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Processes and Technology Chapter 6 Russell and Taylor Operations and Supply Chain Management, 8th Edition
Lecture Outline Process Planning – Slide 4Process Planning Process Analysis – Slide 28Process Analysis Process Innovation – Slide 39Process Innovation Technology Decisions – Slide 47Technology Decisions 6-2 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Learning Objectives Evaluate strategic options in process planning, including whether or not to outsource Differentiate among different types of production processes Understand the effect of volume and standardization on process selection Appreciate the difficulties in translating a design to a process Use simple flowcharting tools to improve everyday processes Investigate the use of technology in manufacturing and service processes 6-3 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Planning Process Group of related tasks with specific inputs & outputs Process design tasks to be done & how they are coordinated among functions, people, & organizations Process strategy an organization’s overall approach for physically producing goods and services Process planning converts designs into workable instructions for manufacture or delivery 6-4 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Strategy Vertical integration extent to which firm will produce inputs and control outputs of each stage of production process Capital intensity mix of capital (i.e., equipment, automation) and labor resources used in production process Process flexibility ease with which resources can be adjusted in response to changes in demand, technology, products or services, and resource availability Customer involvement role of customer in production process 6-5 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Outsourcing Cost Is it cheaper to make or buy the item Capacity Does the company have the capacity Quality Easier to control quality in your own factory Speed Shipping time can reduce savings Reliability Quality and timing are reliability measures Expertise Protect proprietary information 6-6 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Sourcing Continuum 6-7 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection Projects one-of-a-kind production of a product to customer order Batch production process many different jobs at the same time in groups or batches Mass production produce large volumes of a standard product for a mass market Continuous production used for very-high volume commodity products 6-8 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Product-Process Matrix 6-9 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Types of Processes Type of product Unique 6-10 PROJECTBATCH Made-to- order (customized) Type of customer One-at-a- time Few individual customers MASS Made-to- stock (standardized ) Mass market CONT. Commodity Mass market Product demand InfrequentFluctuatesStableVery stable © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Types of Processes Demand volume Very low 6-11 PROJECTBATCH Low to medium No. of different products Infinite variety Many, varied MASS High Few CONT. Very high Very few Production system Long-term project Discrete, job shops Repetitive, assembly lines Continuous, process industries © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Types of Processes Equipment Varied 6-12 PROJECTBATCH General- purpose Primary type of work Specialized contracts Fabrication MASS Special- purpose Assembly CONT. Highly automated Mixing, treating, refining Worker skills Experts, crafts- persons Wide range of skills Limited range of skills Equipment monitors © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Types of Processes Advantages Custom work, latest technology 6-13 PROJECTBATCH Flexibility, quality Dis- advantages Non-repetitive, small customer base, expensive Costly, slow, difficult to manage MASS Efficiency, speed, low cost Capital investment; lack of responsiveness CONT. Highly efficient, large capacity, ease of control Difficult to change, far-reaching errors, limited variety Examples Construction, shipbuilding, spacecraft Machine shops, print shops, bakeries, education Automobiles, televisions, computers, fast food Paint, chemicals, foodstuffs © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection With Break-Even Analysis Study cost trade-offs based on demand volume Cost Fixed costs constant regardless of the number of units produced Variable costs vary with the volume of units produced Revenue price at which an item is sold 6-14 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection With Break-Even Analysis Total revenue price times volume sold Profit difference between total revenue and total cost 6-15 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection With Break-Even Analysis 6-16 Total cost = fixed cost + total variable cost TC = c f + vc v Total revenue = volume x price TR = vp Profit = total revenue - total cost Z = TR – TC = vp - ( c f + vc v ) c f = fixed cost V = volume (i.e., number of units produced and sold) c v = variable cost per unit p = price per unit © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection With Break-Even Analysis 6-17 Solving for Break-Even Point (Volume) TR= TC vp = c f + vc v vp - vc v = c f v ( p - c v )= c f v = c f p - c v © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Break-Even Analysis 6-18 Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $50 per unit Price= p = $100 per unit Break-even point is v = = c f p - c v © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Break-Even Analysis 6-19 Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $50 per unit Price= p = $100 per unit Break-even point is v = = = 40 units c f p - c v © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Break-Even Analysis: