Presentation on theme: "Logical Fallacies Student samples. Red Herring Directing attention away from the main topic towards an non relevant subject to substitute for the argument."— Presentation transcript:
Logical Fallacies Student samples
Red Herring Directing attention away from the main topic towards an non relevant subject to substitute for the argument. Example 1:you shouldn't vote for him because he doesn't like steak. Example 2: you shouldn't buy that car, the company that makes it is not a popular brand.
Hasty Generalization You are rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. Somewhat similar to stereotypes.
Hasty Generalization Fred a German stole my watch therefore all of Germans are thieves This is incorrect and a hasty generalization because since one German man stole something doesn't mean all Germans are thieves.
Cats have fur and dogs have fur therefore dogs are cats. This is a hasty generalization because it is jumping to the conclusion that all dogs are cats because they have fur. In actuality they may both have fur but are completely different animals.
Definition Ad Baculum (Scare tactics) A rhetorical strategy, appeals to force, and freight to influence an audience, usually over the top.
Examples: "Do not have sex, because you will get pregnant and die." -Mean Girls Explanation: in reality, the person is trying to scare the audience by saying that they will "get pregnant and die" if they engage in sexual activity, but in reality it is unlikely for someone to die from that. "If you don't believe in God, you will go to hell for eternity." Explanation: people's beliefs differ, but in this example, the person saying that if you do not believe in God, then they will go to hell and suffer, exaggerating their consequences.
Straw Man Definition: An argument or opponent set up so as to be easily refuted or defeated Definition in our own words: Exaggerating or misrepresenting someone's argument to make it easier to attack
Spongebob Karate Island (Literal Example) When spongebob arrives at Karate Island and he is set up with easy opponents to defeat to raise his self confidence
Coach to Player (Actual Example) When you ask your coach not to have practice because it's too cold and he says that you don't care about the team
Ad Baculum Definition: A rhetorical tactic that uses unlikely but frightening illustrations to move an audience (scare tactics). Definition in our own words: Saying something that most likely won't happen but is still a possibility to scare the opponent.
Dracula (Literal Example) Dracula says things that he will do to his opponents to scare them (and it sounds like baculum)
Slippery Slope An idea or course of actions that lead to something horribly wrong or disastrous
If you eat cake, you will get fat; if you're fat, you'll get diabetes, and if you get diabetes your will die. If you eat cake, you will die. This is slippery slope because it takes something as ordinary as eating some cake and leads to an extreme outcome such as death.
Ad Populum More commonly referred to as "bandwagon,” Ad Populum is the argument that a claim's validity is reflected through the quantity of people that believe it. This could be represented by saying that a claim is false because it is not commonly believed, but the fallacy is used more often in a defensive context, stating something must be true because the masses hold to it.
"Our justice system is never wrong, because the jury always reaches a verdict democratically" "Mom, you're driving 10 over the limit!" "But son, everyone is! We can't all get a ticket for it!"
Either/Or Also called "false dilemma", "black and white thinking", "fallacy of false choice", or "fallacy of the excluded middle", this is committed when one diminishes a array of options into only 2, usually polar-opposite choices. The two options are often presented with rhetorical and connotative language in order to make one choice seem far more logical or just than the other.
"You have two options: either vote Romney and save America, or watch it drown in debt in the hands of Obama" "You can either defend basic human rights by voting for Obama, or let millions of Americans suffer without affordable healthcare"
Ad hominem Ad hominem argument replying to an argument or factual claim by attacking a characteristic of the person making the claim.
Examples of Ad Hominem In the film 12 Angry Men, the jurors that think the boy is guilty say he is guilty partly because he was a poor boy from the slums and is something a boy from the slums would do Another example is when you dismiss someone argument by saying that his argument is wrong because he is stupid or ignorant
Ad Hominem An attack on a person which is irrelevant to the topic. It appeals more to feelings rather than intellect. Instead of answering the argument logically they attack the persons character.
Red Herring When people avoid the main issue by saying something that isn't related to distract others Ex: I may have dropped my mom's plate, but I put up the rest of the dishes and started the washer. She is talking about all the helpful things she did to take away from the fact that she broke the plate.
Examples Ugh I failed my test, but today I presented my project in English and everyone really liked it. This is a red herring because the kid is trying to avoid talking about their bad test grade so they bring up their success on their English project.
Ad Baculum Definition: Is a logical fallacy that uses scare tactics in order to face an argument. Shows a threat and exaggerates what could happen because of allowing a certain thing.
Examples Because of the possibility of a terrorist hijacking or a mechanical failure, flying on a plane is too dangerous and should be avoided altogether.
Examples Because of the possibility of falling out of the ride while it is in motion, people should not ride roller coasters.
Definition Textbook Definition: This is a conclusion based on insufficient or biased evidence. In other words, rushing to a conclusion before you have all the relevant facts. Personal Definition: when someone says something and you take that small bit of information and make your entire opinion of that person without really knowing anything else about them.
Examples My father smoked four packs of cigarettes a day since age fourteen and lived until age sixty- nine. Therefore, smoking really can’t be that bad for you. Four out of five dentists recommend Happy Glossy Smiley toothpaste brand. Therefore, it must be great.
Slippery Slope Making the assumption that if one thing happens, a chain of reactions will occur leading to a malicious consequence, when in reality the chances of the chain reaction happening are slim. Kenzie don't write on the board, because if you leave a mark on the board the extra weight from the marker will slowly tear the board loose from its foundations in the wall causing it to crash down and hit the ground which will cause the school’s foundation to crack and eventually lead to the school collapsing completely.
Slippery Slope Explanation Making the argument that the entire school will collapse just by making a tiny mark on the board is outrageous because the chances of the chain of events actually occurring is not likely at all.