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> environmental and Physical considerations > accommodations and security on-site > construction space and storage of materials on the site > special requirements based on the design plans and site environment > documentations and specifications e.g. building permit > plan drawings of Foundation system, Structural system, external envelope e.g. portal frame design - a clients engages an architect and consulting engineer who prepare structural design drawings of the portal frame and submit the project to the tender - the builder sub-contracts the structural steelwork to steel fabricator on the basis of the consulting engineer drawing - steel fabrication is started by following the detail shop drawings drawn by draftsmen > site set out, excavation, foundations, structural frame set up, external envelope system, internal finish next >>

4 Pre-fabrication considerations of off-site production
BACK to main page Pre-fabrication considerations of off-site production > logistic - storage - transport - site - management > procurement - contract form - manufacture > motivation - costs - skills - project management > site assembly - site environment - labour - management > Design - rationalisation - standardisation - co-ordination - decisions next >>

5 Pre-fabricated metal ideal for roofing and walling
BACK to main page Pre-fabricated metal ideal for roofing and walling STEEL Advantages - no waster material - capacity for long clear span - quick construction times Disadvantage - some reduction in thermal insulation - low thermal mass ( high temperature variation) - sound transmission may be problem is not detailed well next >>

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8 Pre construction process
BACK to main page Pre construction process architect engineer builder tender off-site fabrication fabricator Shop drawings Under construction process on-site construction steelworker Concrete panel labour Finish building next >>

9 Preparation of Pad Footing
BACK to main page Preparation of Pad Footing Floating the bolts (Fig. C003) > hole excavated ready for concrete foundation > holding down bolts are then inserted and fixed to a timber base plate, which is same size as the steel base plate and holes are in the same position. > timber base plate fixed to a temporary timber frame > temporary timber frame fixed to correct level by pegged into the surrounding ground and held at the correct position > concrete can be poured around the bolts after level checked (Fig.C003) next >>

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Section Drawings of Pad Footing drawn by architect and engineer next >>

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12 Steel Portal Frame BACK to main page next >>
> economic alternative to warehouse structure > To be effective a pitched roof portal frame should have as low a pitch as practical to minimize spread at the knee joint. > the connection to the column haunched at the knee joint to make the connection deeper and stiffer > the haunching can be fabricated by welding a I-section to the rafter, which is the most economic in steel fabrication. - Design by architect - Liasion with structural engineer - Tender documents - Quotes from steel fabricator - Shop drawings—accurate details by draftsperson - Fabrication—off site - erection of steelwork next >>

13 Base Plate of Steel Column
BACK to main page Base Plate of Steel Column > steel base plae welded or fixed with bolted connection with angle cleats Column attached to Pad Footing > Large washer fixed to bolt to prevent pull out > holding down bolts set into the concrete foundation > non shrinkable grout filled void left below steel base plate > steel packing shims fixed under base plate at correct level > Base plate welded to bottom of column next >>

14 BACK to main page Stages of setting up stanchion next >>

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16 Apex Joint BACK to main page
Stiffening at ridge of steel portal frame at apex joint > the junction of the rafter at the ridge is often stiffened by welding I-section haunching to the underside of the rafter > end plates welded to rafter and hauncing and bolted together << back next >>

17 Knee Joint BACK to main page
Haunch to the steel portal frame at knee joint > The haunched connection of the rafter to the column can be fabricated by welding a I-cut section haunching to the underside of the rafter > the haunch length is usually of the order of 10%-15% of the span of the rafter > with the depth of the section at the haunch is about twice of rafter depth > web stiffener welded to top of column bolt connection from column to haunching << back next >>

18 Cross Bracing BACK to main page next >>
secure the structural elements from wind loads avoid bending of the structural elements - resist lateral forces bracing between stanchion to stanchion Roof bracing next >>

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20 Precast Concrete Panel Advantage
BACK to main page Precast Concrete Panel Advantage - good sound reduction - good fire resistance - loadbearing capacity - high thermal mass (less variation of temperture) Disadvantage - large amount of work required on-site - negerates waste on-site (drilling holes for services - units are heavy - high degree of finishing required on-site next >>

21 Precast Concrete Panel - bolted to stanchion
BACK to main page Precast Concrete Panel - bolted to stanchion -Typical shop drawing of panel details required next >>

22 Lifting up Concrete Panel
BACK to main page Lifting up Concrete Panel Standard concrete panels and units are stored ready for delivery Panel can be assembled around a frame or can from self supporting structure Mobile crane may be required next >>

23 BACK to main page Connection between stanchion and concrete panel

24 Steel Sheet Cladding BACK to main page next >>
- Roof/wall sheeting: approx. 0.4mm thick - Made from zincalume (Zinc & aluminium coated steel) - Available in a variety of profiles, including traditional corrugated and concealed fixed products - Sheeting is usually ‘custom cut’ by the manufacturer to suit the requirements for a particular job - Spanning capabilities: roof: 1200mm – corrugated sheeting; 2700mm –stronger, deeper profiles walls: can be 25 – 50% greater than roof spans Advantages - Cost effective - Lightweight - High structural capacity - Low maintenance - Consistency of quality - Zincalume steel: high solar reflectance qualities; rapid heat dissipation Disadvantages - Limitation to heights that can be reached by sheeting next >>

25 BACK to main page Steel Sheet Cladding next >>

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The construction of buildings. Volume 4, Foundations and sub-structures, steel frames, concrete, concrete frames, external walls of framed buildings, R. Barry , BSP Professional Books, 1992, c1986 Construction and Structures 2 Reading, Deakin university 2006 Roofing, Walling, Rainwater & Structural Products, Stramit Corporation Pty Ltd, may 2004 Barry Advanced Construction of Buildings, Stepen E & Christopher G, Blackwell, 2006 accessed [ RETURN home]

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