Graph 6-20 Total cost line Total revenue line Break-even point 40Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Dollars © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection – Multiple Processes 6-21 $2,000 + $50 v = $10,000 + $30 v Process AProcess B © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection – Multiple Processes 6-22 Below or equal to 400, choose A Above or equal to 400, choose B $2,000 + $50 v = $10,000 + $30 v $20 v = $8,000 v = 400 units Process AProcess B © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Multiple Processes – Indifference Point 6-23 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Selection in Excel 6-24 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Plans Set of documents that detail manufacturing and service delivery specifications assembly charts operations sheets quality-control check-sheets 6-25 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
6-26 Assembly Chart © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Operations Sheet for Plastic Part 6-27 Part nameCrevice Tool Part No UsageHand-Vac Assembly No.520 Oper. No.DescriptionDept.Machine/ToolsTime 10Pour in plastic bits041Injection molding2 min 20Insert mold041#0762 min 30Check settings041113, 67, min & start machine 40Collect parts & lay flat051Plastics finishing10 min 50Remove & clean mold042Parts washer15 min 60Break off rough edges051Plastics finishing10 min © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Analysis Systematic study of all aspects of a process make it faster more efficient less costly more responsive Basic tools process flowcharts diagrams maps 6-28 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Building a Flowchart Determine objectives Define process boundaries Define units of flow Choose type of chart Observe process and collect data Map out process Validate chart 6-29 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Flow Charts in Microsoft Visio 6-30 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Flowcharts Look at manufacture of product or delivery of service from broad perspective Incorporate nonproductive activities (inspection, transportation, delay, storage) productive activities (operations) 6-31 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
6-32 Process Flowchart Symbols Operation Inspection Transportation Delay Storage © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
6-33 Process Flowchart of Apple Processing © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Visio Flowcharts 6-34 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Flowcharts in Excel 6-35 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Map or Swimlane Chart of Restaurant Service 6-36 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Simple Value Chain Flowchart 6-37 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Innovation Total redesign of a process for breakthrough improvements 6-38 Breakthrough Improvement Continuous improvement refines the breakthrough Continuous improvement activities peak; time to reengineer process © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
From Function to Process 6-39 Manufacturing Accounting Sales Purchasing Product Development Order Fulfillment Supply Chain Management Customer Service Function Process © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Innovation 6-40 Strategic Directives Goals for Process Performance Pilot Study of New Design Detailed Process Map High - level Process map Goals Met? Innovative Ideas Design Principles Model Validation Customer Requirements Key Performance Measures Full Scale Implementation Baseline Data Benchmark Data NoYes © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
High-Level Process Map 6-41 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Principles for Redesigning Processes Remove waste, simplify, and consolidate similar activities Link processes to create value Let the swiftest and most capable enterprise execute the process Flex process for any time, any place, any way Capture information digitally at the source and propagate it through process 6-42 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Principles for Redesigning Processes Provide visibility through fresher and richer information about process status Fit process with sensors and feedback loops that can prompt action Add analytic capabilities to the process Connect, collect, and create knowledge around process through all who touch it Personalize process with preferences and habits of participants 6-43 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Techniques for Generating Innovative Ideas Vary the entry point to a problem in trying to untangle fishing lines, it’s best to start from the fish, not the poles Draw analogies a previous solution to an old problem might work Change your perspective think like a customer bring in persons who have no knowledge of process 6-44 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Techniques for Generating Innovative Ideas Try inverse brainstorming what would increase cost what would displease the customer Chain forward as far as possible if I solve this problem, what is the next problem Use attribute brainstorming how would this process operate if... our workers were mobile and flexible there were no monetary constraints we had perfect knowledge 6-45 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Financial Justification of Technology Purchase cost Includes add-ons to make technology work Operating Costs Visualize how the technology will be used Annual Savings Better quality and efficiency save money Revenue Enhancement New technology can enhance revenue 6-46 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Financial Justification of Technology Replacement Analysis When to upgrade to new technology depends on competitive environment Risk and