Presentation on theme: "Laundry Material Std 10 2014-15 HSC Facilitator: Jasmina S."— Presentation transcript:
Laundry Material Std 10 2014-15 HSC Facilitator: Jasmina S
Laundry Material Water Soap Detergents Optical Whiteners Stiffening Agents
WATER Functions Acts as an solvent to remove dirt and stains from the fabric Dissolves and emulsifies soaps and detergents making washing quick and easy Allows soap and detergent to penetrate into fabrics Pedesis is the movement of water particles
Two types Soft water-sweet in taste Good taste, does not contain impurities of Ca and Mg,good and easy lather with soap Hard water-saltish in taste, contains impurities of Ca and Mg, soap does not give lather.
Hard Water-Saline water Contains salt of calcium and magnesium –not help in forming lather until enough soap is used to precipitate calcium and magnesium It has to be softened –washing Water containing bicarbonates cause temporary hardness-can be removed by boiling Sulphates and chlorides cause permanent hardness-removed by use of chemicals or distillation
Hardness of Water 2 types Temporary hard water Presence of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium. Easily removed by boiling water/lime water Permanent hard water Presence of chlorides and sulphates of calcium and magnesium,cannot be removed by boiling.
Permanent hardness Permanent hardness can be removed by Calcium hydroxide Ammonia solution NH3 (be careful with the proportion-loosen the dye of coloured fabric) Borax is used for water containing 20% of hardness Washing Soda (Sodium Carbonate Na2Co3)- added to hard water insoluble calcium and magnesium salts are formed-purified –soft water
SOAP Soap is a metallic salt of saturated and unsaturated higher fatty acids. Product of reaction of an alkali on oils and fats-saponification-remove dirt by emulsification Most important cleaning material of laundry
Functions of soap Makes penetration of water into fabric easier Emulsifies grease, dirt, facilitating cleaning Makes easier to remove floating dirt Breaks dirt and dust –small particles which float on top
Composition of soap Essential and non-essential Ing: Caustic soda or caustic potash Fatty acids and alkalie both animal and vegetable fats are used Non essential: Naphtha and mineral oil increases effectiveness of soap Starch in the soap gives firmness to soap Water French chalk –filling agent
Types of laundry soap Bar Soap-square block forms,economical Neutral Soap-No alkali, helps to improve washing quality e.g Castile soap Soap flakes-dried to remove water and then flaked –they are covered with thin film Disinfectant soap-contains 3-4 % carbolic acid.used in hospitals Solvent soaps-available in solid,liquid or powdered form,prepared by dissolving soap in grease solvent.
Types of laundry soap Reetanut-Dry fruit of Sapindus mukorassi prepared by adding 802 of reetanut with 2pint of boiling water. They are soaked and sieved. Highly acidic unlike soap which is alkaline. Compund of milk,sugar and saponin. Colored silk and cotton are washed –to retain color and lustre. Also used to clean gold,silver and washing hair. Shikakai-Found in South India, Excellent for silk and wool fabric, retains color and adds lustre. When combined with reetanut and boiled,it forms shampoo. Oxygen washer-soap powders which contains sodium parborate, which release oxygen and removes color and dirt from white fabric Soap Jelly-laundry soap is diluted in hot water to make soap jelly -1% soap and 4% water-used to wash silk,wool,and rayon fabrics
Qualities of laundry Soap Good soap should be light in color,dark color contains impurities Should be firm when pressed with finger. harder soaps may contain sodium silicate and are very cheap White crystals should not be developed on soap after storage for a long period Soaps should appear granular when broken Yellow translucent soaps are not good > They may contain excess resin which discolors the fabric
Detergents Synthetic detergents –petrochemicals They have replaced soaps –they are less affected by hard water and removes dirt and grease easily, cheaper than soap Good detergents clean clothes without agitation, in all types of water,is effective over wide range of temp, harmless to skin and fabric,easily rinsed out and biodegradable
Types of detergents Sodium Alkyl Sulphates-Oils and fats are reduced in presence of excess of hydrogen. Copper salts are used as catalyst. Quaternary Ammonium Salts: Compounds having 1 or more long chain alkyl grps e.g. tri methyl steryl ammonium bromide Partially Esterified Polyhydroxy Compounds Detergents are obtained by partial esterification eg Monostearate of penta erythitol
Detergent are superior to soap Easy to handle-liquid or powder form Wet fabrics quickly and readily than soap Used both in hard and soft water Forms more lather and removes dirt and grease faster and effectively Some detergents contain blue and bleach,hence reduces the need of extra blue and bleach
Use different detergent for different fabric Woolen-mild neutral powder or liquid detergent White cotton-a strong detergent containing bleach and optical whitener Washing silk-neutral liquid detergent as powders are harsh.
