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Water Demand Measures Course 5 1 Teacher Saroj Sharma

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2 Water Demand Measures Course 5 1 Teacher Saroj Sharma

3 2 About Saroj Sharma Saroj Kumar Sharma graduated in Civil Engineering with distinction in 1988 (M.R.Engineering College, University of Rajasthan, India), completed his MSc in Sanitary Engineering with distinction in 1997 (IHE Delft, The Netherlands) and PhD in Groundwater Treatment in 2001 (Wageningen University and IHE Delft, The Netherlands). He is specialized in water supply engineering - water quality, treatment and distribution. He has 19 years of professional and academic experience in planning, design, implementation, and operation and maintenance of urban, semi-urban and community-based rural water supply projects. He has worked with several government agencies, international consultants and donors (UNICEF, WHO, ADB, WB) in various water supply projects in different parts of the world. His teaching and research interests are in the field of physicochemical treatment processes (filtration and adsorption based processes), natural treatment systems (bank filtration and soil aquifer treatment), water transport and distribution (water loss management, urban water demand management, corrosion of water pipes) and decentralized water supply systems for small towns and urban poor areas.

4 3  Introduction  Urban water demand management measures  Case studies Contents


6 5  Traditional supply driven water management -Water needs are “requirements” that must be met and not the “demands” that are changeable. -New facilities and structures are developed using available sources to meet perceived “increasing” water needs.  Traditional approach has led to over-use of the resources, over-capitalization, pollution and other problems of varying severity.  Old paradigm of designing water supply with little attention to demand determinants, pricing structures and financial policies is not sustainable. Traditional Water Supply Management

7 6  WDM approach places water demands themselves, not structural solutions, at the centre of concern.  WDM recommends the development of large, capital intensive structures only after other possible options for lowering or mitigating the proposed demands have been fully analyzed.  WDM and conservation represent the cheapest form of easily available water. Particularly in the areas where additional demands are being placed on water resources which are already stretched to their limit. From water supply management (WSM) to water demand management (WDM)

8 7 What is Water Demand Management? Water demand management (WDM) refers to any socially beneficial action that reduces or modifies average or peak water withdrawals or consumption consistent with protection or enhancement of water quality. WDM can be defined as a strategy to improve efficiency and sustainable use of water resources taking into account economic, social and environmental considerations. WDM corresponds to use of price, quantitative restrictions and other devices to limit the demand of water.

9 8  Reduces water demands (30% - 50%) with no deterioration in life style or service level.  Significantly reduces capital requirements for expansion of water supply and lowers operating costs (particularly chemicals and energy)  Reduces generation of pollutants, and therefore the requirements for new or expanded wastewater treatment systems.  Facilitates expansion of the coverage of available fund  Enhances the development and adoption of new technologies.  Leads to financially sustainable water systems Benefits of WDM


11 10 WDM relies upon a range of measures (tools and techniques) which can be divided into  Economic  Socio-political, and  Structural and operational Water Demand Management Measures

12 11 Economic techniques depend on  Incentives such as rebates, tax credits and  Disincentives such as real cost, penalties, fines Example: Realistic Water Pricing  A direct means of controlling water demand and generating revenues to cover costs  Should be complementary to other measures of water demand management Economic Measures

13 12  Policies and Laws  Economic policies, government regulations, standards on appliance redesign and marketing: − policy to promote water saving devices − encouraging water savings in industries  Effective public/stakeholder education and awareness measures  Wise use of water; direct restrictions on use Socio-political Measures

14 13 Structural and operational measures are used to achieve better control over water demand. -metering, retrofitting, controlling flow (rationing) and recycling -reduction of UFW, leakage detection and repair - use of water efficient devices - water use restrictions during periods of water shortages Structural and Operational Measures

15 14 Approaches for Water Demand Management  Increase system efficiency  Increase end use efficiency  Promoting distributed sources of supply  Substitute resource use  Improve the market on resource usage

16 15 Demand Management Measures  Increase system efficiency  No change in usage, but change in system operation  Leak detection and repair, pressure reduction  Increase end use efficiency  Less resource use by consumers by using water advertising, education and use of water efficient devices (low volume flush, shower heads, dish washer, washing machine etc)  More efficient watering of public open spaces  Water efficiency in the planning, design and construction of homes and buildings

17 16 Demand Management Measures  Promoting distributed sources of supply  Provide service via local resource not being used  encourage rainwater use and grey-water reuse  Substitute resource use  Provide same service without resource use  Waterless sanitation, low water- use garden plants and shrubs, plants adapted to local rain fall  Improve the market on resource usage  inform consumers about full cost of resource  full cost pricing, universal metering, information on impact of excessive water use

18 Reduction and Control of Unaccounted- for Water

19 18  Substantial savings can be achieved and requirement of extension water supply facilities can be avoided or minimised by reducing unaccounted-for water. (specifically leakage detection and control)  By reducing UFW water agency will be in better financial situation and will be stronger position to achieve its financial self-sufficiency and long term sustainability.  A low rate of unaccounted-for water is one of the best overall indicators that a water utility is successful. Reduction and Control of UFW

20 19 What is Unaccounted-For-Water? Definition Unaccounted-for water (UFW) represents the difference between "net production" (the volume of water delivered into a network) and "consumption" (the volume of water that can be accounted for by legitimate consumption, whether metered or not). UFW = “net production” – “legitimate consumption”

21 20 Non-Revenue Water Non-revenue water (NRW) represents the difference between the volume of water delivered into a network and billed authorized consumption. NRW = “Net production” – “Revenue water” = UFW + water which is accounted for, but no revenue is collected (unbilled authorized consumption).