Uncertainty It is risky to invest and risky to Piecemeal Analysis Make sure new and existing technology are compatible 6-47 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Advanced Components of Manufacturing 6-48 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Product Technology Computer-aided design (CAD) Creates and communicates designs electronically Group technology (GT) Classifies designs into families for easy retrieval and modification Computer-aided engineering (CAE) Tests functionality of CAD designs electronically Collaborative product commerce (CPC) Facilitates electronic communication and exchange of information among designers and suppliers 6-49 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Product Technology Product data management (PDM) Keeps track of design specs and revisions for the life of the product Product life cycle management (PLM) Integrates decisions of those involved in product development, manufacturing, sales, customer service, recycling, and disposal Product configuration Defines products “configured” by customers who have selected among various options, usually from a Web site 6-50 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Process Technology Standard for exchange of product model data (STEP) Set standards for communication among different CAD vendors; translates CAD data into requirements for automated inspection and manufacture Computer-aided design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) Electronic link between automated design (CAD) and automated manufacture (CAM) Computer aided process (CAPP) Generates process plans based on database of similar requirements E-procurement Electronic purchasing of items from e-marketplaces, auctions, or company websites 6-51 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Manufacturing Technology - 1 Computer numerically control (CNC) Machines controlled by software to perform a range of operations with the help of automated tool changers; collects processing information and quality data Flexible manufacturing system (FMS) A collection of CNC machines connected by an automated material handling system to produce a wide variety of parts Robots Programmable manipulators that can perform repetitive tasks; more consistent than workers but less flexible 6-52 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Manufacturing Technology - 2 Conveyors Fixed-path material handling; move items along a belt or chain; “reads” package labels and diverts them to correct destination Automatic guided vehicle (AGV) Driverless trucks that move material along a specified path; directed by wire or tape embedded in floor or by radio frequencies Automated storage and retrieval system (ASRS) An automated warehouse; items placed in a storage system and retrieved by fast-moving stacker cranes; controlled by computer 6-53 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Manufacturing Technology - 3 Process Control Continuous monitoring of automated equipment; makes real-time decisions on ongoing operation, maintenance, and quality Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) Automated manufacturing systems integrated through computer technology; also called e-manufacturing Additive Manufacturing Building up a product layer-by-layer from digital instructions, 3-D printing 6-54 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Information Technology Business – to –Business (B2B) E-transactions between businesses usually via the Internet Business – to –Consumer (B2C) E-transactions between businesses and their customers usually via the Internet Internet A global information system of computer networks that facilitates communication and data transfer Intranet Communication networks internal to an organization; can also be password (i.e., firewall) protected sites on the Internet 6-55 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Information Technology Extranet Intranets connected to the Internet for shared access with select suppliers, customers, and trading partners Bar Codes Series of vertical lines printed on packages that identify item and other information Radio Frequency Identification tags (RFID) Integrated circuit embedded in a tag; can send and receive information; a “twenty-first century bar code” with read/write capabilities Electronic data interchange (EDI) Computer-to-computer exchange of business documents over a proprietary network; very expensive and inflexible 6-56 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Information Technology Extensible markup language (XML) A markup language that facilitates computer–to–computer communication over the Internet by tagging data before its is sent Enterprise resource planning (ERP) Software for managing key functions of an enterprise, including sales, marketing, finance, accounting, production, materials management & human resources Supply chain management (SCM) Software to manage flow of goods and information among a network of suppliers, manufacturers and distributors Customer relationship management (CRM) Software to manage interactions with customers; compiling and analyzing customer data 6-57 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
Information Technology Decision support systems (DSS) Information system to help managers make decisions; includes quantitative modeling components and interactive components for what-if analysis Expert systems (ES) A computer system that uses the knowledge of experts to diagnose or solve a problem Artificial intelligence (AI) Field of study replicating elements of human thought and natural processes in software; includes expert systems, genetic algorithms, neural networks, and fuzzy logic 6-58 © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. - Russell and Taylor 8e
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