurse can walk 100 feet in 30 seconds and earn $48 per hour. Unit traffic cost Cij = 0.004$ / foot walk location1location2location3 100 feet 100 feet
IBIS200725 Distance and cost-based method Distance matrix (in feet) Location From/To123 1-100200 2100-100 3200100- Condensed traffic matrix Department From/ToABC A-33001400 B-200 C- Traffic matrix (in trips) Department From/ToABC A-1000300 B2300-100 C1100100-
IBIS200726 Distance and cost-based method Dept.BDept.ADept.C
IBIS200727 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 The Walters Company’s management wants to arrange the 6 departments of its hospital in a way that will minimise interdepartmental material handling costs. They make an initial assumption (to simplify the problem) that each department is 20x20 feet and that the building is 60 feet long and 40 feet wide. The process layout procedure that they follow involves 6 steps.
IBIS200728 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 Step 1. Construct a « from-to-matrix » showing the flow of patients or personnals from department to department. 501000020 3050100 200100 500 0
IBIS200729 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 Step 2. Determine the space requirements of each department. Department1Department2Department3 Department4 Department5Department6 room1room2room3 room4room5room6 Building dimensions and a possible department layout
IBIS200730 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 Step 3. Develop an intial schematic diagram showing the sequence of departments through which patients will have to move. Try to place departments of heavy flow next to one antoher. 12 3 4 5 6 5030 100 20 50 10 20 100 50
IBIS200731 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 Step 4. Determine the cost of this layout with traffic cost of 1€ between adjacent departments and 2€ between non adjacent departments. Cost = 570 €. 12 3 4 5 6 5030 100 20 50 10 20 100 50
IBIS200732 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 Step 5. Try to improve this layout by trial and error to establish a reasonable good arrangement. Switch departments 1-2 as there is a heavy traffic between dept. 1- 3. Cost = 480 €. Department2Department1Department3 Department4 Department5Department6 room1room2room3 room4room5room6
IBIS200733 Distance and cost-based method : example 2 Step 6. Prepare a detailed place considering space or size requirements of each department; that is, arrange the departments to fit the shape of the building and obstables.
IBIS200734 Mathematical model for identical dept. Problem: Locate N department on N locations in order to minimize total traffic cost. Decision variable : Xij = 1 if dept. i is located at location j Minimize TC = ij i’j’ D jj’ W ii’ C ij X ij X i’j’ where j X ij = i X ij =1 j X ij = i X ij =1 W : traffic matrix, D : distance matrix C : unit traffic cost Linear Programming model can be developped for the case of rectangular departments of different sizes.
IBIS200735 Mathematical model for identical dept. Problem: Locate N department on N locations in order to minimize total traffic cost. Decision variable : Xij = 1 if dept. i is located at location j Minimize TC = ij i’j’ D jj’ W ii’ C ij X ij X i’j’ where j X ij = i X ij =1 j X ij = i X ij =1 W : traffic matrix, D : distance matrix C : unit traffic cost Linear Programming model can be developped for the case of rectangular departments of different sizes.
IBIS200737 Fixed position layout The fixed-position layout consists of the fixed service positions where personnel and materials come together to perform the service. Generally used in industry when the product is either too large or too delicate to more such as airplane assembly. In inpatient hospital rooms (especially in an intensive care unit), the service position is the patien bed. The operating table in an operating room is another example.
IBIS200738 Fixed position layout Designing a fixed position layout entails positiioning several service positions withing a given area, each of which may require an adjacent but separate support area. Conflicts about space constraints and timing have to be resolved (suspended x-ray machine and overhead lighting)
IBIS200740 Fixed position layout Designing a fixed position layout entails positiioning several service positions withing a given area, each of which may require an adjacent but separate support area. Conflicts about space constraints and timing have to be resolved (suspended x-ray machine and overhead lighting)
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