22 21 Components of Unaccounted-For Water Unaccounted-for water Physical loss (Real loss) Commercial loss (Apparent loss) Pipe breaks and leaks Storage overflows House connection leaks Metering Errors Water Theft Billing Anomalies

23 22 Standard Terminologies Source: IWA (2000)

24 Existing real losses Economic level Unavoidable real losses Improved response time for leak repair Improved system maintenance, replacement, rehabilitation Pressure management and level control More efficient leak detection Four components of an active real loss management program Source: Thornton (2002)

25 Existing apparent losses Economic level Unavoidable apparent losses Reduction of theft by  Education  Legal action  Prepay measures  Pressure limitation  Flow control Reduction of computer error by  Auditing  Checking  Routine analysis  Upgrade Reduction of human error  Training  Standardizing  Reporting  Auditing Reduction of meter error by  Testing,  Sizing  Replacement Four components of an active apparent loss management program Source: Thornton (2002)


27 26 Limited water resources, importing water from Malaysia Strong emphasis on Water Conservation as well as Management of Water Distribution System Water Demand Management Approach  Keeping unaccounted-for water low  Conservation in customers’ premises  Tariffs and use of economic incentives and disincentives Case Study: Singapore (1)

28 27  Keeping unaccounted-for water low - leak detection and repair, mains replacement and rehabilitation, minimising illegal connection  Conservation in customers’ premises - water saving devices, promoting use of other sources (rain water, sea water), encouraging water reuse, consumer education  Tariffs and use of economic incentives and disincentives - rates reviewed periodically, rate structured to encourage conservation -only approved pipe and fittings are allowed to be used in water supply system -water service works are done by licensed workers only Case Study: Singapore (2)

29 28 Evolution of UFW in Singapore (1989-1999) Source: Yepes (1995); PUB Singapore (2001)

30 29 Singapore - Volume of Water Sold and Revenues (1994) Source: Yepes (1995)

31 30 New South Wales, Australia – Population 70000 Demand management program included the following  Pricing and billing reform  Leakage detection and repair  Rebates & give-aways for water efficient shower heads  Point of sale rebate for front loading washing machines  Discounted residential retrofit  Free water audit for non-residential customers  A water efficient demonstration house and garden  Effluent reuse in a new village  A school education program Case Study: Rous Regional WDM Program

32 31 Case Study: Brittany, France  A major pilot project in 7 cities of Brittany, France [ Brest, Lorient, Pontivy, Quinter, Rennes, Morlaix (St- Martin-des-Champs) and Vannes ] (total population – 800, 000)  Project activities - Information campaign (users and professionals); - Letters to domestic users; - Tests & installation of various water-saving devices - Investigations of leakage in the public distribution system and in private households.

33 32 Water Savings in Seven Pilot Cities in Brittany, France Source: Sustainable Water Use in Europe (EEA 2001)

34 33 Case Study: Decreasing Network Losses in Zurich, Switzerland  Network monitoring and leakage control - Annual inspection of at least 40 % of the network  Regular network flushings & hydrant controls - Around 10,000 hydrants are checked, flushed and repaired biannually.  Periodic area-wise network maintenance -Valves, street surface boxes, signs, etc., are locally inspected, cleaned, made accessible or restored.  Periodic pressure surge measurements and stray current measurements -To maintain the up-to-date situation of performance analysis

35 34 Decreasing Network Losses in Zurich  Specific water loss decreased from 0.57 m 3 /h/km in 1985 to 0.22 m 3 /h/km in 1995.  Cost of maintenance operation Source: Sustainable Water Use in Europe (EEA 2001)

36 35 Decreasing Network Losses in Zurich Source: Sustainable Water Use in Europe (EEA 2001)

37 36  In Boston, impending costs of supplying water to the city led officials to implement a Long Range Water Supply Program (LRWSP) to cut down on water use.  Between 1988 and 1993, LRWSP reduced the average daily demand for water from 1.2 million to 0.9 million m 3.  The program focused on -detecting and repairing leaks, metering, retrofitting showerheads and toilets with more efficient technologies, protecting water sources from pollution, and building support for the program among city, residents through outreach and education.  These reductions eliminated the need to develop new supplies -- saving hundreds of millions of dollars--and thewater system is operating within its safe yield for the first time in 20 years (40). Case study – WDM in Boston, USA

38 37 Reducing water demand in Sydney 329 364

39 38 Water Supply and Demand with and without Demand Management

40 39  ADB (1997) Second Water Utilities Data Book: Asian and Pacific Region. Edited by McIntosh, A.C. and Yniguez, C.E. Asian Development Bank.  Baumann, D. D., Boland, J.J. and Hanemann, W.M. (1998) Urban Water Demand Management and Planning. McGraw-Hill Inc.  EEA (2001) Sustainable Water Use in Europe. European Environmental Agency.  OECD (1999) Household water pricing in OECD Countries.  Prasifka, D.W. (1994) Water Supply Planning. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida, USA.  UK (1994) UK Water Industry: Managing Leakage. Interpreting Measured Night Flows.  Yepes, G. (1995) Reduction of Unaccounted-for water: The job can be done! ESD, World Bank. Bibliography

41 40 1. Environmental agency UK – Save water 2.Conserve Water – Melbourne Water Australia 3. Water Efficiency Clearing House - AWWA 4.USEPA – Water Use Efficiency Program 5.Environment Canada 6.Public Utilities Board 7.Water Demand Management Forum Web Resources on Water Conservation

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