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Colloidal and Surface Phenomena of Liquid Laundry Detergent Dan Boek Erika Indivino Katie Marso Karey Smollar April 18 th, 2002 Featured Product: Make.

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Presentation on theme: "Colloidal and Surface Phenomena of Liquid Laundry Detergent Dan Boek Erika Indivino Katie Marso Karey Smollar April 18 th, 2002 Featured Product: Make."— Presentation transcript:

1 Colloidal and Surface Phenomena of Liquid Laundry Detergent Dan Boek Erika Indivino Katie Marso Karey Smollar April 18 th, 2002 Featured Product: Make the most of Become a registered member and: Read articles tailored to your interests Share comments on the Message Board Receive exclusive member-only offers - it's easy and free. Register now - it's easy and free. Already a member? Please sign-in. sign-in What type of pet(s) do you have in your home?

2 History Clothes first cleaned by mechanical means Production of soaps First produced in the 15 th century Combine fats and sodium hydroxide Renewable, biodegradable resources Negative affects of hard water

3 History Synthetic detergents First produced in 1916 in Germany Introduction of margarine Large bodies of water covered in foam Production took off in the U.S. after WWII Mainly used for dishwashing and fine fabrics

4 History 1946, first all-purpose laundry detergent Included surfactants and builders Combinations became more complex Sodium triphosphate (STP) Very effective builder Use restricted in 1960’s because it caused eutrification in rivers New additives are continually being introduced

5 History Liquid laundry detergent 1970’s, became popular in the U.S. More convenient for consumers Easier to handle Do not contain bleaching agents Remove stains better at lower temperatures Sales have soared above powders in last decade Have reached 50/50 market split in the U.S.

6 Design Considerations Excellent soil removal Low sensitivity to hard water Builders prevent calcium and magnesium deposits Good dispersion properties Liquid detergents spread easily Soil antiredeposition capability Surfactants keep soils in suspension

7 Design Considerations High solubility in water Liquid detergents dissolve faster than powders Foaming Psychological affect, foam means detergent is working Odor Perfumes and fragrances Color

8 Design Considerations Toxicity Exposure through skin, ingestion, inhalation Environmental affect Use of phosphates Convenience Easier to pour, direct application on stains Cost

9 Types of Fabrics Fabrics require specialized soil removal Textile versus synthetic fabrics Different calcium content Wettability due to hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature Complexing agents react differently with each type of soil

10 Types of Fabrics Sodiumtriphosphate Effectiveness dependent on hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature of the fiber Efficient removal of soils from synthetic or cotton garments, which are hydrophilic Minimal affect on hydrophobic textile fibers Different fabric and soil types are dealt with by using a mixture of compounds in detergents

11 History Tablets Directed to elderly and students New and expensive Hold 25% of market in some European countries Pouches Introduced in April 2001 Liquid detergent in polyvinyl alcohol skin Dissolves in seconds, leave behind no residue

12 Main Components

13 Anionic Surfactants Tetrapropylenbenzene (TPS) -used in earlier stage production of detergents to first replace soap -branching increases the wetting ability but limits effective detergency

14 Linear Alkylsulfonate (LAS) -demonstates good detergency ability and is not very sensitive to water hardness Sodium linear alkylsulfonate (LAS)

15 Secondary Alkanesulfonates (SAS) -highly soluable surfactant demonstrating fast wetting properties and chemical stability of alkali and acids Secondary Alkanesulfonates (SAS).

16 -produced using alkaline hydrolysis process -shows less sensitivity to water only under certain conditions such as chain length and type of chemical bonding Olefinsulfonates (AOS) R 1 –CH 2 –CH=CH–(CH 2 ) n –SO 3 Na Alkenesulfonates Hydroxyalkanesulfonates

17 Nonioinic Surfactants An essential ingredient found in smaller quantities which are used for stabilizing the micelle formations and prevent redeposition

18 Advantages of Builders Enhances effects of surfactants Used to reduce water hardness, Mg2+ and Ca2+ Enables the production of cheaper detergent while retaining the cleaning properties

19 Types of Builders Trisodium phosphate is the most common type of builder Zeolites : Molecular formula: Na 2 OAl 2 O 3 *4.5H 2 O. -water insoluble builder -10 micrometer diameter -reduces soil redeposition by replacing calcium and magnesium ions with sodium Figure 3: Trisodium Citrate (NaCit)