White clothes loose their whiteness and acquire a yellowish tinge,after being washed and dried for several times To restore: Following are used 1.Bleaching –Oxidizing and Reducing bleaches 2.Blueing- ultramarine,prussian,indigo, Aniline 3.Brightened agents – known as White dyes
Bleaching When fabrics are made, they are not white in colour, due to impurities and colouring material present in them. To make them white or to dye them in light colours they are bleached. Suitable bleaching agents are used to remove the colour from the fabric. Bleaching is done for cottons, woolens and silks. Man-made fabrics do not need bleaching as they are naturally white. Bleaching has to be done very carefully as the chemical which can destroy the colour may also damage the fabric to some extent. Easy to rinse out. They have lower surface tension. Hydrogen peroxide is a universal bleach which can be applied to all kinds of fabrics.
Types of bleaches A bleach is a chemical that can remove or lighten color, usually via oxidation. Oxidising and Reducing bleaches Oxidising Bleaches-Release oxygen which combine with colored part of the stain and converts it into colourless compounds. Should not be kept for longer time. Reducing bleaches- Removes oxygen from the colored part of the stain converting into colorless compound.
Bleaches Oxidising bleaches: Air and sunlight-oldest method, easiest and cheapest.Cotton and Linen. Javelle water (sodium hypochlorite):used for white cotton. It shd be used when dilute. It should not be kept for longer period of time. Should not be used on wool/silk, used to boil fabrics,colored fabrics
Sodium Perborate: Formed from borax, caustic soda and hydrogen peroxide. It is used on cotton and linen with dilution. On fabrics by diluting with 6 parts of water. Potassium Permanganate: It is a safe bleach. Stains of perspiration and mildew are treated. Thorough rinsing is required. Hydrogen peroxide: It is safe and effective bleach. Used on cotton and linen without dilution. On other fabrics by diluting with 6 parts of cold water.
Reducing Bleaches Sodium hydrosulphite: used on all fabrics,specially used for wool and silk. Should not be used in metal container. Sodium Bisulphite : It is used to whiten the white fabrics yellowed with age. Ammonia: Its strong solution is used on silk and wool. Used in treating grease and scotch mark from animal fabrics. Oxalic Acid: it is used to remove iron rust and fruit stains. It is used with hydrogen peroxide to remove writing ink stains.
Acetic acid: It is used for household purposes as vinegar. Used to treat over blued fabrics. It is used in the dyeing of silks and finishes to silk and rayon. Petrol: It is highly inflammable. Used to remove grease stains Acetone: Helpful to remove stains like cosmetics,nail polish, paints etc
Precaution in using bleaches Use bleach of known strength Dilute the bleach and add gradually Avoid over bleaching –weakens the fabric and leads to cracking Temp should be below 60 degree celsius Rinse after bleaching
Method of bleaching Dilute the bleach in a small container with water Add bleaching water in the tub Put clothes Care should be taken to wash thoroughly to remove all bleaches
Blueing Three types of laundry bluing are in common use, namely, ultramarine, Prussian, and aniline blues.laundrybluing The commercial blues which come in balls or blocks with directions to wrap them in a piece of flannel or other cloth and shake them about in the water to be blued are generally ultramarineflannelclothwater
Blueing Liquid bluing, in the home laundry, usually is a Prussian blue. It is greenish-blue in color and soluble in water. Clothes are occasionally overblued with Prussian, as with other bluings, or may become streaked(dotted) with the bluing if it has not been mixed evenly with the water. Liquidcolor
Blueing Indigo blue: Prepared from leaves of certain plants. Soluble blue: Chemical dyes and available in powder and liquid forms –more in use –even coloring and no sediments
Method of applying blue Make a paste of powder blue in little water Add the blue in the last rinse of water Dip the clothes immediately Open out the clothes to ensure even penetration > do not leave the clothes in water and leave it standing-to avoid patches Gently squeeze the clothes Dry in shade not sun
Brightening Agents Known as White Dyes Suitable for cotton, wool, nylon and polyster fabrics Produce brilliant whitening effect on fabrics – convert normally invisible light rays by reflecting them as visible “white light”
Stiffening Agent Stiffening means the fabric which is generally limp becomes stiff when a stiffening agent is applied. Use maida starch or rice water. For stiffening silk and rayon, gums are used. Stiffening gives body smoothness, lustre to the fabric, neat appearance,reduces the holding down of dust and dirt, facilitates stain and soil removal, gives crispness to the fabric.
Natural Sources of Starch Rice Starch: Used at home for cold water starch. Wheat Starch : It is very viscous solution and provides fabrics with crisp stiffness. Maize Starch/Corn starch: It is viscous solution and gives good stiffness. Arrowroot Starch : The roots are boiled and made into pulp with water. Expensive. Saboodana Starch Superior quality.It is thin,translucent and gives good crispness of fabrics Bran water: outer husk of wheat. Used in cleaning and stiffening
Method of Stiffening agent Choose correct stiffeners needed for the type of fabric e.g starch-cotton & gum arabic- silk, rayon,lace. Wash it properly Prepare enough starch to cover the fabric. Gently squeeze out and dry Shake the wrinkles out of the garments and line dry Dry garments should be sprayed with water and rolled up for 30 mins to allow moisture to penetrate evenly before ironing
Use of Stiffeners-Notes Starch-hot water Starch-cold water Gelatin Gum Arabic Um tragacanth Glue Synthetic sizings