20 Enzymes Help with the removal dried in stain from milk, cocoa, blood, egg yolks and grass Enzymes commonly used are proteolytic, amylolytic and lipolytic Enzymes cause hydrolysis of peptide, glucosidic, or ester linkages

21 Stabilizers Prevent redeposition of negatively charged particles back on the neutral fabric surfaces Sodium carbomethyl cellulose (SCMC) Molecular weight is between 20,000 and 500,000 -Attaches itself to the fibers adding to the negative

22 Other Additives Optical Brighteners -Used to brighten fabric appearance by converting ultra violet light into longer wavelengths of visible blue light Fragrances Alcohols Water

23 Contact Angle  Water Soil Fabric soil-water interface fabric-water interface fabric-soil interface

24 Young Equation After surfactants are added: γ FW = γ SW = 0 Interfacial tension between soil and fabric remains constant, so γ FS > γ FW Θ>90 degrees Contact area between soil and fabric = 0

25 Roll-Up As Θ>90 degrees, the roll-up mechanism takes place

26 Without Surfacant Without surfactant, surface tensions remain constant, Θ < 90 degrees The soil is partially removed by mechanical agitation

27 Packing Parameter Packing parameter: p=v/a o l c a o =surface area of headgroups V = volume of hydrocarbon chains l o = maximum length of chains

28 Packing Geometry

29 Multilamellar Structure Headgroup area diminishes in the presence of salt ions, NaCit ½ > p > 1 so structure is bi-layer Continuous lamellar crystalline structure

30 Multilamellar Vesicles Bilayers form multalamellar vesicles to minimize hydrocarbon chain and solvent interactions Unilamellar vesicle

31 Multilamellar Vesicles

32 Flocculation Water is a poor solvent with salt ions present Chain length decreases due to poor solvency Van der Waals forces Flocculation and phase separation result

33 Decoupling Polymer Decoupling polymer Hydrophylic backbone and hydrophobic side chains Side chains dissolve in oil Backbone dissolves in water Steric repulsion causes the lamellar droplets to repel, hindering flocculation

34 Steric Repulsion Poor solvent without decoupling polymers Poor solvent with decoupling polymers

35 Particulate Soil METHODS OF REMOVAL Mechanical Energy is the primary type of removal and used to enhance anti- redeposition Potential Energy barriers is greatest near the surface, DLVO Theory Using Anioinc surfactant to create electrical Charge on the surfactant and fiber causing repulsion Diagram, PE vs. distance

36 Potential Energy vs. pH Diagram Potential of various fibers as a function of pH a) Wool; b) Nylon; c) Silk; d) Cotton; e) Viscose

37 Calcium Containing Soil Found on textile fabric surfaces Effective detergency is dependent on type of washing solvent used Increases water hardness which decreases the solubility Slight solubility can cause calcium deposit break-up

38 Types of Fabrics Cotton, Synthetic, textile Different hydrophobic/hydrophilic nature Effective detergency is dependent of “wettability” of the cloth and the type of complexing agent used Cleaning mixed soils on blending fabrics cause complementing effects

39 Manufacturing Surfactants STPP/Zeolite Sodium Sulphate Sodium Perborate Sodium Carbonate Sodium Silicate Minors Mixing and Homogenizing Liquid Detergent Liquid detergents are produced either in a batch reactor or a continuous blending process.

40 Packaging 3 Main Purposes: Maintain quality of detergent Supply detergent information Make handling easy

41 Packaging Company Considerations: Compatibility Cost Safety Waste Convenience

42 Packaging Typical bottles are recyclable plastic Gradually, companies are adding a percentage of recycled plastic to their bottles. Generally 25% recycled material Concentrated detergents Refillable bottles Refill bottles 65-90% smaller than original container

43 Environmental Concerns Adjust to environmentally-friendly washing machines Reduced: Water Energy Temperature Water consumption Minimize amount required for detergent to function Adapt formula to wash in poor conditions

44 Liquid Detergent Sales Continue to Grow:

45 Market Sales Liquid detergent sales top powders in 1998 $3 billion sold in liquid $1.8 billion sold in powder Liquids more popular due to convenience and better performance

46 Market Breakdown


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